`Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics: Foundations and Applications' builds from basic principles to advanced techniques, and covers the major phenomena, methods, and results of time-dependent systems. It is a pedagogic introduction, a comprehensive reference manual, and an original research monograph. Uniquely, the book treats time-dependent systems by close analogy with their static counterparts, with most of the familiar results of equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics being generalized and applied to the non-equilibrium case. The book is notable for its unified treatment of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, stochastic processes, and statistical mechanics, for its self-contained, coherent derivation of a variety of non-equilibrium theorems, and for its quantitative tests against experimental measurements and computer simulations. Systems that evolve in time are more common than static systems, and yet until recently they lacked any over-arching theory. 'Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics' is unique in its unified presentation of the theory of non-equilibrium systems, which has now reached the stage of quantitative experimental and computational verification. The novel perspective and deep understanding that this book brings offers the opportunity for new direction and growth in the study of time-dependent phenomena. 'Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics' is an invaluable reference manual for experts already working in the field. Research scientists from different disciplines will find the overview of time-dependent systems stimulating and thought-provoking. Lecturers in physics and chemistry will be excited by many fresh ideas and topics, insightful explanations, and new approaches. Graduate students will benefit from its lucid reasoning and its coherent approach, as well as from the chem12physof mathematical techniques, derivations, and computer algorithms.
Author: Jan J. Ginkel
Publisher: Peeters Publishers
Release Date: 2005
Cultural interaction in the Middle East since the Rise of Islam" - such was the title of a combined research project of the Universities of Leiden and Groningen aimed at describing the various ways in which the Christian communities of the Middle East expressed their distinct cultural identity in Muslim societies. As part of the project the symposium "Redefining Christian Identity, Christian cultural strategies since the rise of Islam" took place at Groningen University on April 7-10, 1999. This book contains the proceedings of this conference. From the articles it becomes clear that a number of distinct "cultural strategies" can be identified, some of which were used very frequently, others only in certain groups or at particular periods of time. The three main strategies that are represented in the papers of this volume are: (i) reinterpretation of the pre-Islamic Christian heritage; (ii) inculturation of elements from the new Islamic context; (iii) isolation from the Islamic context. Viewed in time, it is clear that the reinterpretation of older Christian heritage was particularly important in the first two centuries after the rise of Islam, the seventh and eighth centuries, that inculturation was the dominant theme of the Abbasid period, in the ninth to twelfth centuries, whereas from the Mongol period onwards, from the thirteenth to the eighteenth centuries, isolation more and more often occurs, although inculturation of elements from the predominantly Muslim environment never came to a complete standstill.
The purpose of the calculus of variations is to find optimal solutions to engineering problems whose optimum may be a certain quantity, shape, or function. Applied Calculus of Variations for Engineers addresses this important mathematical area applicable to many engineering disciplines. Its unique, application-oriented approach sets it apart from the theoretical treatises of most texts, as it is aimed at enhancing the engineer’s understanding of the topic. This Second Edition text: Contains new chapters discussing analytic solutions of variational problems and Lagrange-Hamilton equations of motion in depth Provides new sections detailing the boundary integral and finite element methods and their calculation techniques Includes enlightening new examples, such as the compression of a beam, the optimal cross section of beam under bending force, the solution of Laplace’s equation, and Poisson’s equation with various methods Applied Calculus of Variations for Engineers, Second Edition extends the collection of techniques aiding the engineer in the application of the concepts of the calculus of variations.
Since the occurrence of earthquakes and their properties are very uncertain even with the present knowledge, it is too difficult to define reasonable design ground motions especially for important buildings. In the seismic resistant design of building structures, the concept of ‘performance-based design’ has become a new paradigm guaranteeing the maximum satisfaction of building owners. The quality and reliability of the performance-based design certainly depend on the scientific rationality of design ground motions. In order to overcome this problem, a new paradigm has to be posed. To the author’s knowledge, the concept of 'critical excitation' and the structural design based upon this concept can become one of such new paradigms. This book introduces a new probabilistic and energy-based critical excitation approach to overcome several problems in the scientific and rational modelling of ground motions. The author hopes that this book will help the development of new seismic-resistant design methods of buildings for such unpredicted or unpredictable ground motions. First comprehensive book for critical excitation methods Including updated, cutting-edge research Applicable to other worst-case analysis problems Including comprehensive review of critical excitation methods Including verification by comprehensive recorded ground motions
Author: Matjaž Dolšek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-08-16
Current knowledge and state-of-the-art developments in topics related to the seismic performance and risk assessment of different types of structures and building stock are addressed in the book, with emphasis on probabilistic methods. The first part addresses the global risk components, as well as seismic hazard and ground motions, whereas the second, more extensive part presents recent advances in methods and tools for the seismic performance and risk assessment of structures. The book contains examples of steel, masonry and reinforced concrete buildings, as well as some examples related to various types of infrastructure, such as bridges and concrete gravity dams. The book's aim is to make a contribution towards the mitigation of seismic risk by presenting advanced methods and tools which can be used to achieve well-informed decision-making, this being the key element for the future protection of the built environment against earthquakes. Audience: This book will be of interest to researchers, postgraduate students and practicing engineers working in the fields of natural hazards, earthquake, structural and geotechnical engineering, and computational mechanics, but it may also be attractive to other experts working in the fields related to social and economic impact of earthquakes.