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Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats, Author of Endymion, Hyperion, etc, also spelled Adonaies, is a pastoral elegy written by Percy Bysshe Shelley for John Keats in 1821, and widely regarded as one of Shelley's best and most well-known works. The poem, which is in 495 lines in 55 Spenserian stanzas, was composed in the spring of 1821 immediately after 11 April, when Shelley heard of Keats' death (seven weeks earlier). It is a pastoral elegy, in the English tradition of John Milton's Lycidas. Shelley had studied and translated classical elegies. The title of the poem is likely a merging of the Greek "Adonis," the god of fertility, and the Hebrew "Adonai" (meaning "Lord"). Most critics suggest that Shelley used Virgil's tenth Eclogue, in praise of Cornelius Gallus, as a model. It was published by Charles Ollier in July 1821 (see 1821 in poetry) with a preface in which Shelley made the mistaken assertion that Keats had died from a rupture of the lung induced by rage at the unfairly harsh reviews of his verse in the Quarterly Review and other journals.He also thanked Joseph Severn for caring for Keats in Rome. This praise increased literary interest in Severn's works. Shelley was introduced to Keats in Hampstead towards the end of 1816 by their mutual friend, Leigh Hunt, who was to transfer his enthusiasm from Keats to Shelley. Shelley's huge admiration of Keats was not entirely reciprocated. Keats had reservations about Shelley's dissolute behaviour, and found some of Shelley's advice patronising (the suggestion, for example, that Keats should not publish his early work). It is also possible that Keats resented Hunt's transferred allegiance. Despite this, the two poets exchanged letters when Shelley and his wife moved to Italy. When Keats fell ill, the Shelleys invited him to stay with them in Pisa but Keats elected to travel with Severn. Despite this rebuff, Shelley's affection for Keats remained undimmed until his death in 1822 when a copy of Keats' works was found in a pocket on his drowned body. Shelley said of Keats, after inviting him to stay with him in Pisa after Keats fell ill: "I am aware indeed that I am nourishing a rival who will far surpass me and this is an additional motive & will be an added pleasure." Shelley regarded Adonais as the "least imperfect" of his works. In a 5 June 1821 letter to John and Maria Gisborne, Shelley wrote about the work: "It is a highly wrought piece of art, perhaps better in point of composition than anything I have written." Adonais begins with the announcement of his death and the mourning that followed: "I weep for Adonais-he is dead!" In Stanzas 2 through 35 a series of mourners lament the death of Adonais. The mother of Adonais, Urania, is invoked to arise to conduct the ceremony at his bier. The allusion is to Urania, the goddess of astronomy, and to the goddess Venus, who is also known as Venus Urania."
Most Musical Of Mourners, Weep Again! Lament Anew, Urania! He Died, Who Was The Sire Of An Immortal Strain, Blind, Old And Lonely, When His Country's Pride, The Priest, The Slave And The Liberticide, Trampled And Mock'd With Many A Loathed Rite Of Lust And Blood; He Went, Unterrified, Into The Gulf Of Death; But His Clear Sprite Yet Reigns O'er Earth; The Third Among The Sons Of Light.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792 - 1822) was a major English Romantic poet who was considered to be the greatest lyric poet in the English language. His major works were long visionary poems including, Alastor, The Revolt of Islam, Prometheus Unbound and the unfinished The Triumph of Life. Shelley was a strong advocate for social justice for the 'lower classes. He witnessed many of the mistreatments occurring in the domestication and slaughtering of animals and he became a fighter for the rights of all living things. Adonais is biographical in relation to Keats and in some aspects autobiographical in regards to Shelley. The full scope of the poem can be divided into three areas, "I. The sense of grievous loss in the death of John Keats the youthful and aspiring poet, cut short as he was approaching his prime; and the instinctive impulse to mourning and desolation. 2. The mythical or symbolic embodiment of the events in the laments of Urania and the Mountain Shepherds, and in the denunciation of the ruthless destroyer of the peace and life of Adonais. 3. The rejection of mourning as one-sided, ignorant, and a reversal of the true estimate of the facts; and a recognition of the eternal destiny of Keats in the world of mind, coupled with the yearning of Shelley to have done with the vain shows of things in this cycle of mortality, and to be at one with Keats in the mansions of the everlasting. Such is the evolution of this Elegy; from mourning to rapture: from a purblind consideration of deathly phenomena to the illumination of the individual spirit which contemplates the eternity of spirit as the universal substance."
Author: Jake Organ
Publisher: M-Y Books via PublishDrive
Release Date: 2012-08-08
Adonais begins as he stands on the Iberian Peninsula and looks out towards the coast of North Africa, fighting for the strength to go with his inner leadings and follow his destiny that lies beyond that coast. The story observes the young Friar as he makes his journey from the Peninsula?s southern tip through the Alpujarra to a Gharnata that is feeling a new rise in sectarian tension and is hearing news of violent events across the border in Christian Sevilla. In Gharnata he meets his childhood friend Miriam in the house of Rabbi Andrew, the spiritual head of Gharnata?s distinguished Jewish population. They agree to share the journey together to her forest community that is on the way to his final destination which is the Christian frontier city of Jaen. These young orphan children who grew up as closest friends and confidantes but have blossomed into beautiful adults have a deep and soul searching time of facing a lot of their confusion over their adult relationship which causes, especially Adonais to face some of the ghosts of his past. Miriam?s joyous wedding occurs in the vibrant community of which she is a key part and the whole event provides cathartic, healing for many of the participants. After the wedding Adonais continues his journey to Jaen as the shocking, violent and murderous events of June 1391 in Sevilla become the focus.Adonais the character symbolizes the way in which a true and wholesome spirituality can rebuild a life broken by hatred and religious sectarianism. The story is set in the late 14th Century Iberian Peninsula, and evokes the tension and intrigue of the time as well as capturing its beguiling mystery.In the novel Adonais, the author has managed to survey an extremely dark, treacherous and violent era in history and show a story of the triumph of hope and goodness over that same darkness. The novel explores many themes related to the history of the period, the interaction between different religious groups and the tension between inner spirituality and outer, sectarian religion.
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Author: Wilyem Clark
Publisher: Wilyem Clark
Novel: A periplus of desires mapped out along a coast of covetous coves, amorous atolls, and reefs of wrecked unrequited loves, aboard a vessel ever guided by a pharos in the guise of a titanic radiant idol of false expectations and unattainable bliss.