Afghanistan state Building Sustaining Growth and Reducing Poverty

Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821360958
Release Date: 2005-01-01
Genre: Political Science

"Afghanistan has come a long way since emerging from major conflict in late 2001. The economy has recovered strongly, growing by nearly 50% cumulatively in the last two years (not including drugs). Some three million internally and externally displaced Afghans have returned to their country. More than four million children, a third of them girls, are in school, and immunization campaigns have achieved considerable success. The Government has supported good economic performance by following prudent macroeconomic policies and it has made extraordinary efforts to develop key national programs and to revive social services like education and health. Nevertheless, Afghanistan remains one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of both per-capita incomes and social indicators, with large gender gaps. The difficult challenge of poverty reduction is made even more difficult by continuing insecurity, weak rule of law, and narcotics. Afghanistan - State Building, Sustaining Growth, and Reducing Poverty provides a greater understanding of the core challenges that lie ahead for Afghanistan and key priorities for national reconstruction. The Afghan economy has been shaped by more than two decades of debilitating conflict and has some very unusual features which this study analyzes. The authors argue that the country must break out of the vicious cycle that would keep it insecure, fragmented politically, weakly governed, poor, dominated by the illicit economy, and a hostage to the drug industry. The study presents key elements for a breakthrough in the next two years but the daunting agenda will require strong commitment, actions, and persistence on the part of the Government and robust support from the international community."

Evaluation of World Bank Programs in Afghanistan 2002 11

Author: The World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821398739
Release Date: 2013-08-23
Genre: Business & Economics

This report evaluates the outcomes of World Bank Group support to Afghanistan from 2002-11. Despite extremely difficult security conditions, which deteriorated markedly after 2006, the World Bank Group has commendably established and sustained a large program of support to the country. The key messages of the evaluation are: • While World Bank Group strategy has been highly relevant to Afghanistan’s situation, beginning in 2006 the strategies could have gone further in adapting ongoing programs to evolving opportunities and needs, and in programming activities sufficient to achieve the objectives of the pillars in those strategies. • Overall, Bank Group assistance has achieved substantial progress toward most of its major objectives, although risks to development outcomes remain high. Impressive results have been achieved in public financial management, public health, telecommunications, and community development; substantial outputs have also been achieved in primary education, rural roads, irrigation, and microfinance—all started during the initial phase. Bank assistance has been critical in developing the mining sector as a potential engine of growth. However, progress has been limited in civil service reform, agriculture, urban development, and private sector development. • The Bank Group’s direct financial assistance has been augmented effectively by analytic and advisory activities and donor coordination through the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund. Knowledge services have been an important part of Bank Group support and have demonstrated the value of strategic analytical work, even in areas where the Bank Group may opt out of direct project financing. • With the expected reduction of the international presence in 2014, sustainability of development gains remains a major risk because of capacity constraints and inadequate human resources planning on the civilian side. To enhance program effectiveness, the evaluation recommends that the Bank Group help the government develop a comprehensive, long-term human resources strategy for the civilian sectors; focus on strategic analytical work in sectors that are high priorities for the government; assist in the development of local government institutions and, in the interim, support the development of a viable system for service delivery at subnational levels; assist in transforming the National Solidarity Program into a more sustainable financial and institutional model to consolidate its gains; help strengthen the regulatory environment for private sector investment; and scale up IFC and MIGA support to the private sector. Chapter Abstracts Chapter 1 This chapter examines the country context, including continuing conflict and insecurity, poverty, and the role of development partners and non-state actors (civil society and humanitarian organizations) in Afghanistan. It examines coming transitions in security arrangements, including political and economic transitions. It outlines the evaluation methods used, as well as limitations. Chapter 2 This chapter deals with the World Bank Group strategy and program, the Bank Group’s operational program, portfolio performance, analytic and advisory activities review, the Afghanistan Reconstruction Fund, and the new Interim Strategy Note, as well as previous Transitional Support Strategies and ISNs. Chapter 3 This chapter examines the building of state capacity and state accountability to its citizens, specifically issues such as results and shortcomings in public financial management, public sector governance, and health and education. The World Bank Group contribution is highlighted. Risks to development outcomes are discussed. Chapter 4 This chapter examines the issue of promoting growth in the rural economy and improving rural livelihoods, including sectors such as rural roads, agriculture and water. The National Solidarity Program and the Bank Group’s contribution to it are discussed. Risks to development outcomes are noted. Chapter 5 This chapter concerns support for the formal private sector, examining the overall investment climate and financial sector. It looks at possibilities for growth in the mining and hydrocarbons sector, information and communications technology, and power sectors. Urban development is also examined. The World Bank Group contribution is highlighted. Chapter 6 This chapter provides an overall assessment (relevance, efficacy) of the Bank Group’s program in Afghanistan, outlining the internal and external drivers of success (knowledge services, staff capacity, customization of program design to country context, alignment of donor objectives, etc) and weakness. Chapter 7 This chapter outlines the lessons for fragile and conflict-affected situations drawing on the specifics of the Afghanistan evaluation case. Recommendations are offered in areas such as labor markets, human resources, strategic-level analytical work vis-a-vis long-term development strategies, and strengthening of the regulatory environment for private sector investment.

Gender and International Aid in Afghanistan

Author: Lina Abirafeh
Publisher: McFarland
ISBN: 9780786454310
Release Date: 2009-10-21
Genre: Social Science

Afghanistan has become home to one of the largest gender-focused aid interventions in the aftermath of 9/11, with foreign aid agencies using Afghan women as a barometer of social change and political progress. Through the lens of gendered aid intervention, this book seeks to understand how the promise of freedom has largely fallen short—for both men and women. Topics include the tenuous relationship between social indicators and aid dynamics; the advancing of the gender agenda through Afghanistan’s 2005 parliamentary elections; and the journey from policy formulation to interpretation to implementation through the voices of policy-makers, policy implementers, NGO leaders, Afghanistan specialists and ordinary Afghan women and men.

A Guide to Government in Afghanistan

Author: Anne Evans
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821358359
Release Date: 2004-01-01
Genre: Reference

This guide contains information on the administrative and political scene in Afghanistan, including the structures and processes of government. Issues discussed include: the historical and political context of the Afghan State; central and local administration, including budget and staffing aspects; central and local fiscal relationships; and service delivery in terms of the education and health sectors. The guide draws the bulk of its material from six provincial case studies, as well as using additional research undertaken by the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU) and the World Bank.

Rescuing Afghanistan

Author: William Maley
Publisher: UNSW Press
ISBN: 0868409375
Release Date: 2006
Genre: History

Shows that only a long-term commitment from the wider world of a type that is rarely ever found, offers a reasonable prospect of rescuing Afghanistan from the dangers it continues to face.

The Nexus International Terrorism and Drug Trafficking from Afghanistan

Author: Frank Shanty
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 9780313385223
Release Date: 2011-03-03
Genre: Political Science

This timely and important work offers an in-depth analysis of the existence—or nonexistence—of a nexus between international terrorism and drug trafficking emanating from Afghanistan. • 23 figures, tables, charts, graphs, and sidebars • 5 maps showing drug trafficking routes and terrorist attack data • A list of abbreviations and acronyms • A list of Islamic terms and concepts • A 126-page bibliography


Author: Geoffrey Hayes
Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press
ISBN: 9781554586981
Release Date: 2009-08-04
Genre: Political Science

Many have questioned the wisdom of the international intervention in Afghanistan in light of the escalation of violence and instability in the country in the past few years. Particularly uncertain are Canadians, who have been inundated with media coverage of an increasingly dirty war in southern Afghanistan, one in which Canadians are at the frontline and suffering heavy casualties. However, the conflict is only one aspect of Afghanistan’s complicated, and incomplete, political, economic, and security transition. In Afghanistan: Transition under Threat, leading Afghanistan scholars and practitioners paint a full picture of the situation in Afghanistan and the impact of international and particularly Canadian assistance. They review the achievements of the reconstruction process and outline future challenges, focusing on key issues like the narcotics trade, the Pakistan—Afghanistan bilateral relationship, the Taliban-led insurgency, and continuing endemic poverty. This collection provides new insight into the nature and state of Afghanistan’s post-conflict transition and illustrates the consequences of failure. Co-published with the Centre for International Governance Innovation

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report

Author: International Monetary Fund
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
Release Date: 2008

Although Afghanistan has made significant gains over the years, vulnerabilities remain. The economic program Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS) has been developed to sustain democracy, reduce poverty, and improve growth. ANDS, an important milestone in the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan, serves as its Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and uses the pillars, principles, and benchmarks of the Afghanistan Compact as a foundation to achieve its MDGs. It has given high priority to the security sector for implementing security policies and strategies and also for building an Afghan National Army for the country's security.

Afghanistan from the Cold War through the War on Terror

Author: Barnett R. Rubin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199970414
Release Date: 2013-03-15
Genre: History

One of our foremost authorities on modern Afghanistan, Barnett R. Rubin has dedicated much of his career to the study of this remote mountain country. He served as a special advisor to the late Ambassador Richard Holbrooke during his final mission to the region and still serves the Obama administration under Holbrooke's successor, Ambassador Marc Grossman. Now Rubin distills his unmatched knowledge of Afghanistan in this invaluable book. He shows how the Taliban arose in resistance to warlords some of whom who were raping and plundering with impunity in the vacuum of authority left by the collapse of the Afghan state after the Soviet withdrawal. The Taliban built on a centuries-old tradition of local leadership by students and teachers at independent, rural madrasas--networks that had been marginalized by the state-building royal regime that was itself destroyed by the Soviets and radicalized by the resistance to the invasion. He examines the arrival of Arab Islamists, the missed opportunities after the American-led intervention, the role of Pakistan, and the challenges of reconstruction. Rubin provides first-hand accounts of the bargaining at both the Bonn Talks of 2001 and the Afghan Constitutional Loya Jirga of 2003-2004, in both of which he participated as a UN advisor. Throughout, he discusses the significance of ethnic rivalries, the drug trade, human rights, state-building, US strategic choices, and international organizations, analyzing the missteps in these areas taken by the international community since 2001. The book covers events till the start of the Obama administration, and the final chapters provide an inside look at some of the thinking that is shaping today's policy debates inside the administration. Authoritative, nuanced, and sweeping in scope, Afghanistan in the Post-Cold War Era provides deep insight into the greatest foreign policy challenge facing America today.

Reconstructing agriculture in Afghanistan

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Practical Action Pub
ISBN: STANFORD:36105123332996
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Social Science

Pre-2001 Afghanistan has been widely represented as 25 years of war and devastation, leaving a post-conflict reconstruction agenda to start with a clean state. This analysis has ignored the nature of Afghanistan, its complexity, and its fundamental resilience. Through a critical analysis of key aspects of the rural economy and drivers of change, including the opium poppy economy, this book critically explores assumptions made about Afghanistan as a crisis state and post-conflict environment, and its reconstruction agendas and practice, and considers the limitations of the response of the international community. Bringing together papers by key practitioners and food security analysts, this book provides an important reference for operational agencies and researchers.

Afghanistan State and Society Great Power Politics and the Way Ahead

Author: Cheryl Benard
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 083304415X
Release Date: 2008
Genre: History

Compiles papers presented at a June 2007 international conference on the problems that Afghanistan faces in the wake of the U.S.-led attack on al Qaeda and the Taliban; the challenges confronting the NATO International Security Assistance Force in coordinating nation-building activities in Afghanistan; and ways to address these issues.

Joining Empire

Author: Jerome Klassen
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 9781442666443
Release Date: 2014-09-24
Genre: Business & Economics

A fresh assessment of the neoliberal political economy behind Canadian foreign policy from Afghanistan to Haiti, Joining Empire establishes Jerome Klassen as one of the most astute analysts of contemporary Canadian foreign policy and its relationship to US global power. Using empirical data on production, trade, investment, profits, and foreign ownership in Canada, as well as a new analysis of the overlap among the boards of directors of the top 250 firms in Canada and the top 500 firms worldwide, Klassen argues that it is the increasing integration of Canadian businesses into the global economy that drives Canada’s new, increasingly aggressive, foreign policy. Using government documents, think tank studies, media reports, and interviews with business leaders from across Canada, Klassen outlines recent systematic changes in Canadian diplomatic and military policy and connects them with the rise of a new transnational capitalist class. Joining Empire is sure to become a classic of Canadian political economy.

Expanding Housing Finance to the Underserved in South Asia

Author: Tatiana Nenova
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: UCBK:C099303408
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Business & Economics

A vibrant housing finance market is an important pillar of economic prosperity. A strong institutional framework is indispensable for a functioning housing finance market. Home affordability is a fundamental challenge in South Asia and can only be solved by a comprehensive approach involving developers, the traditional financial sector, microfinance, and other innovative approaches experienced in recent years. Abdul Fitrat Governor, Da Afghanistan Bank The government's policies for the housing sector, particularly in the South Asian countries, must focus on "inclusive housing" coupled with "stability of the market." The two objectives are mutually complementary, reinforcing each other. Stability inspires the stakeholders to enhance their participation and enables greater institutional and financial deepening of the sector, both of which are necessary conditions for inclusive housing. R.V. Verma Managing Director, National Housing Bank, India The global financial crisis demonstrated the importance of a strong, disciplined, and honest mortgage market. As we learn our lessons, it is critically important that those who have been closed out of the housing sector do not get closed out again. In South Asian and Pacific countries, we hope that a balance can be found between discipline and access. Ira Peppercorn Former Deputy Federal Housing Commissioner, United States Housing markets in South Asia are undergoing a dynamic intermediate stage of their development, ranging from an incipient institutional framework in Afghanistan to a dynamic developing housing finance system in India. International experiences-including such examples as Malaysia, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Thailand-provide many useful lessons and examples in building institutions, enabling markets, and expanding housing finance outreach to the middle- and lower-income groups. Narayanasamy Kokularupan Former CEO of Cagamas Berhad, Malaysia