American Smuggling as White Collar Crime

Author: Lawrence Karson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317647034
Release Date: 2014-06-27
Genre: Social Science

When Edwin Sutherland introduced the concept of white-collar crime, he referred to the respectable businessmen of his day who had, in the course of their occupations, violated the law whenever it was advantageous to do so. Yet since the founding of the American Republic, numerous otherwise respectable individuals had been involved in white-collar criminality. Using organized smuggling as an exemplar, this narrative history of American smuggling establishes that white-collar crime has always been an integral part of American history when conditions were favorable to violating the law. This dark side of the American Dream originally exposed itself in colonial times with elite merchants of communities such as Boston trafficking contraband into the colonies. It again came to the forefront during the Embargo of 1809 and continued through the War of 1812, the Civil War, nineteenth century filibustering, the Mexican Revolution and Prohibition. The author also shows that the years of illegal opium trade with China by American merchants served as precursor to the later smuggling of opium into the United States. The author confirms that each period of smuggling was a link in the continuing chain of white-collar crime in the 150 years prior to Sutherland’s assertion of corporate criminality.

Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory

Author: Anthony Walsh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9780429766374
Release Date: 2018-10-17
Genre: Social Science

Some of the brightest minds in criminology who were nurtured on the strictly environmentalist paradigm of the 20th century have declared that biosocial criminology is the paradigm for the 21st century. This book attempts to unite this ever-growing field with the premier neurobiological theory of personality, otherwise known as reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). Anthony Walsh places the highly variable number of biosocial approaches under a single theoretical umbrella, whilst providing a unique integrative framework. As the leading neurobiological theory of personality and behavior in psychology today, RST focuses around the age-old question of how naturally selfish social animals can achieve their wants and needs without alienating others in their social groups. RST posits that evolution has built into humans three interacting systems: the behavioral approach system; the behavioral inhibition system; and the fight/flight/freeze system. RST identifies the neurobiological and genetic functions underlying each system and has found a cascade of supporting evidence. Throwing new light on many areas of concern to criminologists, such as psychopathy, violence, ADHD, and schizophrenia, this book will be of interest to scholars and upper-level students in the field. Additional features such as Focus Boxes and diagrams delve into measurement techniques and brain areas.

Mafia Violence

Author: Monica Massari
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9780429884979
Release Date: 2018-11-29
Genre: Social Science

Using in-depth field research and analysis of case studies, Mafia Violence: Political, Symbolic, and Economic Forms of Violence in Camorra Clans focuses attention on the phenomenon of violence performed by Italian organised crime groups, devoting specific attention to the Camorra, which has been responsible since the mid-1980s for almost half of all mafia homicides documented in Italy. The Camorra has acquired increased visibility at an international level due to its intense use of violence and high level of dangerousness, but until now, the study of the different forms of violence implemented by mafias has not received systematic attention at the scientific level. Hence, this book fills this gap by providing a both theoretical and empirical contribution toward the analysis of one of the most unknown – although highly visible and dangerous – dimension of mafias’ action. This collection of work by distinguished scholars provides a unique overview of the multifaceted characteristics of violence currently performed by mafia groups in Italy by focusing on specific actors – i.e., Camorra clans – but also other traditional mafia organisations such as Cosa Nostra and ’Ndrangheta; specific contexts – i.e., different territories and different markets, both legal and illegal; and specific practices and performances. Part I takes a diachronic and comparative perspective to provide an overview of mafias’ violence during the past 30 years, focusing on the three most prominent criminal organisations active in Italy: Camorra, Cosa Nostra, and ’Ndrangheta. Based on the outcomes of a major project carried out by a research group at the University of Naples Federico II from 2015 to 2017, Part II looks at the use of violence by Camorra clans, incorporating information from case studies, judicial files, law enforcement investigations, wiretappings, interviews with privileged observers, firsthand empirical data, and historical documents and social sciences literature. Using a multi-disciplinary approach drawing from criminology, sociology, history, anthropology, economics, political science, and geography, this book is essential reading for international researchers and practitioners interested in piecing together the full picture of modern organised crime.

The Illegal Wildlife Trade

Author: Daan P. van Uhm
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319421292
Release Date: 2016-11-15
Genre: Social Science

In this book the author examines the illegal wildlife trade from multiple perspectives: the historical context, the impact on the environment, the scope of the problem internationally, the sociocultural demand for illegal products, the legal efforts to combat it, and several case studies from inside the trade. The illegal wildlife trade has become a global criminal enterprise, following in the footsteps of drugs and weapons. Beyond the environmental impact, financial profits from the illegal wildlife trade often fund organized crime groups and violent gangs that threaten public safety and security in myriad ways. This innovative volume covers several key questions surrounding the wildlife trade: why is there a demand for illegal wildlife products, which actors are involved in the trade, how is the business organized, and what are the harmful consequences. The author performed ethnographic fieldwork in three key markets: Russia, Morocco, and China, and has constructed a detailed picture of how the wildlife trade operates in these areas. Conversations with informants directly involved in the illegal business ensure unique insights into this lively black market. In the course of his journey the author follows the route of the illegal wildlife trade from poor poaching areas to rich business districts where corrupt officials, legally registered companies, wildlife farms and sophisticated criminal organizations all have a share. A fascinating look inside the world of poachers, smugglers and traders.

The Blackwell Companion to Criminology

Author: Colin Sumner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470998953
Release Date: 2008-04-15
Genre: Social Science

The Blackwell Companion to Criminology provides a contemporary and global resource to scholarship in both classical and topical areas of criminology. Written accessibly, and with its international perspective and first-rate scholarship, this is truly the first global handbook of criminology. Editors and contributors are international experts in criminology, offering a comparative perspective on theories and systems Contains full discussion of key debates and theories, the implications of new topics, studies and ideas, and contemporary developments Coverage includes: class, gender, and race, criminal justice, juvenile delinquency, punishment, mass media, international crimes, and social control

Das Kyoto Protokoll

Author: Sebastian Oberthür
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783663014348
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Social Science

Die internationale Klimapolitik ist an einem Wendepunkt angekommen. Die Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls ist ein großer Schritt in dem Versuch der Menschheit, die schädlichen Folgen des Klimawandels zu begrenzen. Dieses Buch, geschrieben von zwei deutschen Experten, erklärt die naturwissenschaftlichen, ökonomischen sowie politischen Bedingungen desTreibhauseffekts und erläutert die Hintergründe der Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls. Das Buch analysiert in seinem Mittelteil den Vertragstext im Stile eines Gesetzeskommentars, nennt die offenen Fragen und gibt mögliche Antworten für die Weiterentwicklung der Normen. In einem dritten Teil werden Schlussfolgerungen gezogen, die politische Landschaft nach Kyoto beleuchtet und eine Leadership-Initiative für die Europäische Union vorgestellt, um die Handlungsmacht gegenüber den USA wieder zu erlangen.

Das Naturbild der heutigen Physik

Author: Werner Heisenberg
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 9783688116898
Release Date: 2018-12-18
Genre: Fiction

■ Das Naturbild der heutigen Physik ■ Atomphysik und Kausalgesetz ■ Über das Verhältnis von humanistischer Bildung, Naturwissenschaft und Abendland ■ Historische Quellen Die Ansätze der neuzeitlichen Naturwissenschaften / Die Entstehung des mechanistischen und materialistischen Weltbildes / Die Krisis der mechanistisch-materialistischen Auffassung ■ Enzyklopädisches Stichwort: Natur ■ Literaturhinweise ■ Namen- und Sachregister

Organized crime

Author: Klaus von Lampe
Publisher: Peter Lang Publishing
ISBN: 3631347219
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Organized crime

Gefahr ist mein Beruf

Author: Josef Resch
Publisher: Ullstein eBooks
ISBN: 9783843712491
Release Date: 2016-02-26
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Manche nennen ihn Detektiv, Privatermittler oder Wirtschaftsfahnder, andere auch: Kopfgeldjäger. Er ist seit 35 Jahren im Geschäft und war u.a. bei den Entführungen von Richard Oetker und Jan Philipp Reemtsma involviert. Er kennt sich mit Zeugenschutzprogrammen aus und vor allem mit den Schwächen derjenigen, die er sucht. Vertrauen aufbauen und Misstrauen säen gehört zu seinem Geschäft. Resch ist bekannt für unkonventionelle Methoden. Auf seiner Website hat er 47 Millionen US-Dollar angeboten - für Hinweise die zur Klärung des Absturzes des Malaysia-Airlines-Flug MH 17 in der Ost-Ukraine führen. Bisher hat er die Öffentlichkeit gemieden. Kurz vor dem Ruhestand lässt Josef Resch (einen Teil) der in diesem Geschäft existentiellen Diskretion fallen. Er schildert konkrete Operationen, nennt Namen und beschreibt die Entstehung seiner Täterprofile, die ihn zu einer enormen Erfolgsquote führten.

Benchmark Manipulation

Author: Isabella Brosig
Publisher: Nomos Verlag
ISBN: 9783845291178
Release Date: 2018-09-19
Genre: Law

Der LIBOR als "Universalwerkzeug" zur Flexibilisierung von Zinszahlungen beeinflusst Verträge mit einem ausstehenden Nominalwert von mehr als 300 Bio. US-Dollar weltweit. Die leichte Beeinflussbarkeit der Benchmark, schwere Interessenkonflikte und schwache Unternehmensstrukturen führten zu einem der größten Manipulationsskandale im Finanzsektor. Seit 1. Januar 2018 wird der wirtschaftlich hoch relevante, bisher aber nur einer Selbstregulierung unterworfene Teil des Finanzsystems, erstmals im Rahmen einer europäischen Verordnung umfassend reguliert. Nach einer ökonomischen Analyse von Referenzwerten im ersten Teil der Arbeit und der Erarbeitung von Regulierungs- und Sanktionslücken im zweiten Teil, wird im dritten Teil untersucht, inwiefern die Marktmissbrauchs-Verordnung (EU) 596/2014 und die Benchmark-Verordnung (EU) 2016/1011 die bestehenden Lücken schließt.