Author: Ming Li

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475738605

Release Date: 2013-04-18

Genre: Computers

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## An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications

## Superintelligenz

Was geschieht, wenn es Wissenschaftlern eines Tages gelingt, eine Maschine zu entwickeln, die die menschliche Intelligenz auf so gut wie allen wichtigen Gebieten übertrifft? Klar ist: Eine solche Superintelligenz wäre enorm mächtig und würde uns vor Kontroll- und Steuerungsprobleme stellen, verglichen mit denen die Bewältigung des Klimawandels ein Klacks ist. Mehr noch: Vermutlich würde die Zukunft der menschlichen Spezies in den Händen dieser Superintelligenz liegen, so wie heute die Zukunft der Gorillas von uns abhängt. Zukunftsmusik? Oder doch Science-Fiction? Eindeutig Zukunftsmusik, sagt Nick Bostrom, und zwar eine, die vielleicht schon binnen eines Menschenalters erklingen wird. Damit wir verstehen, was auf uns zukommt, nimmt er uns mit auf eine faszinierende Reise in die Welt der Orakel und Genies, der Superrechner und Gehirnsimulationen, aber vor allem in die Labore dieser Welt, in denen fieberhaft an der Entwicklung einer künstlichen Intelligenz gearbeitet wird. Bostrom skizziert mögliche Szenarien, wie die Geburt der Superintelligenz vonstattengehen könnte, und widmet sich ausführlich den Folgen dieser Revolution. Sie werden global sein und unser wirtschaftliches, soziales und politisches Leben tiefgreifend verändern. Wir müssen handeln, und zwar kollektiv, bevor der Geist aus der Flasche gelassen ist – also jetzt! Das ist die eminent politische Botschaft dieses so spannenden wie wichtigen Buches.
## STACS 2005

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 22nd Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, STACS 2005, held in Stuttgart, Germany in February 2005. The 54 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 217 submissions. A broad variety of topics from theoretical computer science are addressed, in particular complexity theory, algorithmics, computational discrete mathematics, automata theory, combinatorial optimization and approximation, networking and graph theory, computational geometry, grammar systems and formal languages, etc.
## STACS 2007

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 24th Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, STACS 2007, held in Aachen, Germany in February 2007. The 56 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from about 400 submissions. The papers address the whole range of theoretical computer science including algorithms and data structures, automata and formal languages, complexity theory, logic in computer science, semantics, specification, and verification of programs, rewriting and deduction, as well as current challenges like biological computing, quantum computing, and mobile and net computing.
## New Computational Paradigms

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the first International Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2005, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands in June 2005. The 68 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 144 submissions. Among them are papers corresponding to two tutorials, six plenary talks and papers of six special sessions involving mathematical logic and computer science at the same time as offering the methodological foundations for models of computation. The papers address many aspects of computability in Europe with a special focus on new computational paradigms. These include first of all connections between computation and physical systems (e.g., quantum and analog computation, neural nets, molecular computation), but also cover new perspectives on models of computation arising from basic research in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science.
## Computational Science and Its Applications ICCSA 2013

The five-volume set LNCS 7971-7975 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications, ICCSA 2013, held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in June 2013. The 248 revised papers presented in five tracks and 33 special sessions and workshops were carefully reviewed and selected. The 46 papers included in the five general tracks are organized in the following topical sections: computational methods, algorithms and scientific applications; high-performance computing and networks; geometric modeling, graphics and visualization; advanced and emerging applications; and information systems and technologies. The 202 papers presented in special sessions and workshops cover a wide range of topics in computational sciences ranging from computational science technologies to specific areas of computational sciences such as computer graphics and virtual reality.
## Formal Languages Automata and Numeration Systems

Formal Languages, Automaton and Numeration Systems presents readers with a review of research related to formal language theory, combinatorics on words or numeration systems, such as Words, DLT (Developments in Language Theory), ICALP, MFCS (Mathematical Foundation of Computer Science), Mons Theoretical Computer Science Days, Numeration, CANT (Combinatorics, Automata and Number Theory). Combinatorics on words deals with problems that can be stated in a non-commutative monoid, such as subword complexity of finite or infinite words, construction and properties of infinite words, unavoidable regularities or patterns. When considering some numeration systems, any integer can be represented as a finite word over an alphabet of digits. This simple observation leads to the study of the relationship between the arithmetical properties of the integers and the syntactical properties of the corresponding representations. One of the most profound results in this direction is given by the celebrated theorem by Cobham. Surprisingly, a recent extension of this result to complex numbers led to the famous Four Exponentials Conjecture. This is just one example of the fruitful relationship between formal language theory (including the theory of automata) and number theory. Contents to include: • algebraic structures, homomorphisms, relations, free monoid • finite words, prefixes, suffixes, factors, palindromes • periodicity and Fine–Wilf theorem • infinite words are sequences over a finite alphabet • properties of an ultrametric distance, example of the p-adic norm • topology of the set of infinite words • converging sequences of infinite and finite words, compactness argument • iterated morphism, coding, substitutive or morphic words • the typical example of the Thue–Morse word • the Fibonacci word, the Mex operator, the n-bonacci words • wordscomingfromnumbertheory(baseexpansions,continuedfractions,...) • the taxonomy of Lindenmayer systems • S-adic sequences, Kolakoski word • repetition in words, avoiding repetition, repetition threshold • (complete) de Bruijn graphs • concepts from computability theory and decidability issues • Post correspondence problem and application to mortality of matrices • origins of combinatorics on words • bibliographic notes • languages of finite words, regular languages • factorial, prefix/suffix closed languages, trees and codes • unambiguous and deterministic automata, Kleene’s theorem • growth function of regular languages • non-deterministic automata and determinization • radix order, first word of each length and decimation of a regular language • the theory of the minimal automata • an introduction to algebraic automata theory, the syntactic monoid and the syntactic complexity • star-free languages and a theorem of Schu ̈tzenberger • rational formal series and weighted automata • context-free languages, pushdown automata and grammars • growth function of context-free languages, Parikh’s theorem • some decidable and undecidable problems in formal language theory • bibliographic notes • factor complexity, Morse–Hedlund theorem • arithmetic complexity, Van Der Waerden theorem, pattern complexity • recurrence, uniform recurrence, return words • Sturmian words, coding of rotations, Kronecker’s theorem • frequencies of letters, factors and primitive morphism • critical exponent • factor complexity of automatic sequences • factor complexity of purely morphic sequences • primitive words, conjugacy, Lyndon word • abelianisation and abelian complexity • bibliographic notes • automatic sequences, equivalent definitions • a theorem of Cobham, equivalence of automatic sequences with constant length morphic sequences • a few examples of well-known automatic sequences • about Derksen’s theorem • some morphic sequences are not automatic • abstract numeration system and S-automatic sequences • k − ∞-automatic sequences • bibliographic notes • numeration systems, greedy algorithm • positional numeration systems, recognizable sets of integers • divisibility criterion and recognizability of N • properties of k-recognizable sets of integers, ratio and difference of consec- utive elements: syndeticity • integer base and Cobham’s theorem on the base dependence of the recog- nizability • non-standard numeration systems based on sequence of integers • linear recurrent sequences, Loraud and Hollander results • Frougny’s normalization result and addition • morphic numeration systems/sets of integers whose characteristic sequence is morphic • towards a generalization of Cobham’s theorem • a few words on the representation of real numbers, β-integers, finiteness properties • automata associated with Parry numbers and numeration systems • bibliographic notes First order logic • Presburger arithmetic and decidable theory • Muchnik’s characterization of semi-linear sets • Bu ̈chi’s theorem: k-recognizable sets are k-definable • extension to Pisot numeration systems • extension to real numbers • decidability issues for numeration systems • applications in combinatorics on words
## STACS 2000

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, STACS 2000, held in Lille, France in February 2000. The 51 revised full papers presented together with the three invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 146 submissions on the basis of some 700 reviewers' reports. The papers address fundamental issues from all current areas of theoretical computer science including algorithms, data structures, automata, formal languages, complexity, verification, logic, cryptography, graph theory, optimization, etc.
## Neural Networks and Analog Computation

The theoretical foundations of Neural Networks and Analog Computation conceptualize neural networks as a particular type of computer consisting of multiple assemblies of basic processors interconnected in an intricate structure. Examining these networks under various resource constraints reveals a continuum of computational devices, several of which coincide with well-known classical models. What emerges is a Church-Turing-like thesis, applied to the field of analog computation, which features the neural network model in place of the digital Turing machine. This new concept can serve as a point of departure for the development of alternative, supra-Turing, computational theories. On a mathematical level, the treatment of neural computations enriches the theory of computation but also explicated the computational complexity associated with biological networks, adaptive engineering tools, and related models from the fields of control theory and nonlinear dynamics. The topics covered in this work will appeal to a wide readership from a variety of disciplines. Special care has been taken to explain the theory clearly and concisely. The first chapter review s the fundamental terms of modern computational theory from the point of view of neural networks and serves as a reference for the remainder of the book. Each of the subsequent chapters opens with introductory material and proceeds to explain the chapter’s connection to the development of the theory. Thereafter, the concept is defined in mathematical terms. Although the notion of a neural network essentially arises from biology, many engineering applications have been found through highly idealized and simplified models of neuron behavior. Particular areas of application have been as diverse as explosives detection in airport security, signature verification, financial and medical times series prediction, vision, speech processing, robotics, nonlinear control, and signal processing. The focus in all of these models is entirely on the behavior of networks as computer. The material in this book will be of interest to researchers in a variety of engineering and applied sciences disciplines. In addition, the work may provide the base of a graduate-level seminar in neural networks for computer science students.
## Formal Languages Automata and Numeration Systems

The interplay between words, computability, algebra and arithmetic has now proved its relevance and fruitfulness. Indeed, the cross-fertilization between formal logic and finite automata (such as that initiated by J.R. Büchi) or between combinatorics on words and number theory has paved the way to recent dramatic developments, for example, the transcendence results for the real numbers having a “simple” binary expansion, by B. Adamczewski and Y. Bugeaud. This book is at the heart of this interplay through a unified exposition. Objects are considered with a perspective that comes both from theoretical computer science and mathematics. Theoretical computer science offers here topics such as decision problems and recognizability issues, whereas mathematics offers concepts such as discrete dynamical systems. The main goal is to give a quick access, for students and researchers in mathematics or computer science, to actual research topics at the intersection between automata and formal language theory, number theory and combinatorics on words. The second of two volumes on this subject, this book covers regular languages, numeration systems, formal methods applied to decidability issues about infinite words and sets of numbers.
## Logical Foundations of Computer Science

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Symposium on Logical Foundations of Computer Science, LFCS 2013, held in San Diego, CA, USA in January 2013. The volume presents 29 revised refereed papers carefully selected by the program committee. The scope of the Symposium is broad and includes constructive mathematics and type theory; logic, automata and automatic structures; computability and randomness; logical foundations of programming; logical aspects of computational complexity; logic programming and constraints; automated deduction and interactive theorem proving; logical methods in protocol and program verification; logical methods in program specification and extraction; domain theory logic; logical foundations of database theory; equational logic and term rewriting; lambda and combinatory calculi; categorical logic and topological semantics; linear logic; epistemic and temporal logics; intelligent and multiple agent system logics; logics of proof and justification; nonmonotonic reasoning; logic in game theory and social software; logic of hybrid systems; distributed system logics; mathematical fuzzy logic; system design logics; and other logics in computer science.
## Computing and Combinatorics

The abstracts and papers in this volume were presented at the Fifth Annual International Computing and Combinatorics Conference (COCOON ’99), which was held in Tokyo, Japan from July 26 to 28, 1999. The topics cover most aspects of theoretical computer science and combinatorics pertaining to computing. In response to the call for papers, 88 high-quality extended abstracts were submitted internationally, of which 46 were selected for presentation by the p- gram committee. Every submitted paper was reviewed by at least three program committee members. Many of these papers represent reports on continuing - search, and it is expected that most of them will appear in a more polished and complete form in scienti c journals. In addition to the regular papers, this v- ume contains abstracts of two invited plenary talks by Prabhakar Raghavan and Seinosuke Toda. The conference also included a special talk by Kurt Mehlhorn on LEDA (Library of E cient Data types and Algorithms). The Hao Wang Award (inaugurated at COCOON ’97) is given to honor the paper judged by the program committee to have the greatest scienti c merit. The recipients of the Hao Wang Award 1999 were Hiroshi Nagamochi and Tos- hide Ibaraki for their paper \An Approximation for Finding a Smallest 2-Edge- Connected Subgraph Containing a Speci ed Spanning Tree".
## Theory and Applications of Models of Computation

TAMC 2006 was the third conference in the series. The previous two meetings were held May 17-19, 2004 in Beijing, and May 17-20, 2005 in Kunming.
## Algorithmic Learning Theory

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Algorithmic Learning Theory, ALT 2015, held in Banff, AB, Canada, in October 2015, and co-located with the 18th International Conference on Discovery Science, DS 2015. The 23 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 44 submissions. In addition the book contains 2 full papers summarizing the invited talks and 2 abstracts of invited talks. The papers are organized in topical sections named: inductive inference; learning from queries, teaching complexity; computational learning theory and algorithms; statistical learning theory and sample complexity; online learning, stochastic optimization; and Kolmogorov complexity, algorithmic information theory.
## STACS 96

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, STACS 96, held in Grenoble, France in February 1996. The 52 revised papers presented were selected from a total of 185 submissions; also included are three invited papers. The volume addresses all current aspects of theoretical computer science and is organized in sections on complexity theory, automata theory, parallel algorithms, learning, parallel and distributed systems, cryptography, logic and database theory, algorithms, semantics and program verification, and communication complexity.