Andean Cocaine

Author: Paul Gootenberg
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 080788779X
Release Date: 2009-06-01
Genre: History

Illuminating a hidden and fascinating chapter in the history of globalization, Paul Gootenberg chronicles the rise of one of the most spectacular and now illegal Latin American exports: cocaine. Gootenberg traces cocaine's history from its origins as a medical commodity in the nineteenth century to its repression during the early twentieth century and its dramatic reemergence as an illicit good after World War II. Connecting the story of the drug's transformations is a host of people, products, and processes: Sigmund Freud, Coca-Cola, and Pablo Escobar all make appearances, exemplifying the global influences that have shaped the history of cocaine. But Gootenberg decenters the familiar story to uncover the roles played by hitherto obscure but vital Andean actors as well--for example, the Peruvian pharmacist who developed the techniques for refining cocaine on an industrial scale and the creators of the original drug-smuggling networks that decades later would be taken over by Colombian traffickers. Andean Cocaine proves indispensable to understanding one of the most vexing social dilemmas of the late twentieth-century Americas: the American cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and, in its wake, the seemingly endless U.S. drug war in the Andes.

Andean Cocaine

Author: Paul Gootenberg
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807832295
Release Date: 2008
Genre: History

Illuminating a hidden and fascinating chapter in the history of globalization, Paul Gootenberg chronicles the rise of one of the most spectacular and now illegal Latin American exports: cocaine. Gootenberg traces cocaine's history from its origins as a

Andean Cocaine

Author: Paul Gootenberg
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 0807859052
Release Date: 2008
Genre: History

Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug

Cocaine Nation How the White Trade Took Over the World

Author: Thomas Feiling
Publisher: Pegasus Books
ISBN: 9781681770048
Release Date: 2012-02-15
Genre: History

Cutting through the myths about the white trade, this is the story of cocaine as it's never been told before. Cocaine is big business and getting bigger. Governments spend millions on a losing war against it, yet it’s still the drug of choice in the West. In Cocaine Nation, Tom Feiling travels the trade routes from Colombia via Miami, Kingston, and Tijuana to London and New York. Cutting through the myths about the white trade, this is the story of cocaine as it’s never been told before.

Illegal Drugs Economy and Society in the Andes

Author: Francisco E. Thoumi
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson Center Press
ISBN: 0801878543
Release Date: 2003-12-11
Genre: Business & Economics

Some countries develop illegal drugs industries, and others do not. Discerning the distinguishing characteristics—social, economic, and political—of countries with these industries forms the subject of this sophisticated and humane study. The author, Francisco E. Thoumi, though trained as an economist, rejects simplistic economic solutions as well as simplistic moral ones as he addresses the Andean countries of Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia and the attitudes and responses of the United States. He investigates how the United States and the Andean countries perceive drugs issues; the history, structure, and evolution of drug industries in the Andes; the size of the industries in Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia; and their economic, political, and social effects in each country. Thoumi also addresses the political systems and social characteristics of these countries and why they have been so vulnerable to influence from these industries. And he offers case studies of a variety of anti-drug efforts including crop substitution and alternative development, eradication, interdiction of illicit traffic and manufacturing facilities, and extradition to the United States of traffickers.

Cocaine

Author: Paul Gootenberg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134600700
Release Date: 2002-01-04
Genre: History

Cocaine examines the rise and fall of this notorious substance from its legitimate use by scientists and medics in the nineteenth century to the international prohibitionist regimes and drug gangs of today. Themes explored include: * Amsterdam's complex cocaine culture * the manufacture, sale and control of cocaine in the United States * Japan and the Southeast Asian cocaine industry * export of cocaine prohibitions to Peru * sex, drugs and race in early modern London Cocaine unveils new primary sources and covert social, cultural and political transformations to shed light on cocaine's hidden history.

Mercury Mining and Empire

Author: Nicholas A. Robins
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 9780253005380
Release Date: 2011-07-25
Genre: History

On the basis of an examination of the colonial mercury and silver production processes and related labor systems, Mercury, Mining, and Empire explores the effects of mercury pollution in colonial Huancavelica, Peru, and Potosí, in present-day Bolivia. The book presents a multifaceted and interwoven tale of what colonial exploitation of indigenous peoples and resources left in its wake. It is a socio-ecological history that explores the toxic interrelationships between mercury and silver production, urban environments, and the people who lived and worked in them. Nicholas A. Robins tells the story of how native peoples in the region were conscripted into the noxious ranks of foot soldiers of proto-globalism, and how their fate, and that of their communities, was—and still is—chained to it.

The Losing War

Author: Jonathan D. Rosen
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9781438452999
Release Date: 2014
Genre: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

Critical analysis of Plan Colombia, a multibillion dollar US counternarcotics initiative.

Banana Cultures

Author: John Soluri
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 9780292777873
Release Date: 2009-03-06
Genre: History

Bananas, the most frequently consumed fresh fruit in the United States, have been linked to Miss Chiquita and Carmen Miranda, "banana republics," and Banana Republic clothing stores—everything from exotic kitsch, to Third World dictatorships, to middle-class fashion. But how did the rise in banana consumption in the United States affect the banana-growing regions of Central America? In this lively, interdisciplinary study, John Soluri integrates agroecology, anthropology, political economy, and history to trace the symbiotic growth of the export banana industry in Honduras and the consumer mass market in the United States. Beginning in the 1870s when bananas first appeared in the U.S. marketplace, Soluri examines the tensions between the small-scale growers, who dominated the trade in the early years, and the shippers. He then shows how rising demand led to changes in production that resulted in the formation of major agribusinesses, spawned international migrations, and transformed great swaths of the Honduran environment into monocultures susceptible to plant disease epidemics that in turn changed Central American livelihoods. Soluri also looks at labor practices and workers' lives, changing gender roles on the banana plantations, the effects of pesticides on the Honduran environment and people, and the mass marketing of bananas to consumers in the United States. His multifaceted account of a century of banana production and consumption adds an important chapter to the history of Honduras, as well as to the larger history of globalization and its effects on rural peoples, local economies, and biodiversity.

Jungle Laboratories

Author: Gabriela Soto Laveaga
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822391961
Release Date: 2009-12-02
Genre: History

In the 1940s chemists discovered that barbasco, a wild yam indigenous to Mexico, could be used to mass-produce synthetic steroid hormones. Barbasco spurred the development of new drugs, including cortisone and the first viable oral contraceptives, and positioned Mexico as a major player in the global pharmaceutical industry. Yet few people today are aware of Mexico’s role in achieving these advances in modern medicine. In Jungle Laboratories, Gabriela Soto Laveaga reconstructs the story of how rural yam pickers, international pharmaceutical companies, and the Mexican state collaborated and collided over the barbasco. By so doing, she sheds important light on a crucial period in Mexican history and challenges us to reconsider who can produce science. Soto Laveaga traces the political, economic, and scientific development of the global barbasco industry from its emergence in the 1940s, through its appropriation by a populist Mexican state in 1970, to its obsolescence in the mid-1990s. She focuses primarily on the rural southern region of Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, where the yam grew most freely and where scientists relied on local, indigenous knowledge to cultivate and harvest the plant. Rural Mexicans, at first unaware of the pharmaceutical and financial value of barbasco, later acquired and deployed scientific knowledge to negotiate with pharmaceutical companies, lobby the Mexican government, and ultimately transform how urban Mexicans perceived them. By illuminating how the yam made its way from the jungles of Mexico, to domestic and foreign scientific laboratories where it was transformed into pills, to the medicine cabinets of millions of women across the globe, Jungle Laboratories urges us to recognize the ways that Mexican peasants attained social and political legitimacy in the twentieth century, and positions Latin America as a major producer of scientific knowledge.

Narconomics

Author: Tom Wainwright
Publisher: PublicAffairs
ISBN: 9781610395847
Release Date: 2016-02-23
Genre: Business & Economics

What drug lords learned from big business How does a budding cartel boss succeed (and survive) in the 300 billion illegal drug business? By learning from the best, of course. From creating brand value to fine-tuning customer service, the folks running cartels have been attentive students of the strategy and tactics used by corporations such as Walmart, McDonald's, and Coca-Cola. And what can government learn to combat this scourge? By analyzing the cartels as companies, law enforcers might better understand how they work—and stop throwing away 100 billion a year in a futile effort to win the “war” against this global, highly organized business. Your intrepid guide to the most exotic and brutal industry on earth is Tom Wainwright. Picking his way through Andean cocaine fields, Central American prisons, Colorado pot shops, and the online drug dens of the Dark Web, Wainwright provides a fresh, innovative look into the drug trade and its 250 million customers. The cast of characters includes “Bin Laden,” the Bolivian coca guide; “Old Lin,” the Salvadoran gang leader; “Starboy,” the millionaire New Zealand pill maker; and a cozy Mexican grandmother who cooks blueberry pancakes while plotting murder. Along with presidents, cops, and teenage hitmen, they explain such matters as the business purpose for head-to-toe tattoos, how gangs decide whether to compete or collude, and why cartels care a surprising amount about corporate social responsibility. More than just an investigation of how drug cartels do business, Narconomics is also a blueprint for how to defeat them.

World Trade Since 1431

Author: Peter J. Hugill
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 0801851262
Release Date: 1995-03-01
Genre: Business & Economics

Equipped with reliable maps and instruments for open-ocean navigation and highly seaworthy, three-masted, cannon-armed ships, Portugal dominated the Atlantic trade routes—until the diffusion of Portuguese technologies to wealthier polities made Holland the eventual successor, owing to its geographic position and its immense commercial fleet. It is precisely this interplay of technology and geography, argues Peter J. Hugill, that has guided the evolution of the modern global capitalistic system. Tracing the relationship between technology and economy over the past 550 years, Hugill finds that the nations that developed and marketed new technologies best were the nations that rose to world power, while those that held onto outdated technologies fell behind. Moreover, he argues, major changes in transportation and communication technologies actually constituted the moments of transformation from one world economy to another.

Brazil and the Struggle for Rubber

Author: Warren Dean
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521526922
Release Date: 2002-07-04
Genre: Business & Economics

An environmental explanation of Brazil's repeated failures to re-establish itself as a leading rubber producer.

The Politics of Cocaine

Author: William L. Marcy
Publisher: Chicago Review Press
ISBN: 9781569765616
Release Date: 2010-02-01
Genre: Business & Economics

Drawing on declassified documents and painstaking research, this exploration of the economic drug trade of Central and South America fills in historical gaps and provides a new and controversial analysis of a complex and seemingly unsolvable problem. Viewing the problem through the lens of United States policy, the author puts forth the theory that, through the conflation of the Cold War and the war on drugs, the United States helped establish and strengthen the drug trade as the area's economic base. This authoritative and timely polemic traces the counternarcotics stance of the 1970's through George W. Bush's administration through a wealth of information and unflinching directness, asserting that the drug war will continue with no end in sight.

The Chinese Heroin Trade

Author: Ko-lin Chin
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9781479895403
Release Date: 2015-05-22
Genre: Social Science

In a country long associated with the trade in opiates, the Chinese government has for decades applied extreme measures to curtail the spread of illicit drugs, only to find that the problem has worsened. Burma is blamed as the major producer of illicit drugs and conduit for the entry of drugs into China. Which organizations are behind the heroin trade? What problems and prospects of drug control in the so-called “Golden Triangle” drug-trafficking region are faced by Chinese and Southeast Asian authorities? In The Chinese Heroin Trade, noted criminologists Ko-Lin Chin and Sheldon Zhangexamine the social organization of the trafficking of heroin from the Golden Triangle to China and the wholesale and retail distribution of the drug in China. Based on face-to-face interviews with hundreds of incarcerated drug traffickers, street-level drug dealers, users, and authorities, paired with extensive fieldwork in the border areas of Burma and China and several major urban centers in China and Southeast Asia, this volume reveals how the drug trade has evolved in the Golden Triangle since the late 1980s. Chin and Zhang also explore the marked characteristics of heroin traffickers; the relationship between drug use and sales in China; and how China compares to other international drug markets. The Chinese Heroin Trade is a fascinating, nuanced account of the world of high-risk drug trafficking in a tightly-controlled society.