Andean Cocaine

Author: Paul Gootenberg
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 080788779X
Release Date: 2009-06-01
Genre: History

Illuminating a hidden and fascinating chapter in the history of globalization, Paul Gootenberg chronicles the rise of one of the most spectacular and now illegal Latin American exports: cocaine. Gootenberg traces cocaine's history from its origins as a medical commodity in the nineteenth century to its repression during the early twentieth century and its dramatic reemergence as an illicit good after World War II. Connecting the story of the drug's transformations is a host of people, products, and processes: Sigmund Freud, Coca-Cola, and Pablo Escobar all make appearances, exemplifying the global influences that have shaped the history of cocaine. But Gootenberg decenters the familiar story to uncover the roles played by hitherto obscure but vital Andean actors as well--for example, the Peruvian pharmacist who developed the techniques for refining cocaine on an industrial scale and the creators of the original drug-smuggling networks that decades later would be taken over by Colombian traffickers. Andean Cocaine proves indispensable to understanding one of the most vexing social dilemmas of the late twentieth-century Americas: the American cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and, in its wake, the seemingly endless U.S. drug war in the Andes.

El Narco

Author: Ioan Grillo
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
ISBN: 9781608195046
Release Date: 2011-11-01
Genre: History

The world has watched stunned at the bloodshed in Mexico. Thirty thousand murdered since 2006; police chiefs shot within hours of taking office; mass graves comparable to those of civil wars; car bombs shattering storefronts; headless corpses heaped in town squares. And it is all because a few Americans are getting high. Or is it? The United States throws Black Hawk helicopters and drug agents at the problem. But in secret, Washington is confused and divided about what to do. Who are these mysterious figures tearing Mexico apart? they wonder. What is El Narco? El Narco draws the first definitive portrait of Mexico's drug cartels and how they have radically transformed in the last decade. El Narco is not a gang; it is a movement and an industry drawing in hundreds of thousands from bullet-ridden barrios to marijuana-growing mountains. And it has created paramilitary death squads with tens of thousands of men-at-arms from Guatemala to the Texas border. Journalist Ioan Grillo has spent a decade in Mexico reporting on the drug wars from the front lines. This piercing book joins testimonies from inside the cartels with firsthand dispatches and unsparing analysis. The devastation may be south of the Rio Grande, El Narco shows, but America is knee-deep in this conflict

The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History

Author: Andrew C. Isenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199394470
Release Date: 2014-09-18
Genre: Science

The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.

From Development to Dictatorship

Author: Thomas C. Field, Jr.
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801470448
Release Date: 2014-05-09
Genre: History

During the most idealistic years of John F. Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress development program, Bolivia was the highest per capita recipient of U.S. foreign aid in Latin America. Nonetheless, Washington’s modernization programs in early 1960s' Bolivia ended up on a collision course with important sectors of the country’s civil society, including radical workers, rebellious students, and a plethora of rightwing and leftwing political parties. In From Development to Dictatorship, Thomas C. Field Jr. reconstructs the untold story of USAID’s first years in Bolivia, including the country’s 1964 military coup d’état. Field draws heavily on local sources to demonstrate that Bolivia’s turn toward anticommunist, development-oriented dictatorship was the logical and practical culmination of the military-led modernization paradigm that provided the liberal underpinnings of Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress. In the process, he explores several underappreciated aspects of Cold War liberal internationalism: the tendency of “development” to encourage authoritarian solutions to political unrest, the connection between modernization theories and the rise of Third World armed forces, and the intimacy between USAID and CIA covert operations. Challenging the conventional dichotomy between ideology and strategy in international politics, From Development to Dictatorship engages with a growing literature on development as a key rubric for understanding the interconnected processes of decolonization and the Cold War.

Drug Trafficking Organized Crime and Violence in the Americas Today

Author: Bruce M. Bagley
Publisher:
ISBN: 0813054664
Release Date: 2017-05
Genre: History

"An extensive overview of the drug trade in the Americas and its impact on politics, economics, and society throughout the region. . . . Highly recommended."--Choice"A first-rate update on the state of the long-fought hemispheric 'war on drugs.' It is particularly timely, as the perception that the war is lost and needs to be changed has never been stronger in Latin and North America."--Paul Gootenberg, author of Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug"A must-read volume for policy makers, concerned citizens, and students alike in the current search for new approaches to forty-year-old policies largely considered to have failed."--David Scott Palmer, coauthor of Power, Institutions, and Leadership in War and Peace"A very useful primer for anyone trying to keep up with the ever-evolving relationship between drug enforcement and drug trafficking."--Peter Andreas, author of Smuggler Nation: How Illicit Trade Made America In 1971, Richard Nixon declared a war on drugs. Despite foreign policy efforts and attempts to combat supply lines, the United States has been for decades, and remains today, the largest single consumer market for illicit drugs on the planet. This volume argues that the war on drugs has been ineffective at best and, at worst, has been highly detrimental to many countries. Leading experts in the fields of public health, political science, and national security analyze how U.S. policies have affected the internal dynamics of Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Central America, and the Caribbean islands. Together, they present a comprehensive overview of the major trends in drug trafficking and organized crime in the early twenty-first century. In addition, the editors and contributors identify emerging issues and propose several policy options to address them. This accessible and expansive volume provides a framework for understanding the limits and liabilities in the U.S.-championed war on drugs throughout the Americas. Bruce M. Bagley, professor and former associate dean of the Graduate School of International Studies at the University of Miami, is coauthor of International Relations in Latin America. Jonathan D. Rosen, professor of international studies at the Universidad del Mar in Mexico, is the author of The Losing War: Plan Colombia and Beyond.

Violence at the Urban Margins

Author: Javier Auyero
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780190221485
Release Date: 2015-03-09
Genre: Social Science

In the Americas, debates around issues of citizen's public safety--from debates that erupt after highly publicized events, such as the shootings of Jordan Davis and Trayvon Martin, to those that recurrently dominate the airwaves in Latin America--are dominated by members of the middle and upper-middle classes. However, a cursory count of the victims of urban violence in the Americas reveals that the people suffering the most from violence live, and die, at the lowest of the socio-symbolic order, at the margins of urban societies. The inhabitants of the urban margins are hardly ever heard in discussions about public safety. They live in danger but the discourse about violence and risk belongs to, is manufactured and manipulated by, others--others who are prone to view violence at the urban margins as evidence of a cultural, or racial, defect, rather than question violence's relationship to economic and political marginalization. As a result, the experience of interpersonal violence among the urban poor becomes something unspeakable, and the everyday fear and trauma lived in relegated territories is constantly muted and denied. This edited volume seeks to counteract this pernicious tendency by putting under the ethnographic microscope--and making public--the way in which violence is lived and acted upon in the urban peripheries. It features cutting-edge ethnographic research on the role of violence in the lives of the urban poor in South, Central, and North America, and sheds light on the suffering that violence produces and perpetuates, as well as the individual and collective responses that violence generates, among those living at the urban margins of the Americas.

Jugendsprache im Wandel

Author: Helena Müller
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 9783656484066
Release Date: 2013-08-20
Genre: Literary Criticism

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2012 im Fachbereich Germanistik - Linguistik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Innerhalb der Jugendkultur übernimmt neben Kleidung, Habitus und Besitztum auch die Ausprägung eines bestimmten Sprachstils eine sozial markierende Funktion. Mit ihrer eigenen Sprache grenzen sich Jugendliche nicht nur von Erwachsenen, sondern auch von anderen Jugendgruppen oder –Szenen ab. Prinzipiell findet man Jugendsprache immer dort, wo Jugendlichen genügend Freiräume zur Entfaltung geboten werden. Sie ist durchaus keine Modeerscheinung – Heranwachsende haben auch schon zu früheren Zeiten einen eigenen Sprachstil ausgebildet, und dies schon seit dem 16. Jahrhundert. Natürlich verändert sich die Jugendsprache im Laufe der Jahre, so wie es die Hochsprache auch tut. Was einst als typisch Jugendsprachliches Wort galt, kann sich heute in unserem „normalen“ Sprachgebrauch befinden. So gehören Begriffe der Studentensprache des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts (z.B. flott oder Kneipe) heute zur Alltagssprache (ANDROUTSOPOULOS 2005: 3). Auch Wörter wie toll und prima waren noch vor 60 Jahren jugendtypische Wörter und als „bedeutungslose Wertungen verpönt“ (HEINEMANN 1990: 18), heute sind sie Bestandteil des Wortschatzes von Erwachsenen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll untersucht werden, wie sich die Sprache der Jugend im Laufe der Jahre ändert. Zur Einführung soll zunächst geklärt werden, was Jugendsprache ist um anschließend einen Überblick über ihre Geschichte und ihren Wandel zu geben. Abschließend wird anhand des Wortes chillen ein Einblick in die Innovationen der Sprache gegeben. Es soll auch auf die zunehmende Anglisierung der Sprache und deren Auswirkungen eingegangen werden.

Die Tageb cher des Adrian Mole Die schweren Jahre nach 39

Author: Sue Townsend
Publisher: Heyne Verlag
ISBN: 9783641076184
Release Date: 2012-09-10
Genre: Fiction

Adrian Mole ist inzwischen 39 und es geht ihm so schlecht wie immer. Er wohnt total abgebrannt in einem umgebauten Schweinestall, niemand interessiert sich für seine literarischen Ergüsse und seine Frau bandelt mit einem wohlhabenden Schnösel an. Dann erhält er eine wahrhaft erschütternde Diagnose: Prostatakrebs. Doch Adrian lässt sich nicht unterkriegen, sondern begegnet allen Schicksalsschlägen mit seinem typisch schrulligen Humor.

Eine Studie in Scharlachrot

Author: Arthur Conan Doyle
Publisher: Jazzybee Verlag
ISBN: 9783849682392
Release Date: 2016-09-26
Genre: Fiction

Eine Studie in Scharlachrot ist der erste Auftritt des Detektivs Sherlock Holmes. Der Roman besteht aus zwei Teilen: Der erste stellt Watsons Aufzeichnungen dar. Watson berichtet, wie er Sherlock Holmes kennenlernt, und ihn bei der Aufklärung eines Mordfalls begleitet und unterstützt. Im zweiten Teil wird die Vorgeschichte des Mordes erzählt. Sie spielt in einer Mormonengemeinde in Utah.

Der Geheimagent Stephan Talty

Author: Stephan Talty
Publisher: Ali Kaçar
ISBN: 9780544035010
Release Date: 2014-10-29
Genre: History

“The book presses ever forward down a path of historical marvels and astonishing facts. The effect is like a master class that’s accessible to anyone, and Agent Garbo often reads as though it were written in a single, perfect draft.”—The Atlantic Before he remade himself as the master spy known as Garbo, Juan Pujol was nothing more than a Barcelona poultry farmer. But as Garbo, he turned in a masterpiece of deception that changed the course of World War II. Posing as the Nazis’ only reliable spy inside England, he created an imaginary million-man army, invented armadas out of thin air, and brought a vast network of fictional subagents to life. The scheme culminated on June 6, 1944, when Garbo convinced the Germans that the Allied forces approaching Normandy were just a feint—the real invasion would come at Calais. Because of his brilliant trickery, the Allies were able to land with much less opposition and eventually push on to Berlin. As incredible as it sounds, everything in Agent Garbo is true, based on years of archival research and interviews with Pujol’s family. This pulse-pounding thriller set in the shadow world of espionage and deception reveals the shocking reality of spycraft that occurs just below the surface of history.

Postkapitalismus

Author: Paul Mason
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 9783518744789
Release Date: 2016-04-11
Genre: Political Science

Drei Dinge wissen wir: Der Kapitalismus hat den Feudalismus abgelöst; seither durchlief er zyklische Tiefs, spätestens seit 2008 stottert der Motor. Was wir nicht wissen: Erleben wir eine der üblichen Krisen oder den Anbruch einer postkapitalistischen Ordnung? Paul Mason blickt auf die Daten, sichtet Krisentheorien – und sagt: Wir stehen am Anfang von etwas Neuem. Er nimmt dabei Überlegungen auf, die vor über 150 Jahren in einer Londoner Bibliothek entwickelt wurden und laut denen Wissen und intelligente Maschinen den Kapitalismus eines Tages »in die Luft sprengen« könnten. Im Zeitalter des Stahls und der Schrauben, der Hierarchien und der Knappheit war diese Vision so radikal, dass Marx sie schnell in der Schublade verschwinden ließ. In der Welt der Netzwerke, der Kooperation und des digitalen Überflusses ist sie aktueller denn je. In seinem atemberaubenden Buch führt Paul Mason durch Schreibstuben, Gefängniszellen, Flugzeugfabriken und an die Orte, an denen sich der Widerstand Bahn bricht. Mason verknüpft das Abstrakte mit dem Konkreten, bündelt die Überlegungen von Autoren wie Thomas Piketty, David Graeber, Jeremy Rifkin und Antonio Negri und zeigt, wie wir aus den Trümmern des Neoliberalismus eine gerechtere und nachhaltigere Gesellschaft errichten können.