Andean Cocaine

Author: Paul Gootenberg
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 080788779X
Release Date: 2009-06-01
Genre: History

Illuminating a hidden and fascinating chapter in the history of globalization, Paul Gootenberg chronicles the rise of one of the most spectacular and now illegal Latin American exports: cocaine. Gootenberg traces cocaine's history from its origins as a medical commodity in the nineteenth century to its repression during the early twentieth century and its dramatic reemergence as an illicit good after World War II. Connecting the story of the drug's transformations is a host of people, products, and processes: Sigmund Freud, Coca-Cola, and Pablo Escobar all make appearances, exemplifying the global influences that have shaped the history of cocaine. But Gootenberg decenters the familiar story to uncover the roles played by hitherto obscure but vital Andean actors as well--for example, the Peruvian pharmacist who developed the techniques for refining cocaine on an industrial scale and the creators of the original drug-smuggling networks that decades later would be taken over by Colombian traffickers. Andean Cocaine proves indispensable to understanding one of the most vexing social dilemmas of the late twentieth-century Americas: the American cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and, in its wake, the seemingly endless U.S. drug war in the Andes.

Andean Cocaine

Author: Paul Gootenberg
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807832295
Release Date: 2008
Genre: History

Illuminating a hidden and fascinating chapter in the history of globalization, Paul Gootenberg chronicles the rise of one of the most spectacular and now illegal Latin American exports: cocaine. Gootenberg traces cocaine's history from its origins as a

Andean Cocaine

Author: Paul Gootenberg
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 0807859052
Release Date: 2008
Genre: History

Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug


Author: Paul Gootenberg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134600700
Release Date: 2002-01-04
Genre: History

Cocaine examines the rise and fall of this notorious substance from its legitimate use by scientists and medics in the nineteenth century to the international prohibitionist regimes and drug gangs of today. Themes explored include: * Amsterdam's complex cocaine culture * the manufacture, sale and control of cocaine in the United States * Japan and the Southeast Asian cocaine industry * export of cocaine prohibitions to Peru * sex, drugs and race in early modern London Cocaine unveils new primary sources and covert social, cultural and political transformations to shed light on cocaine's hidden history.

Between Silver and Guano

Author: Paul Eliot Gootenberg
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400860418
Release Date: 2014-07-14
Genre: Business & Economics

This study of Peru's transformation from a tottering colonial economy based on extraction of precious bullion to a massive exporter of bulk goods like guano shows how a struggle between protectionists and free traders shaped the state. "This is an elegant and sophisticated book that can be read on many levels, written by an author who never takes the facile road. [Its] significance is great--not just for Peruvian history but for theoretical questions relating to dependency and economic history in nineteenth-century Latin America... Gootenberg has added a major new element to the dependency debate, one that is more intellectually satisfying than the sterile old argument about good guys and bad guys."--Timothy E. Anna, The Hispanic American Historical Review "[One] of the best books in recent years on Peruvian history, and a valuable contribution to nineteenth-century commercial and financial studies."--Michael J. Gonzales, Journal of Economic History "Fascinating reading. Gootenberg has taken the why of Latin American underdevelopment a step forward by unraveling complexities of the actual historical-economic forces... [This book] is perhaps the most thorough examination of exactly how those internal class and productive forces contributed to Peru's under-development."--Choice Originally published in 1989. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Jungle Laboratories

Author: Gabriela Soto Laveaga
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822391961
Release Date: 2009-12-02
Genre: History

In the 1940s chemists discovered that barbasco, a wild yam indigenous to Mexico, could be used to mass-produce synthetic steroid hormones. Barbasco spurred the development of new drugs, including cortisone and the first viable oral contraceptives, and positioned Mexico as a major player in the global pharmaceutical industry. Yet few people today are aware of Mexico’s role in achieving these advances in modern medicine. In Jungle Laboratories, Gabriela Soto Laveaga reconstructs the story of how rural yam pickers, international pharmaceutical companies, and the Mexican state collaborated and collided over the barbasco. By so doing, she sheds important light on a crucial period in Mexican history and challenges us to reconsider who can produce science. Soto Laveaga traces the political, economic, and scientific development of the global barbasco industry from its emergence in the 1940s, through its appropriation by a populist Mexican state in 1970, to its obsolescence in the mid-1990s. She focuses primarily on the rural southern region of Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, where the yam grew most freely and where scientists relied on local, indigenous knowledge to cultivate and harvest the plant. Rural Mexicans, at first unaware of the pharmaceutical and financial value of barbasco, later acquired and deployed scientific knowledge to negotiate with pharmaceutical companies, lobby the Mexican government, and ultimately transform how urban Mexicans perceived them. By illuminating how the yam made its way from the jungles of Mexico, to domestic and foreign scientific laboratories where it was transformed into pills, to the medicine cabinets of millions of women across the globe, Jungle Laboratories urges us to recognize the ways that Mexican peasants attained social and political legitimacy in the twentieth century, and positions Latin America as a major producer of scientific knowledge.

Drug Trafficking Organized Crime and Violence in the Americas Today

Author: Bruce M. Bagley
ISBN: 0813054664
Release Date: 2017-05
Genre: History

"An extensive overview of the drug trade in the Americas and its impact on politics, economics, and society throughout the region. . . . Highly recommended."--Choice"A first-rate update on the state of the long-fought hemispheric 'war on drugs.' It is particularly timely, as the perception that the war is lost and needs to be changed has never been stronger in Latin and North America."--Paul Gootenberg, author of Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug"A must-read volume for policy makers, concerned citizens, and students alike in the current search for new approaches to forty-year-old policies largely considered to have failed."--David Scott Palmer, coauthor of Power, Institutions, and Leadership in War and Peace"A very useful primer for anyone trying to keep up with the ever-evolving relationship between drug enforcement and drug trafficking."--Peter Andreas, author of Smuggler Nation: How Illicit Trade Made America In 1971, Richard Nixon declared a war on drugs. Despite foreign policy efforts and attempts to combat supply lines, the United States has been for decades, and remains today, the largest single consumer market for illicit drugs on the planet. This volume argues that the war on drugs has been ineffective at best and, at worst, has been highly detrimental to many countries. Leading experts in the fields of public health, political science, and national security analyze how U.S. policies have affected the internal dynamics of Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Central America, and the Caribbean islands. Together, they present a comprehensive overview of the major trends in drug trafficking and organized crime in the early twenty-first century. In addition, the editors and contributors identify emerging issues and propose several policy options to address them. This accessible and expansive volume provides a framework for understanding the limits and liabilities in the U.S.-championed war on drugs throughout the Americas. Bruce M. Bagley, professor and former associate dean of the Graduate School of International Studies at the University of Miami, is coauthor of International Relations in Latin America. Jonathan D. Rosen, professor of international studies at the Universidad del Mar in Mexico, is the author of The Losing War: Plan Colombia and Beyond.

Brazil and the Struggle for Rubber

Author: Warren Dean
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521526922
Release Date: 2002-07-04
Genre: Business & Economics

An environmental explanation of Brazil's repeated failures to re-establish itself as a leading rubber producer.


Author: Tom Wainwright
Publisher: PublicAffairs
ISBN: 9781610395847
Release Date: 2016-02-23
Genre: Business & Economics

What drug lords learned from big business How does a budding cartel boss succeed (and survive) in the 300 billion illegal drug business? By learning from the best, of course. From creating brand value to fine-tuning customer service, the folks running cartels have been attentive students of the strategy and tactics used by corporations such as Walmart, McDonald's, and Coca-Cola. And what can government learn to combat this scourge? By analyzing the cartels as companies, law enforcers might better understand how they work—and stop throwing away 100 billion a year in a futile effort to win the “war” against this global, highly organized business. Your intrepid guide to the most exotic and brutal industry on earth is Tom Wainwright. Picking his way through Andean cocaine fields, Central American prisons, Colorado pot shops, and the online drug dens of the Dark Web, Wainwright provides a fresh, innovative look into the drug trade and its 250 million customers. The cast of characters includes “Bin Laden,” the Bolivian coca guide; “Old Lin,” the Salvadoran gang leader; “Starboy,” the millionaire New Zealand pill maker; and a cozy Mexican grandmother who cooks blueberry pancakes while plotting murder. Along with presidents, cops, and teenage hitmen, they explain such matters as the business purpose for head-to-toe tattoos, how gangs decide whether to compete or collude, and why cartels care a surprising amount about corporate social responsibility. More than just an investigation of how drug cartels do business, Narconomics is also a blueprint for how to defeat them.

Mercury Mining and Empire

Author: Nicholas A. Robins
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 9780253005380
Release Date: 2011-07-25
Genre: History

On the basis of an examination of the colonial mercury and silver production processes and related labor systems, Mercury, Mining, and Empire explores the effects of mercury pollution in colonial Huancavelica, Peru, and Potosí, in present-day Bolivia. The book presents a multifaceted and interwoven tale of what colonial exploitation of indigenous peoples and resources left in its wake. It is a socio-ecological history that explores the toxic interrelationships between mercury and silver production, urban environments, and the people who lived and worked in them. Nicholas A. Robins tells the story of how native peoples in the region were conscripted into the noxious ranks of foot soldiers of proto-globalism, and how their fate, and that of their communities, was—and still is—chained to it.

Illegal Drugs Economy and Society in the Andes

Author: Francisco E. Thoumi
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson Center Press
ISBN: 0801878543
Release Date: 2003-12-11
Genre: Business & Economics

Some countries develop illegal drugs industries, and others do not. Discerning the distinguishing characteristics—social, economic, and political—of countries with these industries forms the subject of this sophisticated and humane study. The author, Francisco E. Thoumi, though trained as an economist, rejects simplistic economic solutions as well as simplistic moral ones as he addresses the Andean countries of Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia and the attitudes and responses of the United States. He investigates how the United States and the Andean countries perceive drugs issues; the history, structure, and evolution of drug industries in the Andes; the size of the industries in Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia; and their economic, political, and social effects in each country. Thoumi also addresses the political systems and social characteristics of these countries and why they have been so vulnerable to influence from these industries. And he offers case studies of a variety of anti-drug efforts including crop substitution and alternative development, eradication, interdiction of illicit traffic and manufacturing facilities, and extradition to the United States of traffickers.

Drugs and Democracy in Latin America

Author: Coletta Youngers
Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers
ISBN: 1588262545
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Political Science

While the U.S. has failed to reduce the supply of cocaine and heroin entering its borders, it has, however, succeeded in generating widespread, often profoundly damaging, consequences on democracy and human rights in Latin America and the Caribbean.

A Pueblo Divided

Author: Emilio Kourí
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804739390
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Business & Economics

This book is a history of the conflict-ridden privatization of communal land in the pueblo of Papantla, a Mexican Indian village transformed by the fast growth of vanilla production and exports in the second half of the 19th century.

Banana Cultures

Author: John Soluri
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 9780292777873
Release Date: 2009-03-06
Genre: History

Bananas, the most frequently consumed fresh fruit in the United States, have been linked to Miss Chiquita and Carmen Miranda, "banana republics," and Banana Republic clothing stores—everything from exotic kitsch, to Third World dictatorships, to middle-class fashion. But how did the rise in banana consumption in the United States affect the banana-growing regions of Central America? In this lively, interdisciplinary study, John Soluri integrates agroecology, anthropology, political economy, and history to trace the symbiotic growth of the export banana industry in Honduras and the consumer mass market in the United States. Beginning in the 1870s when bananas first appeared in the U.S. marketplace, Soluri examines the tensions between the small-scale growers, who dominated the trade in the early years, and the shippers. He then shows how rising demand led to changes in production that resulted in the formation of major agribusinesses, spawned international migrations, and transformed great swaths of the Honduran environment into monocultures susceptible to plant disease epidemics that in turn changed Central American livelihoods. Soluri also looks at labor practices and workers' lives, changing gender roles on the banana plantations, the effects of pesticides on the Honduran environment and people, and the mass marketing of bananas to consumers in the United States. His multifaceted account of a century of banana production and consumption adds an important chapter to the history of Honduras, as well as to the larger history of globalization and its effects on rural peoples, local economies, and biodiversity.

Indelible Inequalities in Latin America

Author: Luis Reygadas
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822392903
Release Date: 2010-09-30
Genre: History

Since the earliest years of European colonialism, Latin America has been a region of seemingly intractable inequalities, marked by a stark divide between the haves and the have-nots. This collection illuminates the diverse processes that have combined to produce and reproduce inequalities in Latin America, as well as some of the implications of those processes for North Americans. Anthropologists, cultural critics, historians, and political scientists from North and South America offer new and varied perspectives, building on the sociologist Charles Tilly’s relational framework for understanding enduring inequalities. While one essay is a broad yet nuanced analysis of Latin American inequality and its persistence, another is a fine-grained ethnographic view of everyday life and aspirations among shantytown residents living on the outskirts of Lima. Other essays address topics such as the initial bifurcation of Peru’s healthcare system into one for urban workers and another for the rural poor, the asymmetrical distribution of political information in Brazil, and an evolving Cuban “aesthetics of inequality,” which incorporates hip-hop and other transnational cultural currents. Exploring the dilemmas of Latin American inequalities as they are playing out in the United States, a contributor looks at new immigrant Mexican farmworkers in upstate New York to show how undocumented workers become a vulnerable rural underclass. Taken together, the essays extend social inequality critiques in important new directions. Contributors Jeanine Anderson Javier Auyero Odette Casamayor Christina Ewig Paul Gootenberg Margaret Gray Eric Hershberg Lucio Renno Luis Reygadas