Anger and Forgiveness

Author: Martha C. Nussbaum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199335879
Release Date: 2016-04-06
Genre: Anger

We live in a culture of apology and forgiveness. But while there are a few thinkers who criticize forgiveness in favor of retribution, philosopher and intellectual Martha C. Nussbaum is unique in criticizing the supposed virtue from the other side: forgiveness, Nussbaum asserts, is at itsheart inquisitorial and disciplinary. In this book based on her 2014 Locke Lectures, Nussbaum hones in first on anger and then on forgiveness, so vigorously championed today as a replacement emotion. Arguing that anger includes not only the idea of a serious wrong but also the idea that it would be a good thing if the wrongdoer sufferedsome bad consequence, Nussbaum asserts that anger, so understood, is always normatively problematic in one or the other of two possible ways. One way makes the mistake of thinking that the suffering of the wrongdoer restores the thing that was damaged. The other requires the victim to see the injuryas about relative status and only about that. While anger is sometimes useful as a signal that things have gone wrong, as a motive to address them, and as a deterrent to wrongdoing, its core ideas are profoundly flawed: either incoherent in the first case, or normatively ugly in the second. Neitheris anger as useful as it is often taken to be.Nussbaum goes on to strip the notion of forgiveness down to its Judeo-Christian roots, where the primary moral relationship is that between an omniscient score-keeping God and erring, penitent mortals. The relationship between a wronged human and another is, she says, based on this primary God-humanrelationship. Nussbaum agrees with Nietzsche in seeing in Judeo-Christian forgiveness a displaced vindictiveness and a concealed resentment that are ungenerous and unhelpful in human relations. The process of forgiveness can bolster a narcissistic resentment better eschewed in favor of a newparadigm based on generosity, justice, and truth.

Theorie der ethischen Gef hle

Author: Adam Smith
Publisher: Meiner Verlag
ISBN: 9783787319367
Release Date: 2010-05
Genre: Philosophy

Mit seinem philosophischen Hauptwerk, der "Theorie der ethischen Gefühle", legte Adam Smith den Grundstein für die Ausbildung einer Moralphilosophie, die sich ausdrücklich auf die Ideen der Sympathie und der Solidargemeinschaft beruft. Die Gründung der Moral auf den Begriff des Mitgefühls oder der "Sympathie" steht im Zentrum des philosophischen Hauptwerks von Adam Smith (1723-1790), der 1759 publizierten Schrift "The Theory of Moral Sentiments". Methodisch orientiert an den Werken der englischen Empiristen Shaftesbury, Mandeville, Hutcheson und Hume, untersucht Smith die Moralsysteme der Vergangenheit, kritisiert die Bemühungen seiner Zeitgenossen um eine Grundlegung der Moralphilosophie und nimmt so zukünftige wichtige Ansätze auf dem Gebiet der Ethik vorweg; sein Werk ist ein Sammelplatz heterogenster, scheinbar konträrer Richtungen der Moralphilosophie. Es kombiniert unterschiedliche Theorien zu einem bemerkenswerten System des "sittlich Richtigen", das sich nicht an Kriterien wie dem der Nützlichkeit ausrichtet, sondern an der Konvention des ausgebildeten Mitgefühls. Der zentrale Begriff ist dabei "Sympathie", ergänzt durch die Einführung der Idee eines unparteiischen Zuschauers, in den sich laut Smith jeder einzelne immer dann versetzt, wenn er moralische Entscheidungen zu treffen hat: "Der impartial spectator läßt die Individuen überlegen, daß sie an der Stelle desjenigen stehen könnten, dem sie ihre Sympathie zuwenden. Daraus entsteht nach Smith ein Motiv, aktuell so zu handeln, wie man an dessen Stelle behandelt werden wollte" (B. Priddat). "The Theory of Moral Sentiments" wurde mehrfach überarbeitet und ergänzt; diese Ausgabe bietet den Text in der letzten Fassung nach der 6. Auflage von 1790 in der deutschen Übersetzung von W. Eckstein.

Gutes besser tun

Author: William MacAskill
Publisher: Ullstein eBooks
ISBN: 9783843713399
Release Date: 2016-03-24
Genre: Social Science

Soll ich einen Flüchtling bei mir beherbergen? Ist es sinnvoll, nach Naturkatastrophen zu spenden? Übernehme ich besser die Patenschaft für ein Kind aus Äthiopien oder für ein Kind aus Deutschland? Helfe ich den Betroffenen, oder beruhige ich nur mein Gewissen? William MacAskill hat mit dem Konzept des effektiven Altruismus eine Antwort gefunden. Er nennt die Kriterien für sinnvolles und nachhaltiges Helfen. Oft sind es scheinbar kleine Handlungen, die Großes bewirken: Eine einfache Wurmkur verbessert die Lebensqualität afrikanischer Kinder mehr als eine teure Wasserpumpe fürs ganze Dorf. MacAskill zeigt, warum gut gemeint und gut gemacht zwei verschiedene Dinge sind und wie wir Veränderungen am besten erreichen können. Sein Buch ist eine konkrete Handreichung für alle, die Gutes noch besser tun wollen.

Preis Der Liebe Den Wir Nicht Zahlen Wollen

Author: Etel Adnan
Publisher: Hatje Cantz Pub
ISBN: 3775728554
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Art

"In her poetic reflection, artist, poet, and essayist Etel Adnan (*1925) describes various forms of love: the love for ideas, for God, for things, and for nature. However, today we have distanced ourselves from a higher form of love that drove Nietzsche into madness and the Islamic mystic al-Hallaj into martyrdom. The love for nature, which Adnan describes through her own experience, even seems to have given way to contempt -- how else could the ecological catastrophe toward which we are steering be explained? The price to stop it would be too high, as it would involve a radical change in our way of life -- similar to the experience of conventional love between two people, which involves such intensity only a few are ready to endure it."--Publisher's website.

Aging Thoughtfully

Author: Martha C. Nussbaum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780190600235
Release Date: 2017-10-15
Genre:

We all age differently, but we can learn from shared experiences and insights. The conversations, or paired essays, in Aging Thoughtfully combine a philosopher's approach with a lawyer-economist's. Here are ideas about when to retire, how to refashion social security to help the elderly poor, how to learn from King Lear -- who did not retire successfully -- and whether to enjoy or criticize anti-aging cosmetic procedures. Some of the concerns are practical: philanthropic decisions, relations with one's children and grandchildren, the purchase of annuities, and how to provide for care in old age. Other topics are cultural, ranging from the treatment of aging women in a Strauss opera and various popular films, to a consideration of Donald Trump's (and other men's) marriages to much younger women. These engaging, thoughtful, and often humorous exchanges show how stimulating discussions about our inevitable aging can be, and offer valuable insight into how we all might age more thoughtfully, and with zest and friendship.

Handbook of Victims and Victimology

Author: Sandra Walklate
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317496243
Release Date: 2017-08-02
Genre: Social Science

This second edition of the Handbook of Victims and Victimology presents a comprehensively revised and updated set of essays, bringing together internationally recognised scholars and practitioners to offer substantial research informed overviews within their specialist fields of investigation. This handbook is divided into five parts, with each part addressing a different theme within victimology: Part I offers a scene-setting exploration of new developments in the field, enduring issues that remain relatively unchanged and the gaps and traps within the contemporary victimological agenda Part II examines of the complex dimensions to victim experiences as structured by gender, age, ethnicity, sexuality and intersectionality Part III reflects on the problems and possibilities of formulating policy responses in the light of the changing appreciation of the nature and extent of victimhood Part IV focused on the value of a comparative lens and the problems and possibilities of victim policies when seen through this lens, explored along three geographical axes: Europe, Australia and Asia Part V considers other ways of thinking about who counts as a victim and what counts as victimhood and extends the boundaries of the victimological imagination outward Building on the success of the previous edition, this book provides an international focus on cutting-edge issues in the field of victimology. Including brand new chapters on intersectionality, child victims, sexuality, hate crime and crimes of the powerful, this handbook is essential reading for students and academics studying victims and victimology and an essential reference tool for those working within the victim support environment.

Fatal Fictions

Author: Alison L. LaCroix
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780190610784
Release Date: 2016-12-01
Genre:

Writers of fiction have always confronted topics of crime and punishment. This age-old fascination with crime on the part of both authors and readers is not surprising, given that criminal justice touches on so many political and psychological themes essential to literature, and comes equippedwith a trial process that contains its own dramatic structure. This volume explores this profound and enduring literary engagement with crime, investigation, and criminal justice. The collected essays explore three themes that connect the world of law with that of fiction. First, defining and punishing crime is one of the fundamental purposes of government,along with the protection of victims by the prevention of crime. And yet criminal punishment remains one of the most abused and terrifying forms of political power. Second, crime is intensely psychological and therefore an important subject by which a writer can develop and explore character. Athird connection between criminal justice and fiction involves the inherently dramatic nature of the legal system itself, particularly the trial. Moreover, the ongoing public conversation about crime and punishment suggests that the time is ripe for collaboration between law and literature in thistroubled domain.The essays in this collection span a wide array of genres, including tragic drama, science fiction, lyric poetry, autobiography, and mystery novels. The works discussed include works as old as fifth-century BCE Greek tragedy and as recent as contemporary novels, memoirs, and mystery novels. Thecumulative result is arresting: there are "killer wives" and crimes against trees; a government bureaucrat who sends political adversaries to their death for treason before falling to the same fate himself; a convicted murderer who doesn't die when hanged; a psychopathogical collector whose quitesane kidnapping victim nevertheless also collects; Justice Thomas' reading and misreading of Bigger Thomas; a man who forgives his son's murderer and one who cannot forgive his wife's non-existent adultery; fictional detectives who draw on historical analysis to solve murders. These essays begin aconversation, and they illustrate the great depth and power of crime in literature.

The Geography of Morals

Author: Owen Flanagan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780190212162
Release Date: 2016-09-05
Genre: Psychology

The Geography of Morals is a work of extraordinary ambition: an indictment of the parochialism of Western philosophy, a comprehensive dialogue between anthropology, empirical moral psychology, behavioral economics, and cross-cultural philosophy, and a deep exploration of the opportunities for self, social, and political improvement provided by world philosophy. We live in multicultural, cosmopolitan worlds. These worlds are distinctive moral ecologies in which people enact and embody different lived philosophies and conceive of mind, morals, and the meaning of life differently from the typical WEIRD -- Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic -- person. This is not a predicament; it is an opportunity. Many think that cross cultural understanding is useful for developing a modus vivendi where people from different worlds are not at each other's throats and tolerate each other. Flanagan presses the much more exciting possibility that cross-cultural philosophy provides opportunities for exploring the varieties of moral possibility, learning from other traditions, and for self, social, and political improvement. There are ways of worldmaking in other living traditions -- Confucian, Daoist, Buddhist, Hindu, Jain, Muslim, Amerindian, and African -- that citizens in Western countries can benefit from. Cross-cultural learning is protection against what Alasdair MacIntyre refers to as being "imprisoned by one's upbringing." Flanagan takes up perennial topics of whether there is anything to the idea of a common human nature, psychobiological sources of human morality, the nature of the self, the role of moral excellence in a good human life, and whether and how empirical inquiry into morality can contribute to normative ethics. The Geography of Morals exemplifies how one can respectfully conceive of multiculturalism and global interaction as providing not only opportunities for business and commerce, but also opportunities for socio-moral and political improvement on all sides. This is a book that aims to change how normative ethics and moral psychology are done.

Nicht f r den Profit

Author: Martha Craven Nussbaum
Publisher:
ISBN: 3935254911
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Democracy and education

Nussbaum kritisiert die Ökonomisierung von Schulen und Universitäten, die Literatur und Kunst zu kurz kommen lässt. Da aus diesen Fächern die Fähigkeit zu kritischem Denken und zu Reflexion erwachsen und diese Kompetenzen auch eine Demokratie ausmachen, steht eine lebendige Demokratie auf dem Spiel.

H wie Habicht

Author: Helen Macdonald
Publisher: Ullstein eBooks
ISBN: 9783843711470
Release Date: 2015-08-07
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Der Spiegel-Bestseller Der Tod ihres Vaters trifft Helen unerwartet. Erschüttert von der Wucht der Trauer wird der Kindheitstraum in ihr wach, ihren eigenen Habicht aufzuziehen und zu zähmen. Und so zieht das stolze Habichtweibchen Mabel bei ihr ein. Durch die intensive Beschäftigung mit dem Tier entwickelt sich eine konzentrierte Nähe zwischen den beiden, die tröstend und heilend wirkt. Doch Mabel ist nicht irgendein Tier. Mabel ist ein Greifvogel. Mabel tötet. »Um einen Greifvogel abzurichten, muss man ihn wie einen Greifvogel beobachten, erst dann kann man vorhersagen, was er als Nächstes tun wird. Schließlich sieht man die Körpersprache des Vogels gar nicht mehr – man scheint zu fühlen, was der Vogel fühlt. Die Wahrnehmung des Vogels wird zur eigenen. Als die Tage in dem abgedunkelten Raum vergingen und ich mich immer mehr in den Habicht hineinversetzte, schmolz mein Menschsein von mir ab.« Helen Macdonald Ein Buch über die Erinnerung, über Natur und Freiheit - und über das Glück, sich einer großen Aufgabe von ganzem Herzen zu widmen. »[Macdonalds] anschaulicher Stil – verblüffend und außerordentlich präzise – ist nur ein Teil dessen, was dieses Buch ausmacht. Die Geschichte vom Abrichten Mabels liest sich wie ein Thriller. Die allmählich und behutsam anwachsende Spannung lässt den Atem stocken ... Fesselnd.« Rachel Cooke Observer * New York Times Bestseller * Costa Award für das beste Buch des Jahres 2014 * Samuel Johnson Prize

Hidden Figures Unerkannte Heldinnen

Author: Margot Lee Shetterly
Publisher: HarperCollins
ISBN: 9783959676434
Release Date: 2017-01-02
Genre: History

1943 stellt das Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory der NACA,die später zur NASA wird, erstmalig afroamerikanische Frauen ein. "Menschliche Rechner" - unter ihnen Dorothy Vaughan, die 1953 Vorgesetzte der brillanten afroamerikanischen Mathematikerin Katherine Johnson wird. Trotz Diskriminierung und Vorurteilen, treiben sie die Forschungen der NASA voran und Katherine Johnsons Berechnungen werden maßgeblich für den Erfolg der Apollo-Missionen. Dies ist ihre Geschichte. "Mit dieser unglaublich mitreißenden und vielschichtigen Erzählung zeigt Shetterly ihr Können. Die Geschichte begeistert in allen Aspekten." Booklist