Animals and Disease

Author: Lise Wilkinson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521375738
Release Date: 1992-03-19
Genre: Medical

Man's attempts to learn about aspects of the human body and its functions by observation and study of animals are to be found throughout history, especially at times and in cultures where the human body was considered sacrosanct, even after death. This book describes the origins and later development, especially in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, of comparative medicine and its interrelationship with medicine and veterinary medicine and the efforts of its practitioners to understand and control outbreaks of infectious, epidemic diseases in humans and in domestic animals. In the nineteenth century their efforts and increasing professionalism led to the creation of specialised institutes devoted to the study of comparative medicine. Paradoxically the first such institute, the Brown Institution, opened in London in 1871, despite the fact that the study of this branch of medicine in Britain had always lagged behind that in France and Germany. The book discusses the rise and fall of this centre and describes how it was soon overtaken in importance by the great institutes in Paris and Berlin and then, from the turn of the century, by American institutes, funded by private fortunes. This book sheds much new light on the medical and veterinary history of this period and will provide a new perspective on the history of bacteriology.

Beasts of the Earth

Author: E. Fuller Torrey
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813537894
Release Date: 2005-02-03
Genre: Medical

Humans have lived in close proximity to other animals for thousands of years. Recent scientific studies have even shown that the presence of animals has a positive effect on our physical and mental health. People with pets typically have lower blood pressure, show fewer symptoms of depression, and tend to get more exercise. But there is a darker side to the relationship between animals and humans. Animals are carriers of harmful infectious agents and the source of a myriad of human diseases. In recent years, the emergence of high-profile illnesses such as AIDS, SARS, West Nile virus, and bird flu has drawn much public attention, but as E. Fuller Torrey and Robert H. Yolken reveal, the transfer of deadly microbes from animals to humans is neither a new nor an easily avoided problem. Beginning with the domestication of farm animals nearly 10,000 years ago, Beasts of the Earth traces the ways that human-animal contact has evolved over time. Today, shared living quarters, overlapping ecosystems, and experimental surgical practices where organs or tissues are transplanted from non-humans into humans continue to open new avenues for the transmission of infectious agents. Other changes in human behavior like increased air travel, automated food processing, and threats of bioterrorism are increasing the contagion factor by transporting microbes further distances and to larger populations in virtually no time at all. While the authors urge that a better understanding of past diseases may help us lessen the severity of some illnesses, they also warn that, given our increasingly crowded planet, it is not a question of if but when and how often animal-transmitted diseases will pose serious challenges to human health in the future.

Spillover Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic

Author: David Quammen
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393066807
Release Date: 2012-10-01
Genre: Medical

Examines the emergence and causes of new diseases all over the world, describing a process called “spillover” where illness originates in wild animals before being passed to humans and discusses the potential for the next huge pandemic. 70,000 first printing.

Infectious Disease Management in Animal Shelters

Author: Lila Miller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119949459
Release Date: 2011-11-16
Genre: Medical

Infectious Disease Management in Animal Shelters is a comprehensive guide to preventing, managing, and treating disease outbreaks in shelters. Emphasizing strategies for the prevention of illness and mitigation of disease, this book provides detailed, practical information regarding fundamental principles of disease control and specific management of important diseases affecting dogs and cats in group living environments. Taking an in-depth, population health approach, the text presents information to aid in the fight against the most significant and costly health issues in shelter care facilities.

One Health

Author: Ronald M. Atlas
Publisher: ASM Press
ISBN: 9781555818425
Release Date: 2014-03-20
Genre: Medical

Emerging infectious diseases are often due to environmental disruption, which exposes microbes to a different niche that selects for new virulence traits and facilitates transmission between animals and humans. Thus, health of humans also depends upon health of animals and the environment – a concept called One Health. This book presents core concepts, compelling evidence, successful applications, and remaining challenges of One Health approaches to thwarting the threat of emerging infectious disease. Written by scientists working in the field, this book will provide a series of ""stories"" about how disruption of the environment and transmission from animal hosts is responsible for emerging human and animal diseases. • Explains the concept of One Health and the history of the One Health paradigm shift . • Traces the emergence of devastating new diseases in both animals and humans.• Presents case histories of notable, new zoonoses, including West Nile virus, hantavirus, Lyme disease, SARS, and salmonella.• Links several epidemic zoonoses with the environmental factors that promote them.• Offers insight into the mechanisms of microbial evolution toward pathogenicity.• Discusses the many causes behind the emergence of antibiotic resistance.• Presents new technologies and approaches for public health disease surveillance.• Offers political and bureaucratic strategies for promoting the global acceptance of One Health.

The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases

Author: Nicholas Johnson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780124055155
Release Date: 2013-09-16
Genre: Science

The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases presents what is currently known about the role of animals in the emergence or re-emergence of viruses including HIV-AIDS, SARS, Ebola, avian flu, swine flu, and rabies. It presents the structure, genome, and methods of transmission that influence emergence and considers non-viral factors that favor emergence, such as animal domestication, human demography, population growth, human behavior, and land-use changes. When viruses jump species, the result can be catastrophic, causing disease and death in humans and animals. These zoonotic outbreaks reflect several factors, including increased mobility of human populations, changes in demography and environmental changes due to globalization. The threat of new, emerging viruses and the fact that there are no vaccines for the most common zoonotic viruses drive research in the biology and ecology of zoonotic transmission. In this book, specialists in 11 emerging zoonotic viruses present detailed information on each virus's structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution, and method of transmission. The book discusses the impact of virus emergence by considering the ratio of mortality, morbidity, and asymptomatic infection and assesses methods for predicting, monitoring, mitigating, and controlling viral disease emergence. Analyzes the structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution and methods of transmission of 10 viruses Provides a clear perspective on how events in wildlife, livestock, and even companion animals have contributed to virus outbreaks and epidemics Exemplifies the "one world, one health, one medicine" approach to emerging disease by examining events in animal populations as precursors to what could affect humans

Essentials of Disease in Wild Animals

Author: Gary A. Wobeser
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118708873
Release Date: 2013-05-07
Genre: Medical

The interrelationship between wild animal, domestic animals and human health is appreciated now more than ever before. This is because of the recognition of the involvement of wild animals in diseases of humans and domestic animals, the impact of disease on wildlife management and conservation biology, recognition of new forms of environmental contamination, and academic interest in disease as an ecological factor. This is the first introductory level book about disease in wild animals that deals with basic subjects such as the nature of disease, what causes disease, how disease is described and measured, how diseases spread and persist and the effects of disease on individual animals and populations. In contrast to authors of many other veterinary books, Gary A. Wobeser takes a more general approach to health in wild animals, recognizing that disease is one ecological factor among many and that disease can never be considered satisfactorily in isolation. Rather than focus on individual causative agents and their effect on the individual animal, the emphasis is on why disease occurred, and on the complex interactions that occur among disease agents, the environment and host populations. Written by a leading researcher in wildlife diseases, this book will fill a knowledge gap for those called to work with disease in wild animals who lack experience or training in the general features of disease as they relate to wild animals. Veterinarians, ecologists, wildlife biologists, population biologists and public health workers will find this book invaluable.

Polymicrobial Diseases

Author: Kim A. Brogden
Publisher: Amer Society for Microbiology
ISBN: UOM:39015055170446
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Medical

Polymicrobial diseases, those involving more than one etiologic agent, are more common than is generally realised and include respiratory diseases, gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, hepatitis, periodontal diseases, multiple sclerosis, renital infections, intra–abdominal infections, and pertussis. This new volume provides an overview of the current knowledge of these mixed infections in both animals and humans and explores the contribution to disease made by interacting and mutually reinforcing pathogens, which may involve bacteria, viruses, or parasites interacting with each other or bacteria interacting with fungi and viruses. The emphasis is on identifying polymicrobial diseases, understanding the complex etiology of these diseases, recognising difficulties in establishing methods for their study, identifying mechanisms of pathogenesis, and assessing appropriate methods of treatments.

Animals Disease and Human Society

Author: Joanna Swabe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134675401
Release Date: 2002-09-11
Genre: Social Science

This book explores the history and nature of our dependency on other animals and the implications of this for human and animal health. Writing from an historical and sociological perspective, Joanna Swabe's work discusses such issues as: * animal domestication * the consequences of human exploitation of other animals, including links between human and animal disease * the rise of a veterinary regime, designed to protect humans and animals alike * implications of intensive farming practices, pet-keeping and recent biotechnological developments. This account spans a period of some ten thousand years, and raises important questions about the increasing intensification of animal use for both animal and human health.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Author: P. Michael Conn
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128096994
Release Date: 2017-06-20
Genre: Medical

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease, Second Edition, provides needed information on model sharing, animal alternatives, animal ethics and access to databanks of models, bringing together common descriptions of models for busy researchers across biomedical and biological sciences. Offering easily searchable advantages and disadvantages for each animal model and organized by disease topics, this resource aids researchers in finding the best animal model for research in human disease. Organized by disease orientation for ease of searchability Provides information on locating resources, animal alternatives, and animal ethics Covers a broad range of animal models used in research for human disease Contributed by leading experts across the globe Expanded coverage of diabetes and neurological diseases

Handbook of Animal Models in Alzheimer s Disease

Author: G. Casadesus
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 9781607507338
Release Date: 2011-07-05
Genre: Medical

Animals have been used to model diseases or test new treatments since around 300 BC, and undoubtedly our ability to model disease in animals – including transgenic animals – has provided major breakthroughs in all fields of biomedical research. Due to their complexity and plurality of pathology and symptomatology, the study of neurodegenerative diseases relies heavily on animal models. These models have been developed in many species in the attempt to undercover the complex nature of the disease mechanisms involved. The ultimate goal is to test promising therapies and to manage, prevent or cure neurodegenerative disease. But because most animal models in this area do not reproduce the full phenotypical disease spectrum and the etiology and clinical presentation of neurodegenerative diseases differ from one patient to the next, the testing of these diseases in animal models often translates poorly to indices of efficacy when applied to the clinical population. Written by experts in the field with these advances and challenges in mind, this handbook provides an updated overview of the animal models being developed and used to study complex disease dynamics. The first part of the book presents an overview of animal models of various species and includes a review of new invertebrate animal models to study neurodegeneration. The second section presents the use of animal models to pinpoint disease mechanisms, and the last part of the handbook examines the various therapeutic interventions being used in models of neurodegenerative disease.

Animal Disease and Human Trauma

Author: I. Convery
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9780230227613
Release Date: 2008-08-20
Genre: Social Science

Many disasters are approached by researchers, managers and policymakers as if they have a clear beginning, middle and end. But often the experience of being in a disaster is not like this. This book offers non-linear, non-prescriptive ways of thinking about disasters and allows the people affected by disaster the chance to speak.

Chronic Disease Management for Small Animals

Author: W. Dunbar Gram
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119200895
Release Date: 2017-12-04
Genre: Medical

Practical guidance on managing chronic illnesses in small animals Chronic Disease Management for Small Animals provides a complete resource for the long-term care and therapy of canine and feline patients with incurable conditions. Offering practical strategies for successful management of chronic disorders, the book presents expert guidance on handling these ailments and the animals that they afflict. Written by leading experts in their respective fields, Chronic Disease Management for Small Animals takes a multidisciplinary approach to the subject, covering chronic diseases across many categories, including mobility, dermatology, ophthalmology, internal medicine, and more. The book is not meant to replace existing textbooks, but rather is designed to be used as a practical guide that educates the reader about the many therapeutic options for chronic disease management. Coverage encompasses: The impact that chronic disease has on the quality of life for both the patient and its owner Specific chronic diseases, outlining diagnostics, therapeutics, and quality of life concerns Hospice care and end of life, including client and pet needs, quality of life, cultural sensitivities, dying naturally, euthanasia, and death Chronic Disease Management for Small Animals is an essential reference for recently qualified and seasoned practitioners alike, supporting clinicians in making decisions and communicating with clients regarding long-term care. It is an ideal book for all small animal practitioners and veterinary students.

Histologic Basis of Ocular Disease in Animals

Author: Bruce Grahn
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118388785
Release Date: 2018-08-28
Genre: Medical

Histologic Basis of Ocular Disease in Animals is a comprehensive reference covering pathology of the eye in a spectrum of animal species, including domestic animals, fish, birds, and laboratory animals. Offers a comprehensive resource on diseases and conditions of the eye and orbit in a wide range of species Covers domestic animals, fish, birds, and laboratory animals Presents more than 1200 high-quality images carefully selected to illustrate the ocular conditions covered Emphasizes unique pathological responses where necessary

Modeling Infectious Diseases in Humans and Animals

Author: Matt J. Keeling
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400841035
Release Date: 2011-09-19
Genre: Science

For epidemiologists, evolutionary biologists, and health-care professionals, real-time and predictive modeling of infectious disease is of growing importance. This book provides a timely and comprehensive introduction to the modeling of infectious diseases in humans and animals, focusing on recent developments as well as more traditional approaches. Matt Keeling and Pejman Rohani move from modeling with simple differential equations to more recent, complex models, where spatial structure, seasonal "forcing," or stochasticity influence the dynamics, and where computer simulation needs to be used to generate theory. In each of the eight chapters, they deal with a specific modeling approach or set of techniques designed to capture a particular biological factor. They illustrate the methodology used with examples from recent research literature on human and infectious disease modeling, showing how such techniques can be used in practice. Diseases considered include BSE, foot-and-mouth, HIV, measles, rubella, smallpox, and West Nile virus, among others. Particular attention is given throughout the book to the development of practical models, useful both as predictive tools and as a means to understand fundamental epidemiological processes. To emphasize this approach, the last chapter is dedicated to modeling and understanding the control of diseases through vaccination, quarantine, or culling. Comprehensive, practical introduction to infectious disease modeling Builds from simple to complex predictive models Models and methodology fully supported by examples drawn from research literature Practical models aid students' understanding of fundamental epidemiological processes For many of the models presented, the authors provide accompanying programs written in Java, C, Fortran, and MATLAB In-depth treatment of role of modeling in understanding disease control