Author: Gordon Elliott Fogg
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 1992-09-24
This book describes the development of Antarctic science over three centuries against a background of advances in techniques of travelling and working in the polar environment and changing political attitudes to a remote and unknown part of the world.
The Technocratic Antarctic is an ethnographic account of the scientists and policymakers who work on Antarctica. In a place with no indigenous people, Antarctic scientists and policymakers use expertise as their primary model of governance. Scientific research and policymaking are practices that inform each other, and the Antarctic environment—with its striking beauty, dramatic human and animal lives, and specter of global climate change—not only informs science and policy but also lends Antarctic environmentalism a particularly technocratic patina. Jessica O'Reilly conducted most of her research for this book in New Zealand, home of the "Antarctic Gateway" city of Christchurch, and on an expedition to Windless Bight, Antarctica, with the New Zealand Antarctic Program. O’Reilly also follows the journeys Antarctic scientists and policymakers take to temporarily “Antarctic” places such as science conferences, policy workshops, and the international Antarctic Treaty meetings in Scotland, Australia, and India. Competing claims of nationalism, scientific disciplines, field experiences, and personal relationships among Antarctic environmental managers disrupt the idea of a utopian epistemic community. O’Reilly focuses on what emerges in Antarctica among the complicated and hybrid forms of science, sociality, politics, and national membership found there. The Technocratic Antarctic unfolds the historical, political, and moral contexts that shape experiences of and decisions about the Antarctic environment.
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A profile of Antarctica and its indigenous life traces the history of regional exploration and the science currently being conducted there while explaining how Antarctica reveals key insights into the planet's environmental future.
Author: I. Hempel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Public awareness of the importance of Antarctic research, particularly in relation to global problems, has increased. The book spans a broad spectrum of Antarctic science from the "ozone hole" to microbiology to the sea ice. The main focus is on the role of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the world climate system, e.g. the formation of sea ice and its relevance to ocean circulation, the biological pump in relation to CO2 release. The past climate history is revealed by the analysis of ice cores and sediments. Studies of plate tectonics and fossil records reach further back in earth history. Key words in the biological chapters are krill and the rich Antarctic benthos. Finally, the potential conflict between conservationists, researchers and tourists is discussed.
Committee report in response to 1989 brief to: examine extent to which Antarctic science should be conducted within universities or research institutes as distinct from Antarctic Division (but within ASAC's priority research area framework); assess ways to increase scientific productivity; and examine adequacy of existing incentives to publish research results. Map in pocket produced in 1992 by Antarctic Division: "Antarctica and the Southern Ocean relating the region to Australia, New -- 1959 Antarctic Treaty.
Author: Claude de Broyer
Publisher: Vub Press
Release Date: 2001
The Belgica expedition to Antarctica returned with an important scientific harvest and a complete annual cycle of observations. A century later, this book tries to enlighten some aspects of this expedition and commemorates its participants by looking back to their achievements and the great influence they had on subsequent Antarctic research and exploration.
Publisher: Stanford University
Release Date: 2010
The dissertation examines how actors in Norway, Sweden, and the British Empire conceived the Antarctic as a space for science during the years 1912 to 1952. Instead of tracing a narrative of enlightenment, how science became the dominant form of activity in the Antarctic, I examine a series of episodes with particular attention to why particular kinds of science held sway within specific political, cultural, and economic contexts. Concerned more with how Antarctic science was planned and justified than how it was executed in the field, the project draws upon recent scholarship in geography and geopolitics, as well as the history of exploration. The six case studies involve an aborted Anglo-Swedish Antarctic expedition in 1912; Britain's interwar Antarctic whaling research program; debates among whaling magnates and their associates over the relationship between Antarctic science and whaling in interwar Norway; the culture of polar exploration that emerged at Cambridge (and to some extent Oxford) between the world wars; the approach to polar exploration and quantitative glaciology pioneered by the Swedish geographer Hans Ahlmann; and the complicated history of the Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition (1949-52). I conclude with an epilogue arguing that the rise of international science in the Antarctic during the 1950s reflected the geopolitical dynamics of the Cold War, rather than the triumph of science over politics.