Anthocyanins

Author: Kevin Gould
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387773355
Release Date: 2008-12-19
Genre: Science

In recent years there has been an unprecedented expansion of knowledge about anthocyanins pigments. Indeed, the molecular genetic control of anthocyanins biosynthesis is now one of the best understood of all secondary metabolic pathways. There have also been substantial improvements in analytical technology that have led to the discovery of novel anthocyanin compounds. Armed with this knowledge and the tools for genetic engineering, plant breeders are now introducing vibrant new colors into horticultural crops. The food industry has also benefited from the resurgence of interest in anthocyanins. A greater understanding of the chemistry of these pigments has led to improved methods for stabilizing the color of anthocyanins extracts, so that they are more useful as food colorings. Methods for the bulk production of anthocyanins from cell cultures have been optimized for this purpose. Possible benefits to human health from the ingestion of anthocyanin-rich foods have also been a major feature of the recent scientific literature. Anthocyanins are remarkably potent antioxidants, and their ingestion has been postulated to stave off the effects of oxidative stress. These pigments, especially in conjunction with other flavonoids, have been associated with reductions in the incidence and severity of many other non-infectious diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. An industry is developing around anthocyanins as nutritional supplements. Finally, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the benefits of anthocyanins to plants themselves. Originally considered an extravagance without a purpose, anthocyanins are now implicated in multifarious vital functions. These include the attraction of pollinators and frugivores, aposematic defense from herbivores, and protection from environmental stressors such as strong light, UVB, drought, and free radical attacks. Anthocyanins are evidently highly versatile, and enormously useful to plants. This book covers all aspects of the biosynthesis and function of anthocyanins (and related compounds such as proanthocyanidins) in plants, and their applications in agriculture, food products, and human health. Featured areas include their relevance to: * Plant stress * Flower and fruit color * Human health * Wine quality and health attributes * Food colorants and ingredients * Cell culture production systems * The pastoral sector

Anthocyanins

Author: Kevin Gould
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1489989552
Release Date: 2014-09-05
Genre: Science

In recent years there has been an unprecedented expansion of knowledge about anthocyanins pigments. Indeed, the molecular genetic control of anthocyanins biosynthesis is now one of the best understood of all secondary metabolic pathways. There have also been substantial improvements in analytical technology that have led to the discovery of novel anthocyanin compounds. Armed with this knowledge and the tools for genetic engineering, plant breeders are now introducing vibrant new colors into horticultural crops. The food industry has also benefited from the resurgence of interest in anthocyanins. A greater understanding of the chemistry of these pigments has led to improved methods for stabilizing the color of anthocyanins extracts, so that they are more useful as food colorings. Methods for the bulk production of anthocyanins from cell cultures have been optimized for this purpose. Possible benefits to human health from the ingestion of anthocyanin-rich foods have also been a major feature of the recent scientific literature. Anthocyanins are remarkably potent antioxidants, and their ingestion has been postulated to stave off the effects of oxidative stress. These pigments, especially in conjunction with other flavonoids, have been associated with reductions in the incidence and severity of many other non-infectious diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. An industry is developing around anthocyanins as nutritional supplements. Finally, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the benefits of anthocyanins to plants themselves. Originally considered an extravagance without a purpose, anthocyanins are now implicated in multifarious vital functions. These include the attraction of pollinators and frugivores, aposematic defense from herbivores, and protection from environmental stressors such as strong light, UVB, drought, and free radical attacks. Anthocyanins are evidently highly versatile, and enormously useful to plants. This book covers all aspects of the biosynthesis and function of anthocyanins (and related compounds such as proanthocyanidins) in plants, and their applications in agriculture, food products, and human health. Featured areas include their relevance to: * Plant stress * Flower and fruit color * Human health * Wine quality and health attributes * Food colorants and ingredients * Cell culture production systems * The pastoral sector

Biotechnology of Natural Products

Author: Wilfried Schwab
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319679037
Release Date: 2017-11-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This text comprehensively covers the analysis, enzymology, physiology and genetics of valuable natural products used in the food industry that are attractive targets for biotechnological production. The focus is on the recent advances made to achieve this goal. This unique work is the first book to focus on biotechnological production of important natural products in food additives, fragrances and flavorings, and other bioactive compounds in food. The chapters offer a deep insight into modern research and the development of low molecular weight natural products. Biotechnology of Natural Products covers products in the Phenolic, Terpenoid, and Alkaloid categories, providing a full overview of the biotechnology of food additives and other low molecular weight natural products. Gene clustering and the evolution of pathways are covered, as well as future perspectives on the topic. Due to limited oil resources and increasing consumer demand for naturalness, bioprocesses are increasingly needed to meet these requirements. Novel sophisticated technologies have facilitated the elucidation of new chemical molecules, their biosynthetic pathways and biological functions. This book provides researchers with a full overview of the technologies and processes involved in the biotechnology of natural products.

Nanoencapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients

Author: Seid Mahdi Jafari
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128097410
Release Date: 2017-05-25
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Nanoencapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients: Principles and Applications brings different nanoencapsulated food bioactive ingredients, their structure, applications, preparation, formulations and encapsulation methodologies, covering a wide range of compounds and giving detailed examples of the issues faced in their nano-encapsulation. The book addresses findings related to the study of natural food colorants, vitamins, antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, flavors, essential oils, fish oil and essential fatty acids, and other related ingredients. As a definitive manual for researchers and industry personnel working, or interested in, various branches of encapsulation for food ingredients and nutraceutical purposes, users will find this a great reference. Explains different categories of nanoencapsulated food ingredients, covering their applications, nanoencapsulation techniques, release mechanisms and characterization methods Addresses findings related to the study of natural food colorants, vitamins, antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, flavors and essential oils Provides a deep understanding and potential of nanoencapsulated food ingredients, as well as their novel applications in functional foods and nutraceutical systems

Melatonin in Plants

Author: Haitao Shi
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 9782889453115
Release Date: 2017-11-03
Genre:

This topic focuses on distribution, synthesis, metabolism, and the in vivo roles of melatonin in plants, with 1 editorial, 3 reviews, 21 original research studies and 1 corrigendum.

Plant derived Natural Products

Author: Anne E. Osbourn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387854983
Release Date: 2009-07-07
Genre: Science

Plants produce a huge array of natural products (secondary metabolites). These compounds have important ecological functions, providing protection against attack by herbivores and microbes and serving as attractants for pollinators and seed-dispersing agents. They may also contribute to competition and invasiveness by suppressing the growth of neighboring plant species (a phenomenon known as allelopathy). Humans exploit natural products as sources of drugs, flavoring agents, fragrances and for a wide range of other applications. Rapid progress has been made in recent years in understanding natural product synthesis, regulation and function and the evolution of metabolic diversity. It is timely to bring this information together with contemporary advances in chemistry, plant biology, ecology, agronomy and human health to provide a comprehensive guide to plant-derived natural products. Plant-derived natural products: synthesis, function and application provides an informative and accessible overview of the different facets of the field, ranging from an introduction to the different classes of natural products through developments in natural product chemistry and biology to ecological interactions and the significance of plant-derived natural products for humans. In the final section of the book a series of chapters on new trends covers metabolic engineering, genome-wide approaches, the metabolic consequences of genetic modification, developments in traditional medicines and nutraceuticals, natural products as leads for drug discovery and novel non-food crops.

Flavonoids

Author: Oyvind M. Andersen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420039443
Release Date: 2005-12-09
Genre: Science

Advances in the flavonoid field have been nothing short of spectacular over the last 20 years. While the medical field has noticed flavonoids for their potential antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotectant characteristics, growers and processors in plant sciences have utilized flavonoid biosynthesis and the genetic manipulation of the flavonoid pathway in plants to improve the nutritional and ornamental value of crops. Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications covers each class of flavonoid and presents the historic advances made in flavonoid research since the 1994 publication of an earlier text, Flavonoids Advances in Research Since 1986. This book details the analytical techniques scientists have used to achieve an improved understanding of flavonoid structures and functions as well as advances in the genetic manipulation of the flavonoid pathway, and the discovery of many new flavonoids. It indicates which techniques are best suited for the isolation and structure determination of flavonoids and whether the structures are novel. While explaining how to evaluate the flavonoid content in food and beverages, the book reveals the biotechnological advances that have allowed nutritionists and plant physiologists to assess the possible effects of flavonoids. As interest regarding the impact and health benefits of flavonoids continues to grow, Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications reflects the continuing commitment of flavonoid researchers to the improvement of human health and provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date source of information for all known flavonoids.

Plant Metabolism and Biotechnology

Author: Hiroshi Ashihara
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119993223
Release Date: 2010-03-11
Genre: Science

Various plant metabolites are useful for human life, and the induction and reduction of these metabolites using modern biotechnical technique is of enormous potential important especially in the fields of agriculture and health. Plant Metabolism and Biotechnology describes the biosynthetic pathways of plant metabolites, their function in plants, and some applications for biotechnology. Topics covered include: biosynthesis and metabolism of starch and sugars lipid biosynthesis symbiotic nitrogen fixation sulfur metabolism nucleotide metabolism purine alkaloid metabolism nicotine biosynthesis terpenoid biosynthesis benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis flavonoid biosynthesis pigment biosynthesis: anthocyanins, betacyanins and carotenoids metabolomics in biotechnology Plant Metabolism and Biotechnology is an essential guide to this important field for researchers and students of biochemistry, plant biology, metabolic engineering, biotechnology, food science, agriculture, and medicine.

Anthocyanins

Author: Noboru Motohashi
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 1629489123
Release Date: 2014-01-01
Genre: Science

Dietary anthocyanins and flavonoids in vegetables, fruits and grain corms have their diverse functions to human dietary life. Topics discussed in this book include original findings and reviews such as their distributions, extractions, separations, characterization, stability, functions, biosynthesis pathway, the regulation of the biosynthetic enzymes by anthocyanins and flavonoids, food colors, and molecular biology such as a relationship of biomolecule with anthocyanins or flavonoids in vegetables and fruits. Kiwifruits, muscadine berries, color rices, Justicia species, strawberry, a Brazilian fruit of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora), jujube berry fruits, grapes, bilberries, taro as a vegetable and corn, and other fruits have been included in this book.

Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages

Author: Reinhold Carle
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 9780081003923
Release Date: 2016-04-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Handbook on Natural Pigments: Industrial Applications for Improving Food Colour is unique in its approach to the improvement of food colors. The book is written with industrial applications in mind, with each chapter focusing on a color solution for a specific commodity that will provide food scientists with a one-stop, comprehensive reference on how to improve the color of a particular food product. The first section of the book looks at the legal frameworks which underpin natural food colorings, also investigating the consumer expectations of food color. The second section of the book focuses on specific industrial applications of natural colorants with chapters covering the use of natural colorants in aqueous food products, cereal-based foods, and meat products, amongst many other topics. The various pigments which can be used to effectively color these commodities are presented with information on safety and testing included throughout. The final section in the book looks at recent developments and future perspectives in natural food colorings. There are chapters which cover the health benefits of natural pigments, the use of novel fruits and vegetables in pigments, and stable natural solutions for blue colorings. Presents recent advances in consumer demand and worldwide legislation regarding natural food colorants Discusses the use of natural food colorants for one specific product category per chapter rather than one pigment class per chapter – this makes the book extremely useable for industrialists working in a specific sector Contains a comprehensive array of product-specific coloration approaches, from using pigment-enriched feed additives to the direct addition of color formulations

Anthocyanins in Fruits Vegetables and Grains

Author: Giuseppe Mazza
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781351086608
Release Date: 2018-01-10
Genre: Science

This text is a comprehensive reference covering the chemistry, physiology, chemotaxonomy, biotechnology and food technology aspects of the anthocyanins. Topics discussed include types of anthocyanins, structural transformations, colour stabilization and intensification factors, biosynthesis and intensification factors, biosynthesis, analysis and functions of anthocyanins. An in-depth review of the literature discussing anthocyanins of fruits, cereals, legumes, roots, tubers, bulbs, cole crops, oilseeds, herbs, spices, and minor crops is included as well

Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease

Author: Ronald Ross Watson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123984678
Release Date: 2013-10-26
Genre: Science

Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease documents antioxidant actions of polyphenols in protection of cells and cell organelles, critical for understanding their health-promoting actions to help the dietary supplement industry. The book begins by describing the fundamentals of absorption, metabolism and bioavailability of polyphenols, as well as the effect of microbes on polyphenol structure and function and toxicity. It then examines the role of polyphenols in the treatment of chronic disease, including vascular and cardiac health, obesity and diabetes therapy, cancer treatment and prevention, and more. Explores neuronal protection by polyphenol metabolites and their application to medical care Defines modulation of enzyme actions to help researchers see and study polyphenols’ mechanisms of action, leading to clinical applications Includes insights on polyphenols in brain and neurological functions to apply them to the wide range of aging diseases

The Science of Flavonoids

Author: Erich Grotewold
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387745505
Release Date: 2007-12-07
Genre: Science

The past few years have witnessed increasing research in the applications of flavonoids as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals as well as on their roles as signal molecules within plants and between plants and other organisms. This book provides an overview of the science of flavonoids in plants, detailing both research and applications. It first introduces flavonoids as chemical entities and then presents an overview of the tools currently available for their analysis.