Anthocyanins

Author: Kevin Gould
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387773355
Release Date: 2008-12-19
Genre: Science

In recent years there has been an unprecedented expansion of knowledge about anthocyanins pigments. Indeed, the molecular genetic control of anthocyanins biosynthesis is now one of the best understood of all secondary metabolic pathways. There have also been substantial improvements in analytical technology that have led to the discovery of novel anthocyanin compounds. Armed with this knowledge and the tools for genetic engineering, plant breeders are now introducing vibrant new colors into horticultural crops. The food industry has also benefited from the resurgence of interest in anthocyanins. A greater understanding of the chemistry of these pigments has led to improved methods for stabilizing the color of anthocyanins extracts, so that they are more useful as food colorings. Methods for the bulk production of anthocyanins from cell cultures have been optimized for this purpose. Possible benefits to human health from the ingestion of anthocyanin-rich foods have also been a major feature of the recent scientific literature. Anthocyanins are remarkably potent antioxidants, and their ingestion has been postulated to stave off the effects of oxidative stress. These pigments, especially in conjunction with other flavonoids, have been associated with reductions in the incidence and severity of many other non-infectious diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. An industry is developing around anthocyanins as nutritional supplements. Finally, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the benefits of anthocyanins to plants themselves. Originally considered an extravagance without a purpose, anthocyanins are now implicated in multifarious vital functions. These include the attraction of pollinators and frugivores, aposematic defense from herbivores, and protection from environmental stressors such as strong light, UVB, drought, and free radical attacks. Anthocyanins are evidently highly versatile, and enormously useful to plants. This book covers all aspects of the biosynthesis and function of anthocyanins (and related compounds such as proanthocyanidins) in plants, and their applications in agriculture, food products, and human health. Featured areas include their relevance to: * Plant stress * Flower and fruit color * Human health * Wine quality and health attributes * Food colorants and ingredients * Cell culture production systems * The pastoral sector

Anthocyanins

Author: Kevin Gould
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1489989552
Release Date: 2014-09-05
Genre: Science

In recent years there has been an unprecedented expansion of knowledge about anthocyanins pigments. Indeed, the molecular genetic control of anthocyanins biosynthesis is now one of the best understood of all secondary metabolic pathways. There have also been substantial improvements in analytical technology that have led to the discovery of novel anthocyanin compounds. Armed with this knowledge and the tools for genetic engineering, plant breeders are now introducing vibrant new colors into horticultural crops. The food industry has also benefited from the resurgence of interest in anthocyanins. A greater understanding of the chemistry of these pigments has led to improved methods for stabilizing the color of anthocyanins extracts, so that they are more useful as food colorings. Methods for the bulk production of anthocyanins from cell cultures have been optimized for this purpose. Possible benefits to human health from the ingestion of anthocyanin-rich foods have also been a major feature of the recent scientific literature. Anthocyanins are remarkably potent antioxidants, and their ingestion has been postulated to stave off the effects of oxidative stress. These pigments, especially in conjunction with other flavonoids, have been associated with reductions in the incidence and severity of many other non-infectious diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. An industry is developing around anthocyanins as nutritional supplements. Finally, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the benefits of anthocyanins to plants themselves. Originally considered an extravagance without a purpose, anthocyanins are now implicated in multifarious vital functions. These include the attraction of pollinators and frugivores, aposematic defense from herbivores, and protection from environmental stressors such as strong light, UVB, drought, and free radical attacks. Anthocyanins are evidently highly versatile, and enormously useful to plants. This book covers all aspects of the biosynthesis and function of anthocyanins (and related compounds such as proanthocyanidins) in plants, and their applications in agriculture, food products, and human health. Featured areas include their relevance to: * Plant stress * Flower and fruit color * Human health * Wine quality and health attributes * Food colorants and ingredients * Cell culture production systems * The pastoral sector

Horticultural Reviews

Author: Jules Janick
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118916803
Release Date: 2014-07-22
Genre: Science

Horticultural Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on topics in horticultural science and technology covering both basic and applied research. Topics covered include the horticulture of fruits, vegetables, nut crops, and ornamentals. These review articles, written by world authorities, bridge the gap between the specialized researcher and the broader community of horticultural scientists and teachers.

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research

Author: Celestino Santos-Buelga
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444390406
Release Date: 2011-01-04
Genre: Science

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research Volume 2 Edited by Santos-Buelga, Escribano-Bailon and Lattanzio Plant phenolics are secondary metabolites that constitute one of the most common and widespread groups of substances in plants. Polyphenols have a large and diverse array of beneficial effects on both plants and animals. For example they are famous as antioxidants, hormones, constituents of essential oils and natural neurotransmitters. Sponsored by Groupe Polyphenols, this publication, which is the second volume in this ground-breaking series, is edited by Celestino Santos-Buelga, Maria Teresa Escribano-Bailon, and Vincenzo Lattanzio, who have drawn together an impressive list of internationally respected authors, each providing cutting edge chapters covering some of the major topics of recent research and interest. Information included in this important new addition to the series include the following areas: • Flavonoid chemistry of the leguminosae • Chemistry and biological activity of ellagitannins • Chemistry and function of anthocyanins in plants • An update of chemical pathways leading to new phenolic pigments during wine ageing • Metabolic engineering of the flavonoid pathway • The translation of chemical properties of polyphenols into biological activity with impacts in human health • Plant phenolic compounds controlling leaf movement • Biological activity of phenolics in plants Chemists, biochemists, plant scientists, pharmacognosists and pharmacologists, food scientists and nutritionists will all find this book an invaluable resource. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught should have copies on their shelves.

Anthocyanins in Health and Disease

Author: Taylor C. Wallace
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439894767
Release Date: 2013-09-04
Genre: Medical

Anthocyanins, polyphenolic compounds abundant in certain foods, are responsible for the orange-red to blue-violet hues evident in many fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, and flowers. Interest in these pigments has intensified due to their potential health-promoting properties as dietary antioxidants, as well as their use as natural dyes in a variety of products. Mechanistic studies from in vitro experiments as well as in vivo clinical trials demonstrate wide-ranging efficacy and biological activity of anthocyanins. Anthocyanins in Health and Disease presents the first comprehensive review of modern-day research on the relationship of anthocyanins to human health and disease. Written by an interdisciplinary group of distinguished scientists, this book examines the bioavailability, chemistry, metabolism, and efficacy of anthocyanins, as well as their role in protecting the body from several age- and obesity-related chronic diseases. Chapters cover the absorption, digestion, metabolism, and excretion of anthocyanins; current methodology for the assessment of anthocyanins in the blood, plasma, urine, and tissues; and anthocyanins as potent antioxidants. The book discusses health-related topics such as anthocyanins and protection against disease, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. It also addresses health-promoting effects of anthocyanins, namely, maintenance of normal vision and prevention of ocular pathologies, protective effects against skin aging, and their role in innate immunity and exercise. Covering a wide array of specialized knowledge, this book provides an authoritative source of information on the role of anthocyanins in health and disease, an important step toward advancing research and enhancing communication on these functional ingredients.

Biotechnology of Natural Products

Author: Wilfried Schwab
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319679037
Release Date: 2017-11-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This text comprehensively covers the analysis, enzymology, physiology and genetics of valuable natural products used in the food industry that are attractive targets for biotechnological production. The focus is on the recent advances made to achieve this goal. This unique work is the first book to focus on biotechnological production of important natural products in food additives, fragrances and flavorings, and other bioactive compounds in food. The chapters offer a deep insight into modern research and the development of low molecular weight natural products. Biotechnology of Natural Products covers products in the Phenolic, Terpenoid, and Alkaloid categories, providing a full overview of the biotechnology of food additives and other low molecular weight natural products. Gene clustering and the evolution of pathways are covered, as well as future perspectives on the topic. Due to limited oil resources and increasing consumer demand for naturalness, bioprocesses are increasingly needed to meet these requirements. Novel sophisticated technologies have facilitated the elucidation of new chemical molecules, their biosynthetic pathways and biological functions. This book provides researchers with a full overview of the technologies and processes involved in the biotechnology of natural products.

Melatonin in Plants

Author: Haitao Shi
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 9782889453115
Release Date: 2017-11-03
Genre:

This topic focuses on distribution, synthesis, metabolism, and the in vivo roles of melatonin in plants, with 1 editorial, 3 reviews, 21 original research studies and 1 corrigendum.

Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing

Author: Nirmal Sinha
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118352632
Release Date: 2012-06-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Fruits are botanically diverse, perishable, seasonal and predominantly regional in production. They come in many varieties, shapes and size, colors, flavors and textures and are an important part of a healthy diet and the global economy. Besides vitamins, minerals, fibers and other nutrients, fruits contain phenolic compounds that have pharmacological potential. Consumed as a part of a regular diet, these naturally occurring plant constituents are believed to provide a wide range of physiological benefits through their antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing distils the latest developments and research efforts in this field that are aimed at improving production methods, post-harvest storage and processing, safety, quality and developing new processes and products. This revised and updated second edition expands and improves upon the coverage of the original book. Some highlights include chapters on the physiology and classification of fruits, horticultural biochemistry, microbiology and food safety (including HACCP, safety and the regulation of fruits in the global market), sensory and flavor characteristics, nutrition, naturally present bioactive phenolics, postharvest physiology, storage, transportation and packaging, processing and preservation technologies. Information on the major fruits includes tropical and super fruits, frozen fruits, canned fruit, jelly, jam and preserves, fruit juices, dried fruits and wines. The 35 chapters are organized into five parts: Part I: Fruit physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, nutrition and health Part II: Postharvest handling and preservation of fruits Part III: Product manufacturing and packaging Part IV: Processing plant, waste management, safety and regulations Part V: Production, quality and processing aspects of major fruits and fruit products Each chapter has been contributed by professionals from around the globe representing academia, government institutions and industry. The book is designed to be a valuable source and reference book for scientists, product developers, students and all professionals with an interest in this field.

Handbook of Analysis of Active Compounds in Functional Foods

Author: Leo M.L. Nollet
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439815908
Release Date: 2012-01-18
Genre: Science

Functional foods offer specific benefits that enhance life and promote longevity, and the active compounds responsible for these favorable effects can be analyzed through a range of techniques. Handbook of Analysis of Active Compounds in Functional Foods presents a full overview of the analytical tools available for the analysis of active ingredients in these products. Nearly 100 experts from all over the world explore an array of methodologies for investigating and evaluating various substances, including: Amino acids, peptides, and proteins, along with glutamine, taurine, glutathione, carnitine, and creatine Water- and fat-soluble vitamins and probiotics Terpenes, including hydrocarbon carotenoids and oxycarotenoids (xanthophylls) Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, stilbenes, resveratrol, anthocynanins, isoflavones, tannins, ellagic acid, and chlorogenic acids Fibers and polysaccharides, including chitosan, insoluble dietary fiber, fructans, inulin, pectin, and cyclodextrins Phytoestrogens and hormones, with chapters on anise oil and melatonin Tetrapyrroles, minerals, and trace elements Lipid compounds, with discussions of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, lecithin, sterols, stanols, lipoic acid, and alliin Sweeteners, salt replacers, and taste-modifying compounds Each chapter describes the specific compound and its benefits, surveys the range of analytic techniques available, and provides ample references to facilitate further study. The book follows a convenient format with well-organized chapters, allowing readers to quickly hone in on specific topics of interest. This comprehensive reference provides a complete survey of the most cutting-edge analytical techniques available for researchers, industry professionals, and regulators.

Desert Truffles

Author: Varda Kagan-Zur
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642400964
Release Date: 2013-10-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Desert truffles are found in every known desert, irrespective of the habitat – cool or hot, loamy or acidic, sandy or heavy soil – the only common condition seems to be a limited supply of water. In contrast to ‘true’ truffles, desert truffles have evolved over time in different families, mainly within the order Pezizales. While in some arid areas, desert truffles have been traditionally used as food, in most regions interest has only recently been increasing, and truffles are now treasured for their nutritional value, as an income source and for research. This volume gives a comprehensive overview of the phylogeny, biology, mycorrhizal association, and distribution of desert truffles, their use, biochemical and medicinal properties, as well as their domestication and cultivation.

Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123948083
Release Date: 2016-08-27
Genre: Science

Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences, Second Edition presents both foundational and applied information on plants used by humans as sources of food, raw materials, and amenity purposes. It highlights how the underlying science and information links through to applications in practical situations. Since the last edition was published, the role of applied science in agricultural production has been brought into greater focus as fluctuations in global food production feed through into prices and availability to consumers. At the same time, technological advances are changing the way plant science is done. This Second Edition has been expanded to include specific chapters on the leading crops and crop-types, as well as updated chapters on plant development, photosynthesis, metabolism, nutrition, reproduction, seed biology, plant pests and diseases, weed biology, and responses to environmental stresses. The updated chapters reflect progress, particularly in genome sequencing and molecular genetics and biotechnology, including genetic modification, that have taken place since the first edition was published. In addition, the book places these developments in the wider context of biodiversity, food security, intellectual property, and ethical considerations. Presents complete, up-to-date, authoritative information on over 25 separate areas of plant science, covering both theory and applications Edited and written by a distinguished international group of editors and contributors Provides concise, easy to read gateway entries to topics, each supplemented with a further reading list that allows practitioners, students, and researchers to delve deeper into each topic

Inflammation Oxidative Stress and Cancer

Author: Ah-Ng Tony Kong
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781466503717
Release Date: 2016-04-19
Genre: Medical

Increasing scientific evidence suggests that the majority of diseases including cancer are driven by oxidative stress and inflammation, attributed to environmental factors. These factors either drive genetic mutations or epigenetically modify expression of key regulatory genes. These changes can occur as early as gestational fetal development, and major questions remain as to how dietary/nutritional phytochemical factors biochemically interact with such genetic and epigenetic events. With chapters written by international experts, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Cancer: Dietary Approaches for Cancer Prevention examines the latest developments on the effects of various dietary phytochemicals. Divided into nine sections, the book begins with the basic mechanisms of inflammation/oxidative stress-driven cancer, including an overview of the topic and how to prevent carcinogenesis, the role of obesity in inflammation and cancer, and antioxidant properties of some common dietary phytochemicals. Subsequent sections cover cellular signal transduction, molecular targets, and biomarkers of dietary cancer-preventive phytochemicals, as well as their potential challenges with in vivo absorption and pharmacokinetics. The chapters also examine the cancer-preventive properties of various classes of phytochemicals, including vitamins A, D, and E; omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids; flavanoids and polyphenols; garlic organosulfur compounds and cruciferous glucosinolates; and selenium, traditional Chinese herbal medicines, and alpha lipoic acid. The final section of the book explores the latest developments on the interactions of dietary phytochemicals through epigenetics and the management of chronic inflammation with nutritional phytochemicals.

Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Damage in Plants Under Stress

Author: Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319204215
Release Date: 2015-09-07
Genre: Science

This book provides detailed and comprehensive information on oxidative damage caused by stresses in plants with especial reference to the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, as in all aerobic organisms, ROS are common by-products formed by the inevitable leakage of electrons onto O2 from the electron transport activities located in chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes and in plasma membranes or as a consequence of various metabolic pathways confined in different cellular loci. Environmental stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity, heavy-metal toxicity, ozone and ultraviolet radiation as well as pathogens/contagion attack lead to enhanced generation of ROS in plants due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. ROS play a dual role in plants; at low concentrations they act as signaling molecules that facilitate several responses in plant cells, including those promoted by biotic and abiotic agents. In divergence, at high levels they cause damage to cellular constituents triggering oxidative stress. In either case, small antioxidant molecules and enzymes modulate the action of these ambivalent species.

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation

Author: Prasad S. Thenkabail
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439845387
Release Date: 2016-04-19
Genre: Science

Hyperspectral narrow-band (or imaging spectroscopy) spectral data are fast emerging as practical solutions in modeling and mapping vegetation. Recent research has demonstrated the advances in and merit of hyperspectral data in a range of applications including quantifying agricultural crops, modeling forest canopy biochemical properties, detecting crop stress and disease, mapping leaf chlorophyll content as it influences crop production, identifying plants affected by contaminants such as arsenic, demonstrating sensitivity to plant nitrogen content, classifying vegetation species and type, characterizing wetlands, and mapping invasive species. The need for significant improvements in quantifying, modeling, and mapping plant chemical, physical, and water properties is more critical than ever before to reduce uncertainties in our understanding of the Earth and to better sustain it. There is also a need for a synthesis of the vast knowledge spread throughout the literature from more than 40 years of research. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation integrates this knowledge, guiding readers to harness the capabilities of the most recent advances in applying hyperspectral remote sensing technology to the study of terrestrial vegetation. Taking a practical approach to a complex subject, the book demonstrates the experience, utility, methods and models used in studying vegetation using hyperspectral data. Written by leading experts, including pioneers in the field, each chapter presents specific applications, reviews existing state-of-the-art knowledge, highlights the advances made, and provides guidance for the appropriate use of hyperspectral data in the study of vegetation as well as its numerous applications, such as crop yield modeling, crop and vegetation biophysical and biochemical property characterization, and crop moisture assessment. This comprehensive book brings together the best global expertise on hyperspectral remote sensing of agriculture, crop water use, plant species detection, vegetation classification, biophysical and biochemical modeling, crop productivity and water productivity mapping, and modeling. It provides the pertinent facts, synthesizing findings so that readers can get the correct picture on issues such as the best wavebands for their practical applications, methods of analysis using whole spectra, hyperspectral vegetation indices targeted to study specific biophysical and biochemical quantities, and methods for detecting parameters such as crop moisture variability, chlorophyll content, and stress levels. A collective "knowledge bank," it guides professionals to adopt the best practices for their own work.

Natural Product Extraction

Author: Mauricio A Rostagno
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781782626220
Release Date: 2015-10-09
Genre: Science

Natural products are sought after by the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, and research continues into their potential for new applications. Extraction of natural products in an economic and environmentally-friendly way is of high importance to all industries involved. This book presents a holistic and in-depth view of the techniques available for extracting natural products, with modern and more environmentally-benign methods, such as ultrasound and supercritical fluids discussed alongside conventional methods. Examples and case studies are presented, along with the decision-making process needed to determine the most appropriate method. Where appropriate, scale-up and process integration is discussed. Relevant to researchers in academia and industry, and students aiming for either career path, Natural Product Extraction presents a handy digest of the current trends and latest developments in the field with concepts of Green Chemistry in mind.