Author: Adam Kuper
Release Date: 2014-09-19
Genre: Social Science
Anthropology and Anthropologists provides an entertaining and provocative account of British social anthropology from the foundations of the discipline, through the glory years of the mid-twentieth century and on to the transformation in recent decades. The book shocked the anthropological establishment on first publication in 1973 but soon established itself as one of the introductions for students of anthropology. Forty years later, this now classic work has been radically revised. Adam Kuper situates the leading actors in their historical and institutional context, probes their rivalries, revisits their debates, and reviews their key ethnographies. Drawing on recent scholarship he shows how the discipline was shaped by the colonial setting and by developments in the social sciences.
On its first publication in 1973 Adam Kuper's entertaining history of half a century of British social anthropology provoked strong reactions. But his often irreverent account soon established itself as one of the introductions to anthropology.Since the second revised edition was published in 1983, important developments have occurred within British and European anthropology.This third, enlarged and updated edition responds to these fresh currents. Adam Kuper takes the story up to the present day, and a new final chapter traces the emergence of a modern European social anthropology in contrast with developments in American cultural anthropology over the last two decades.Anthropology and Anthropologists provides a critical historical account of modern British social anthropology: it describes the careers of the major theorists, their ideas and their contributions in the context of the intellectual and institutional environments in which they worked.
Author: Tony Kushner
Release Date: 2017-03-02
We Europeans is the first book-length study of the original mass observation project. It is also the first detailed historical study of the formation of ordinary people's 'racial' attitudes in Britain. Drawing upon historical, literary, cultural and anthropological approaches, this book examines the sources of cultural identity in Britain in the twentieth century, and how these were shaped through the influences of family, education, and everyday 'high' and 'low' culture. The examination focuses on the archives of the British social-anthropological organization Mass-Observation, and is the first detailed history of it to be published. Founded in the 1930s by poets, psychoanalysts, surrealists, and sociologists, among others, the purpose of the organization was to create an anthropology of the British people by the 'natives' themselves, through the use of diaries, directives and special surveys. The organization was active from 1937 to 1951, then revived in the 1980s, when a new group of Mass-Observers were recruited to keep diaries and respond to directives. Both the historical archive of Mass-Observation and the more recent material provide fascinating insight into the everyday lives and formation of identities of ordinary people in Britain. Kushner places the material from these archives in the context of other contemporary writings; through them he explores grassroots identities in Britain in relation to the outside world, especially Europe but also the former Empire and the USA. This study will be of interest to scholars of sociology, cultural studies, literary studies and history who are particularly interested in 'race', race relations, immigration and cultural difference.
Author: William Roger Louis
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 1999-10-21
The Oxford History of the British Empire is a major new assessment of the Empire in the light of recent scholarship and the progressive opening of historical records. From the founding of colonies in North America and the West Indies in the seventeenth century to the reversion of Hong Kong to China at the end of the twentieth, British imperialism was a catalyst for far-reaching change. The Oxford History of the British Empire as a comprehensive study helps us tounderstand the end of Empire in relation to its beginning, the meaning of British imperialism for the ruled as well as for the rulers, and the significance of the British Empire as a theme in world history.This twentieth-century volume considers many aspects of the `imperial experience' in the final years of the British Empire, culminating in the mid-century's rapid processes of decolonization. It seeks to understand the men who managed the empire, their priorities and vision, and the mechanisms of control and connection which held the empire together. There are chapters on imperial centres, on the geographical `periphery' of empire, and on all its connecting mechanisms, including institutionsand the flow of people, money, goods, and services. The volume also explores the experience of `imperial subjects' in terms of culture, politics, and economics; an experience which culminated in the growth of vibrant, often new, national identities and movements and, ultimately, new nation-states. Itconcludes with the processes of decolonization which reshaped the political map of the late twentieth-century world.
The successful three volumes of Nineteenth Century Religious Thought in the West provide a fresh appraisal of the most important thinkers of that time. Soames essays centre on major figures of the period; others cover topics, trends and schools of thought between the French Revolution and the First World War.
Author: Paul A. Erickson
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Release Date: 2010-01-01
Genre: Social Science
This comprehensive anthology presents 40 readings that are critical to an understanding of anthropological theory and the development of anthropology as an academic discipline. The readings have broad anthropological appeal, emphasizing social and cultural anthropology. The third edition has been completely revised throughout and organized to work more closely alongside the companion overview text, A History of Anthropological Theory. It includes six new readings as well as two original essays written by contemporary anthropologists on "Why Theory Matters." These new essays help ground the more abstract readings in the collection. The glossary has been significantly expanded and the discussion questions have been revised. The result is a volume that offers not only a strong foundation in the history of the discipline but also a good overview of developments in twentieth- and twenty-first-century anthropological theory, including feminist anthropology, postmodernity, medical anthropology, globalization, postcolonialism, and public anthropology.
Author: T. M. S. (Terry) Evens
Publisher: Berghahn Books
Release Date: 2006-09-30
Genre: Social Science
Pioneered by Max Gluckman to demonstrate the way in which social practice and structure together constitute and are themselves constituted by the situational flow of social life, the extended case method became diagnostic of the Manchester School of Social Anthropology. Anticipating practice theory, and implicitly politically charged, it was developed as a tool to bring into account what orthodox structural functionalism was ill-equipped to address, namely, problems such as change, conflict, deviance, and individual choice. Edited by two students of Gluckman, the volume comprises reprinted pieces by Gluckman and his colleague Clyde Mitchell, a Coda by Mitchell's student, Bruce Kapferer, contributions by Gluckman's students and/or friends and colleagues, including Ronnie Frankenberg, Kapferer, Evens, Handelman, and Sally Falk Moore, as well as a number of contributions from other practitioners of the extended case. Apart from the reprinted pieces by Gluckman and Mitchell, all the contributions have been written for this volume. These essays, historical, theoretical, and ethnographical, serve to highlight and critically examine the fundamental features of the extended-case method, in order to advance its substantial, continuing merits.
Author: David Graeber
Release Date: 2018-08-30
Genre: Political Science
Ein Bullshit-Job ist eine Beschäftigungsform, die so völlig sinnlos, unnötig oder schädlich ist, dass selbst der Arbeitnehmer ihre Existenz nicht rechtfertigen kann. Es geht also gerade nicht um Jobs, die niemand machen will, sondern um solche, die eigentlich niemand braucht. Im Zuge des technischen Fortschritts sind zahlreiche Arbeitsplätze durch Maschinen ersetzt worden. Trotzdem ist die durchschnittliche Arbeitszeit nicht etwa gesunken, sondern auf durchschnittlich 41,5 Wochenstunden gestiegen. Wie konnte es dazu kommen? David Graeber zeigt in seinem bahnbrechenden neuen Buch, warum immer mehr überflüssige Jobs entstehen und welche verheerenden Konsequenzen diese Entwicklung für unsere Gesellschaft hat. Im Jahr 1930 sagte der britische Ökonom John Maynard Keynes voraus, dass durch den technischen Fortschritt heute niemand mehr als 15 Stunden pro Woche arbeiten müsse. Fast ein Jahrhundert danach stellt David Graeber fest, dass die Gegenwart anders aussieht: Die durchschnittliche Arbeitszeit ist gestiegen und immer mehr Menschen üben Tätigkeiten aus, die unproduktiv und daher eigentlich überflüssig sind – als Immobilienmakler, Investmentbanker oder Unternehmensberater. Es sind Jobs, die keinen sinnvollen gesellschaftlichen Beitrag leisten. Es sind Bullshit-Jobs. Warum bezahlt eine Ökonomie solche Tätigkeiten, die sie nicht braucht? Wie ist es zu dieser Entwicklung gekommen? Und was können wir dagegen tun? David Graeber, einer der radikalsten politischen Denker unserer Zeit, geht diesem Phänomen auf den Grund. Ein packendes Plädoyer gegen die Ausweitung sinnloser Arbeit, die die moralischen Grundfesten unserer Gesellschaft ins Wanken bringt.
Author: Chris Knight
Publisher: Yale University Press
Release Date: 2013-10-15
Genre: Health & Fitness
The emergence of symbolic culture is generally linked with the development of the hunger-gatherer adaptation based on a sexual division of labor. This original and ingenious book presents a new theory of how this symbolic domain originated. Integrating perspectives of evolutionary biography and social anthropology within a Marxist framework, Chris Knight rejects the common assumption that human culture was a modified extension of primate behavior and argues instead that it was the product of an immense social, sexual, and political revolution initiated by women. Culture became established, says Knight, when evolving human females began to assert collective control over their own sexuality, refusing sex to all males except those who came to them with provisions. Women usually timed their ban on sexual relations with their periods of infertility while they were menstruating, and to the extent that their solidarity drew women together, these periods tended to occur in synchrony. The result was that every month with the onset of menstruation, sexual relations were ruptured in a collective, ritualistic way as the prelude to each successful hunting expedition. This ritual act was the means through which women motivated men not only to hunt but also to concentrate energies on bringing back the meat. Knight shows how this hypothesis sheds light on the roots of such cultural traditions as totemic rituals, incest and menstrual taboos, blood-sacrifice, and hunters’ atonement rites. Providing detailed ethnographic documentation, he also explains how Native American, Australian Aboriginal, and other magico-religious myths can be read as derivatives of the same symbolic logic.
Author: Michael A. Little
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Release Date: 2010
Histories of American Physical Anthropology in the Twentieth Century chronicles the history of physical anthropology or, as it is now known, biological anthropology from its professional origins in the late 1800 up to its modern transformation in the late 1900s. In this edited volume, 13 contributors trace the development of people, ideas, traditions, and organizations that contributed to the advancement of this branch of anthropology that focuses today on human variation and human evolution. Designed for upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, and professional biological anthropologists, this book provides a brief and accessible history of the biobehavioral side of anthropology in America."
Author: James Hinton
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2013-03-14
This is the first full-scale history of Mass-Observation, the independent social research organisation which, between 1937 and 1949, set out to document the attitudes, opinions, and every-day lives of the British people. Through a combination of anthropological fieldwork, opinion surveys, and written testimony solicited from hundreds of volunteers, Mass-Observation created a huge archive of popular life during a tumultuous decade which remains central to British national identity. The social history of these years has been immeasurably enriched by the archive, and extracts from the writings of M-O's volunteers have won a wide and admiring audience. Now James Hinton, whose acclaimed Nine Wartime Lives demonstrated how the intensely personal writing of some of M-O's volunteers could be used to shed light on broader historical issues, has written a wonderfully vivid and evocative account which does justice not only to the two founders whose tempestuous relationship dominated the early years of Mass-Observation, but also to the dozens of creative and imaginative, and until now largely unknown, young enthusiasts whose work helped to keep the show on the road. The history of the organisation itself - the staff, the research methods, the struggle for funding, M-O's characteristic 'voice', and its role in the cultural and political life of the period - are themselves as interesting as any of the themes that the founders set out to document. This long-awaited and deeply researched history corrects and revises much of our existing knowledge of Mass-Observation, opens up new and important perspectives on the organisation, and will be seen as the authoritative account for years to come.
The best known, most often cited history of anthropological theory is finally available in paperback! First published in 1968, Harris's book has been cited in over 1,000 works and is one of the key documents explaining cultural materialism, the theory associated with Harris's work. This updated edition included the complete 1968 text plus a new introduction by Maxine Margolis, which discusses the impact of the book and highlights some of the major trends in anthropological theory since its original publication. RAT, as it is affectionately known to three decades of graduate students, comprehensively traces the history of anthropology and anthropological theory, culminating in a strong argument for the use of a scientific, behaviorally-based, etic approach to the understanding of human culture known as cultural materialism. Despite its popularity and influence on anthropological thinking, RAT has never been available in paperback_until now. It is an essential volume for the library of all anthropologists, their graduate students, and other theorists in the social sciences.
Author: Roland Turner
Publisher: St James Pr
Release Date: 1987
Genre: Biography & Autobiography
Major thinkers in various intellectual disciplines are featured in Thinkers of the Twentieth Century. Your patrons will find this guide a perfect start to their studies on 450 intellectuals from philosophy, theology, literary criticism, aesthetics, history, social sciences, politics and the sciences. Entries are divided into two parts. "Part One" includes: a biography, complete bibliography and reading list of the major books and articles written about the entrant. "Part Two" consists of an extended 1,000 to 3,000 word essay on the entrant. These essays explain in clear, comprehensible language the work of the entrant and his/her influence on the intellectual of the 20th century.
Author: Hew Strachan
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Social Science
These essays set the relationship between the Army and society in the context of the 20th century as a whole. They then consider the key areas of current controversy - the pressure on the Army caused by changes in society, the Army's "right to be different", race, homosexuality and gender.
Author: Didier Fassin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2012-08-06
Genre: Social Science
A Companion to Moral Anthropology is the first collective consideration of the anthropological dimensions of morals, morality, and ethics. Original essays by international experts explore the various currents, approaches, and issues in this important new discipline, examining topics such as the ethnography of moralities, the study of moral subjectivities, and the exploration of moral economies. Investigates the central legacies of moral anthropology, the formation of moral facts and values, the context of local moralities, and the frontiers between moralities, politics, humanitarianism Features contributions from pioneers in the field of moral anthropology, as well as international experts in related fields such as moral philosophy, moral psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroethics