Author: Benedict Y. Imbun
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release Date: 2010-01-01
Anthropology has recently brought miner and mining towns into its main scope of study. However, anthropological works examining greenfield mines characterised by foreign capital, governments, and communities, particularly those located in the mineral dependent developing world, still lack a coherent framework. This book discusses tribal peoples' association with mining work and how it has emerged only very recently in modern ethnography of PNG. Although most of the discussions of the book are centred on PNG greenfield mines, they provide vital explanations and lessons on sometimes the neglected aspects anthropological dimension of mining and its impact in less developed countries.
We are at an environmental impasse. Many blame our personal choices about the things we consume and the way we live. This is only part of the problem. Different forms of social power - political, economic and ideological - structure the choices we have available. This book analyses how we make social and environmental history and why we end up where we do. Using case studies from different environmental domains – earth and water, air and fire – Nature, Choice and Social Power examines the form that social power takes and how it can harm the environment and hinder our efforts to act in our own best interests. The case studies challenge conventional wisdoms about why gold is valuable, why the internal combustion engine triumphed, and when and why suburbs sprawled. The book shows how the power of individuals, the power of classes, the power of the market and the power of the state at different times and in different ways were critical to setting us on a path to environmental degradation. It also challenges conventional wisdoms about what we need to do now. Rather than reducing consumption and shrinking from outcomes we don’t want, it proposes growing towards outcomes we do want. We invested massive resources in creating our problems; it will take equally large investments to fix them. Written in a clear and engaging style, the book is underpinned with a political economy framework and addresses how we should understand our responsibility to the environment and to each other as individuals within a large and impersonal system.
Author: Colin Filer
Publisher: ANU Press
Release Date: 2017-10-20
Despite the difference in their populations and political status, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea have comparable levels of economic dependence on the extraction and export of mineral resources. For this reason, the costs and benefits of large-scale mining projects for indigenous communities has been a major political issue in both jurisdictions, and one that has come to be negotiated through multiple channels at different levels of political organisation. The ‘resource boom’ that took place in the early years of the current century has only served to intensify the political contests and conflicts that surround the distribution of social, economic and environmental costs and benefits between community members and other ‘stakeholders’ in the large-scale mining industry. However, the mutual isolation of Anglophone and Francophone scholars has formed a barrier to systematic comparison of the relationship between large-scale mines and local-level politics in Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia, despite their geographical proximity. This collection of essays represents an effort to overcome this barrier, but is also intended as a major contribution to the growth of academic and political debate about the social impact of the large-scale mining industry in Melanesia and beyond.
Author: James F. Weiner
Publisher: ANU E Press
Release Date: 2007-06-01
Genre: Social Science
The main theme of this volume is a discussion of the ways in which legal mechanisms, such as the Land Groups Incorporation Act (1974) in PNG, and the Native Title Act (1993) in Australia, do not, as they purport, serve merely to identify and register already-existing customary indigenous landowning groups in these countries. Because the legislation is an integral part of the way in which indigenous people are defined and managed in relation to the State, it serves to elicit particular responses in landowner organisation and self-identification on the part of indigenous people. These pieces of legislation actively contour the progressive evolution of landowner social, territorial and political organisation at all levels in these nation states. The contributors to this volume provide in-depth anthropological case studies of social structural and cultural transformations engendered by the confrontation between states, developers and indigenous communities over rights to customarily owned land.
Author: Benjamin Veress
Release Date: 2018-09-02
Horizons in Earth Science Research. Volume 18 opens with a chapter discussing the influence of canyons at the nearshore of river mouths on water dynamics and sediment transport, seawater intrusion into estuaries, and erosion-accumulative processes. The mouths of the rivers Congo and St. Lawrence are studied as examples of the effect of canyons of different genesis on estuary formation. Next, the authors use numerical examples to demonstrate qualitatively and quantitatively the variability of the Odum - Pianka ecosystem under different conditions. An analysis of stability shows that the Odum - Pianka ecosystem has two steady states. One of them corresponds to the situation when the total amount of the ecosystem material is accumulated in the mineral nutrition component, and the second steady state is stable and corresponds to the ecosystem equilibrium state. Following this, the authors present depth determination and source characteristics for North Korean nuclear tests using body wave and surface wave spectra. The source depths for the 2016J, 2016S and 2017S nuclear tests were estimated at 2.11 km, 1.99 km and 1.99 km, respectively using spectral nulls of P- and S- wave and Rg-wave spectra. Also in this compilation, ethnography, folklore and historical information is analyzed in order to restore the ancient celestial sphere (with the use of a special astronomy application) and identify the correlations between the megalithic complexes of Shaori Mountain and the Sun and Moon eclipses. Afterwards, a new Modified Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (M-LMA), improved from the Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (LMA), was used to minimize back propagation errors in training a back propagation neural network (BPNN). To compare this capability, both M-LMA and LMA were used to trace the vertical component of the Chi-Chi earthquake with the same learning rates of 0.3. The results showed that M-LMA generated smaller tracing errors. In a separate study, measurements of in-situ magnetic susceptibility were compiled from mainly Precambrian crystalline basement rocks beneath the Colorado Plateau and ranges in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico. The susceptibility meter used samples about 33 cubic centimeters of rock and measures variations in the modal distribution of magnetic minerals that form a minor component volumetrically in these coarsely crystalline granitic to granodioritic rocks. Finally, a horizontal gradient analysis of the isostatic gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly grids of the New Mexico-Arizona-southern California area was carried out, focused on eastern Arizona and western New Mexico, to define the transitional boundary between the Proterozoic Yavapai province to the west and the Mazatzal province to the east. The two provinces differ substantially in their favorability to host Laramide porphyry copper deposits.
Author: Salah Er-Raki
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release Date: 2013-01-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the total amount of water lost by plant transpiration and soil evaporation. Since about 90% of precipitation received in semi-arid and sub-humid climates is lost to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration, accurate estimations of ET are of crucial need for climate studies, weather forecasts, hydrological surveys, ecological monitoring, and water resource management. This book reviews research on new developments in all areas of evapotranspiration application. It examines the evapotranspiration processes under different environmental and climatic conditions as well as the different methods for modeling and measurement of evapotranspiration at both local and regional scales.
Author: Jon Altman
Publisher: ANU E Press
Release Date: 2009-08-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Research over the past decade in health, employment, life expectancy, child mortality, and household income has confirmed that Indigenous Australians are still Australia's most disadvantaged group. Those residing in communities in regional and remote Australia are further disadvantaged because of the limited formal economic opportunities there. In these areas mining developments may be the major-and sometimes the only-contributors to regional economic development. However Indigenous communities have gained only relatively limited long-term economic development benefits from mining activity on land that they own or over which they have property rights of varying significance. Furthermore, while Indigenous people may place high value on realising particular non-economic benefits from mining agreements, there may be only limited capacity to deliver such benefits. This collection of papers focuses on three large, ongoing mining operations in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory under two statutory regimes-the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976 and the Native Title Act 1993. The authors outline the institutional basis to greater industry involvement while describing and analysing the best practice principles that can be utilised both by companies and Indigenous community organisations. The research addresses questions such as: What factors underlie successful investment in community relations and associated agreement governance and benefit packages for Indigenous communities? How are economic and non-economic flows monitored? What are the values and aspirations which Indigenous people may bring to bear in their engagement with mining developments? What more should companies and government do to develop the capacity and sustainability of local Indigenous organisations? What mining company strategies build community capacity to deal with impacts of mining? Are these adequate? How to prepare for sustainable futures for Indigenous Australians after mine closure? This research was conducted under an Australian Research Council Linkage Project, with Rio Tinto and the Committee for Economic Development of Australia as Industry Partners.
A new approach to body detection and control based on its unavoidable ultra-low frequency (ULF) oscillation related to its motion in media (mainly, in the ocean) is presented. The main concept of this approach lies in enriching the list of moving body control enabling factors by influence of ULF oscillations on the bodys outer fields. It is shown that ULF oscillation of a moving body could be detected in the atmosphere or in the ocean directly with the aid of ambient fluid ULF pressure or velocity changes, say, observed inside an oceanic layer or on the oceans surface. But ULF oscillations indirect appearance is demonstrated to be the most important for submerged moving body detection. This appearance comprises an additional ULF modulation (distortion) of outer natural sound fields related to ocean wind noise and distant shipment noise in forward scattering. The physical analogy an indirect moving body ULF oscillation is justified in the book and could be partly compared to the recent universe gravity waves detection discovery in 2016 with the aid of electromagnetic wave distortion that is provided by gravity wave propagation. Specifics of sound scattering by flow inhomogeneity generated by a moving body were demonstrated in Acoustics of Moving Inhomogeneities, which was published recently by Nova Science Publishers. However, this very book is devoted in particular to the modulation of forward scattered sound fields of the ULF field provided by a moving body and the application of corresponding results to its control in the ocean, as well as mainly to submerged submarine control. Proposed detection methods are independent of a moving bodys self-noise level. Their application requires consideration of the ambient flow (including surface gravity wave flows) contribution to sound diffraction by the finite size moving body, mainly in forward scattering. A lot of known diffraction problem results should be revised in the light of a moving body ULF field. Examples of practical applications are presented, showing that moving body detection (especially in deep water ocean regions with the aid of natural outer field ULF modulation) is successfully achieved. Detection in shallow water regions is slightly worse due to a smaller wave inhomogeneity scale and when the natural ULF hydrodynamics noise field level increased. It is shown that body detection distances being thought as unachievable are realised in light of these new moving body ULF field effects. The book is aimed at providing a new approach to external fields of a moving body, mainly submarines. This version of submarine detection is practically substantiated and proven to be effective in Russia for various ocean regions with the aid of various types of arrays. Conclusions substantiated in the book are recommended for practical application. At the same time, additional efforts of scientists, hydroacoustics and naval equipment specialists related to various ULF field applications based on theory predictions are necessary.
Author: Stuart H. James
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Release Date: 2014-01-13
Covering a range of fundamental topics essential to modern forensic investigation, the fourth edition of the landmark text Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques presents contributions from experts in the field who discuss case studies from their own personal files. This edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the cutting edge of forensic science across many different areas. Designed for a single-term course at the lower undergraduate level, the book begins by discussing the intersection of law and forensic science, how things become evidence, and how courts decide if an item or testimony should be admissible. It takes the evidence from crime scene investigation into laboratory analysis and even onto the autopsy table for the fullest breadth of subject matter of any forensic text available. Topics include Forensic anthropology and the role of entomology in a death investigation Death investigation, including identifying the cause, manner, mechanism, and time of death Bloodstain pattern analysis, the identification of blood and body fluids, the work of forensic toxicologists, and seized drug analysis The history and development of DNA typing and the many ways it can be used Fingerprint, firearm and ballistic, tool mark, tread impression, and trace evidence The forensic analysis of questioned documents and computers Arson, fire, explosives, and the work of forensic engineers in vehicular accidents and structural collapses Forensic psychology and psychiatry, including criminal profiling The future of forensic science Going beyond theory to application, this text incorporates the wisdom of forensic practitioners who discuss the real cases they have investigated. Color-coded sidebars in each chapter provide historical notes, case studies, and current events as well as advice for career advancement. Each section and each chapter begins with an overview and ends with a summary, and key terms, review questions, and up-to-date references are provided. Appropriate for any sensibility, more than 300 photos from real cases give students a true-to-life learning experience. *Access to identical eBook version included
The creation, accumulation, and use of copious amounts of data are driving rapid change across a wide variety of industries and academic disciplines. This ‘Big Data’ phenomenon is the result of recent developments in computational technology and improved data gathering techniques that have led to substantial innovation in the collection, storage, management, and analysis of data. Real Estate Analysis in the Information Age: Techniques for Big Data and Statistical Modeling focuses on the real estate discipline, guiding researchers and practitioners alike on the use of data-centric methods and analysis from applied and theoretical perspectives.? In it, the authors detail the integration of Big Data into conventional real estate research and analysis. The book is process-oriented, not only describing Big Data and associated methods, but also showing the reader how to use these methods through case studies supported by supplemental online material.? The running theme is the construction of efficient, transparent, and reproducible research through the systematic organization and application of data, both traditional and 'big'.? The final chapters investigate legal issues, particularly related to those data that are publicly available, and conclude by speculating on the future of Big Data in real estate.
Author: John G. Schmidt
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release Date: 2011
This book presents topical research in the study of the Alpine environment with a focus on geology, ecology and conservation. Topics discussed include aquatic insects of remote Alpine lakes; the socio-economics of conservation in the Alps; the genetic diversity and population structure of Alpine plants endemic to the Tibetan plateau and climate change impacts on Alpine basins.
Author: Stewart Firth
Publisher: ANU E Press
Release Date: 2006-12-01
Genre: Business & Economics
"The Pacific Islands are feeling the effects of globalisation. Free trade in sugar and garments is threatening two of Fiji's key industries. At the same time other opportunities are emerging. Labour migration is growing in importance, and Pacific governments are calling for more access to Australia's labour market. Fiji has joined Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu and Kiribati as a remittance economy, with thousands of its citizens working overseas. Meantime, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands grapple with an older kind of globalisation in which overseas companies exploit mineral and forest resources. The Pacific Islands confront unique problems of governance in this era of globalisation. The modern, democratic state often fits awkwardly with traditional ways of doing politics in that part of the world. Just as often, politicians in the Pacific exploit tradition or invent it to serve modern political purposes. The contributors to this volume examine Pacific globalisation and governance from a wide range of perspectives. They come from Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Hawai'i, the Federated States of Micronesia, Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand and Jamaica as well as Australia."--Publisher's description.
Author: Geoffrey B. Saxe
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2012-09-28
Drawing upon field studies conducted in 1978, 1980 and 2001 with the Oksapmin, a remote Papua New Guinea group, Geoffrey B. Saxe traces the emergence of new forms of numerical representations and ideas in the social history of the community. In traditional life, the Oksapmin used a counting system that makes use of twenty-seven parts of the body; there is no evidence that the group used arithmetic in prehistory. As practices of economic exchange and schooling have shifted, children and adults unwittingly reproduced and altered the system in order to solve new kinds of numerical and arithmetical problems, a process that has led to new forms of collective representations in the community. While Dr Saxe's focus is on the Oksapmin, the insights and general framework he provides are useful for understanding shifting representational forms and emerging cognitive functions in any human community.
Author: Brian Ganson
Publisher: International Council of Swedish Industry
Release Date: 2013-10-25
Genre: Business & Economics
Companies operating in complex environments require a rigorous understanding of the economic, political, social and conflict dynamics of which they become part. Such insight helps them navigate substantial risks and challenges, grow their business even in unexpected places, work more effectively with local, national and international actors, and make meaningful contributions to stability and development. This book combines expert analysis, company case stories, and reflections from more than 100 business leaders. Drawing on a vast repository of knowledge and experience, it poses essential questions to better understand a particular complex environment and lead the company within it. It concretely demonstrates how leaders can help their companies meet their full range of goals - technical, financial, legal, reputation and social - by addressing the questions set out in this book. It is an invaluable resource for corporate practitioners and others concerned with company operations in complex environments. The book is the result of an intense and fruitful collaboration among the Africa Centre for Dispute Settlement, University of Stellenbosch Business School; the Corporate Engagement and Reflecting on Peace Practice Programs of CDA; the Geneva Peacebuilding Platform; the Institute for Business in the Global Context of The Fletcher School, Tufts University; the IRENE Institute of ESSEC Business School; the International Council of Swedish Industry; and the Stockholm Policy Group. Authors include Dost Bardouille-Crema, Diana Chigas, Brian Ganson, Kathleen Hamill, Paul Hollesen, Benjamin Miller, Cecile Renouard, Nicklas Svensson, and Achim Wennmann.