Aqueous Organometallic Chemistry and Catalysis

Author: István T. Horváth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401103558
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Debrecen, Hungary, August 29--September 1, 1994

New Promising Electrochemical Systems for Rechargeable Batteries

Author: V. Barsukov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0792339487
Release Date: 1996-02-29
Genre: Science

Electricity is the most important secondary energy source, the present production rate, mainly from thermal electric power stations, being of the order of 1.3 TW. However, the total capacity of primary and rechargeable batteries currently in use is the same as the output of the world's power stations. But present battery systems will not meet future needs for the economical storage of large amounts of electrical energy for vehicles, public transport, road levelling, solar energy utilisation, civil video and audio, terrestrial and space communications, etc. Current accumulators based on aqueous acid or alkali systems do not have sufficient output and, moreover, the materials employed (Pb, Cd, Ni) are environmental pollutants that require safe recycling. Further, stocks of these strategic metals are being rapidly depleted. This book discusses actual field results with novel systems, such as rechargeable lithium batteries, zinc/air cells, metal-free accumulators, graphite/carbon devices and others, including fuel cells. The book stresses that a universal electrochemical system is not feasible: the choice of any system must depend on the concrete field of application and must be taken in consideration of a large number of technical, economic and environmental circumstances.

Fine Particles Science and Technology

Author: E. PELIZZETTI
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400902596
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Fine Particles Science and Technology deals with the preparation, characterization and technological applications of monodisperse particles in the micro to nano size range. A broad view of this frontier field is given, covering understanding the mechanisms by which uniform fine particles are formed and the search for new processes; the mechanism of the precipitation technique, requiring knowledge of the relationship between the complex solution chemistry and the products formed; the sequence of events leading to the formation of monodisperse colloids. The following topics are presented: microparticles, nanoparticles, applications in the preparation of materials, synthesis and properties, environmental applications, and many others.

Principles and Methods for Accelerated Catalyst Design and Testing

Author: E.G. Derouane
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401005548
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

High throughput experimentation has met great success in drug design but it has, so far, been scarcely used in the field ofcatalysis. We present in this book the outcome of a NATO ASI meeting that was held in Vilamoura, Portugal, between July 15 and 28, 2001, with the objective of delineating and consolidating the principles and methods underpinning accelerated catalyst design, evaluation, and development. There is a need to make the underlying principles of this new methodology more widely understood and to make it available in a coherent and integrated format. The latter objective is particularly important to the young scientists who will constitute the new catalysis researchers generation. Indeed, this field which is at the frontier offundamental science and may be a renaissance for catalysis, is one which is much more complex than classical catalysis itself. It implies a close collaboration between scientists from many disciplines (chemistry, physics, chemical and mechanical engineering, automation, robotics, and scientific computing in general). In addition, this emerging area of science is also of paramount industrial importance, as progress in this area would collapse the time necessary to discover new catalysts or improve existing ones.

Chemisorption and Reactivity on Supported Clusters and Thin Films

Author: R.M. Lambert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401589116
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Science

Heterogeneous catalysis provides the backbone of the world's chemical and oil industries. The innate complexity of practical catalytic systems suggests that useful progress should be achievable by investigating key aspects of catalysis by experimental studies on idealised model systems. Thin films and supported clusters are two promising types of model system that can be used for this purpose, since they mimic important aspects of the properties of practical dispersed catalysts. Similarly, appropriate theoretical studies of chemisorption and surface reaction clusters or extended slab systems can provide valuable information on the factors that underlie bonding and catalytic activity. This volume describes such experimental and theoretical approaches to the surface chemistry and catalytic behaviour of metals, metal oxides and metal/metal oxide systems. An introduction to the principles and main themes of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by detailed accounts of the application of modern experimental and theoretical techniques to fundamental problems. The application of advanced experimental methods is complemented by a full description of theoretical procedures, including Hartree-Fock, density functional and similar techniques. The relative merits of the various approaches are considered and directions for future progress are indicated.

Free Radicals in Biology and Environment

Author: F. Minisci
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401716079
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Science

Our understanding of the quantitative aspects of free radical chemistry and the involvement of radicals in such areas as biology, medicine, the environment, etc., has developed spectacularly over recent years, yet the various topics are commonly discussed separately, in specific meetings and specialised publications. Free Radicals in Biology and Environment draws together two important areas of free radical chemistry, using as a bridge the fundamental physical chemistry of free radicals (spectroscopic detection of free radicals, evaluation of absolute rate constants, elucidation of mechanisms of free radical reactions and catalysis, photochemical and radiation processes, etc.). The most relevant topics covered are the EPR detection of radicals in biochemical systems and in pollutant formation and degradation, oxidation processes in biology and in the troposphere, radiation and induced damage, and atmospheric pollutants arising from incomplete combustion. Also covered are the chemistry and biochemistry of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, the chemistry and biochemistry of DNA radicals, the role of radicals in myeloperoxidase, lignineperoxidase, radicals and cardiovascular injury, radiation and the fragmentation of cells and tissues.

New Methodologies and Techniques for a Sustainable Organic Chemistry

Author: Alessandro Mordini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402067938
Release Date: 2008-04-17
Genre: Science

Chemical industries have to face the challenge of finding adequate processes to produce large quantities of new products, while at the same time decreasing both the impact on the environment and the risk of disaster. This book addresses this challenge. It discusses the problems of environmentally benign organic processes on an interdisciplinary approach. The book features experts in selective catalysis, development of new reagents and methods who present their recent results.

Aqueous Organometallic Catalysis

Author: Ferenc Joo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306475108
Release Date: 2006-04-11
Genre: Science

Over the past 20 years aqueous organometallic catalysis has found applications in small- scale organic synthesis in the laboratory, as well as in the industrial production of chemicals with a combined output close to one million tons per year. Aqueous/organic two-phase reactions allow easy product-catalyst separation and full catalyst recovery which mean clear benefits not only in economic but also in environmental and green chemistry contexts. Instead of putting together a series of expert reviews of specialized fields, this book attempts to give a comprehensive yet comprehensible description of the various catalytic transformations in aqueous systems as seen by an author who has been working on aqueous organometallic catalysis since its origin. Emphasis is put on the discussion of differences between related non-aqueous and aqueous processes due to the presence of water. The book will be of interest to experts and students working in catalysis, inorganic chemistry or organic synthesis, and may serve as a basis for advanced courses.