Author: Katia Yannaca-Small
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 2010
Investor-state arbitration is a relatively new dispute settlement mechanism that allows foreign investors the opportunity to seek redress for damages arising out of breaches of investment-related treaty obligations by the governments of host countries. Claims are submitted to independent, international arbitration tribunals, which are called upon to interpret the treaty at hand. Because of the public interest involved in these cases, the awards of these tribunals are subject to much scrutiny and debate. Thus, it has already generated hundreds of cases and created new legal disciplines, inspiring a continuous string of legal writings. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the main issues that arise in investor-state arbitration. It accompanies the reader through the phases of such a procedure, starting with an examination of the instruments, which provide, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, the legal basis for the requests for such arbitration. It then continues with the launching of the arbitration procedure, followed by the analysis of the main jurisdictional and substantive issues that the tribunals are confronted with, and the review procedures, when there is a request for setting aside of the award. It finally looks at the post-award phase and concludes with a reflection on the role of precedent in investment arbitration. Arbitration under International Investment Agreements: a Guide to the Key Issues contains in one volume what everybody needs to know on this evolving topic. Calling on the most renowned experts in this field, private practitioners, academics, government and international organization officials, it describes the process in all its phases from A to Z, providing a comprehensive insight in the way investor-state arbitration works from the perspective of the main actors involved. Its analyses of all key aspects of the topic are pragmatic and reliable.
Author: Wolfgang Peter
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
Release Date: 1995-06-08
This book is a second, revised edition of the original 1986 publication. Since then, the issue of contract change has increasingly challenged the business community and legal practitioners. The world-wide recession may well have accelerated the need to secure contractual relationships by reasonable flexibility. Successful foreign investment, a relentless challenge, is subject to many unpredictable errors. Of all these variables, however, successful investment is most dependent on the investor-host country relationship, which is the object of the present study. In particular, the pressure by host countries for contract change and its counterpart: the investor's defence of contract stability. The book is essentially a reference handbook for legal practitioners. It analyzes a variety of increasingly important questions concerning international investment agreements that come under pressure for change by one of the contracting parties: either a transnational corporation or a host country government. The seven case studies and the analytical chapters which follow are based on the author's research and the assistance of corporate and government officials, experts from the United Nations and other organizations, and members of academic research institutes.
Author: Armand L. C. De Mestral
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Business & Economics
"In recent years, the world has witnessed the coming of age of international investment law. The numbers are telling with over 2600 bilateral investment treaties, over 462 free trade, customs unions and other economic partnership agreements notified to the WTO, with 276 being in force, an increasing number of which include investment chapters, and over 350 known investor-State treaty-based arbitrations. This phenomenon has not left many untouched as over 175 States have signed international investment agreements (IIAs) and at least 81 governments have faced investment treaty arbitrations. The regime, however, has not been without criticisms. The main criticisms being: that IIAs do not fulfil their great bargain the promotion of investment, while they effectively protect powerful economic interests; that IIAs protect investor's rights over the public interest of the host country; that the dispute settlement system put in place by IIAs lacks legitimacy due to the fundamentally ad hoc nature of investor-State arbitration; and that the complexity and cost of the system are out of control.This book takes stock of developments in international investment law and analyzes potential solutions to some of these criticisms from the perspective of international public policy, in negotiations, substantive obligations and dispute resolution. The book is prepared by a group of scholars and practitioners from Canada and Europe. It takes a multidisciplinary approach to the subject, with analysis from the legal, political and economic perspectives. The first part of the book traces the evolution in IIA treaty-making and provides an evaluation from a political economy and economics perspective. The other three parts are organised around the concepts of efficiency, legitimacy and sustainability. Each contributor analyzes one or more issues of treaty negotiation, substance or dispute resolution, with the ultimate aim of improving IIA treaty-making in these respects."--
Author: Peter Ratz
Publisher: Nomos Verlag
Release Date: 2017-09-29
Mit dieser Arbeit legt der Autor die erste monographische Behandlung der Frage vor, inwiefern völker- und europarechtliche Probleme dazu führen, dass Schiedsverfahren nach von der EU abgeschlossenen Investitionsschutzabkommen einen geringeren Schutzstandard gewähren als "reguläre" BITs. Der Autor gelangt zu dem Ergebnis, dass Schiedsverfahren nach EU-Investitionsschutzabkommen tatsächlich einen niedrigeren Schutzstandard gewähren. Dies hängt mit Problemen der Vollstreckung von Schiedssprüchen und Unterschieden hinsichtlich der materiellen Verpflichtungen der EU und der Mitgliedstaaten zusammen, die zu Schutzlücken für Investoren führen. Der wichtigste Faktor ist allerdings die Rechtunsicherheit, die daraus resultiert, dass die in bisher von der EU abgeschlossenen Investitionsschutzabkommen enthaltenen Streitbeilegungsregeln nicht den Vorgaben des EuGH entsprechen.
Author: Johan Billiet
Release Date: 2016
Genre: International commercial arbitration
Investment Arbitration is a multi-billion dollar venture. It is an area of international dispute resolution, which has undergone tremendous growth in recent years and resulted in the signature of thousands of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) between foreign states and several Multilateral Investment Treaties (MITs). Numerous disputes involving these instruments are resolved through international arbitration. Arbitral tribunals have rendered many awards ordering the payment of large sums of money. This handbook provides an explanatory introduction into the area of investment arbitration, differentiating it from commercial arbitration and state-to-state arbitration. It examines the legal framework and the general course of an international investment arbitration. In particular, it focuses on the standards of protection in international investment agreements, the concept of jurisdiction in international investment arbitration and the arbitral award, including the notions of recognition, enforcement and execution. Moreover, this cutting-edge publication contains relevant and recent case law in the area and deals with contemporaneous issues such as the ongoing controversy regarding the future of Intra-EU BITs and Free Trade Agreements as well as the link between vulture funds and investment arbitration. The handbook aims at arbitrators, lawyers, practitioners, academics, students and everyone with an interest in international investment arbitration.
Author: Norbert Horn
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
Release Date: 2004-01-01
Cross-border direct investment constitutes a substantial sector of the international financial market and is also an important vehicle for the transfer of technology and the modernisation of national economies. In recent years, international arbitration has gained a prominent role as a means of settlement of foreign investment disputes. The number and size of investment disputes under arbitration have risen significantly due to the growing number of bilateral investment treaties and increased use of arbitration under multilateral investment treaties. Arbitrating such disputes requires specialised skills and arbitrators with international experience. This new title, featuring contributions from leading experts in the field, deals with the procedural and substantive legal aspects of arbitrating foreign investment disputes. The chapters cover the basic framework of investment protection, the key notions of investment protection and examples and crucial aspects of arbitrating foreign investment disputes. For those involved with international investment arbitration, including practising lawyers, anyone doing business abroad and academics Arbitrating Foreign Investment Disputes: Procedural and Substantive Legal Aspects will provide high level analysis and accurate legal updates and assessments from around the world.
Author: Kaj Hobér
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Release Date: 2018-06-20
Investment Treaty Arbitration is an excellent teaching tool for lecturers and readers of international investment arbitration. This casebook includes over 40 exercises based on real-life disputes, helping readers evaluate and analyse all aspects of the topic.
Is a State free to adopt measures to protect the public health of its citizens? If so, what are the limits, if any, to such regulatory powers? This book addresses these questions by focusing on the clash between the regulatory autonomy of the state and international investment governance. As a wide variety of state regulations allegedly aimed at protecting public health may interfere with foreign investments, a tension exists between the public health policies of the host state and investment treaty provisions. Under most investment treaties, States have waived their sovereign immunity, and have agreed to give arbitrators a comprehensive jurisdiction over what are essentially regulatory disputes. Some scholars and practitioners have expressed concern regarding the magnitude of decision-making power allocated to investment treaty tribunals. This book contributes to the current understanding of international investment law and arbitration, addressing the fundamental question of whether public health has and/or should have any relevance in contemporary international investment law and policy. With a focus on the 'clash of cultures' between international investment law and public health, the author critically analyses the emerging case law of investment treaty arbitration and considers the theoretical interplay between public health and investor rights in international investment law. The book also explores the interplay between investment law and public health in practice, focusing on specific sectors such as pharmaceutical patents, tobacco regulation and environmental health. It then goes on to analyze the available means for promoting consideration of public health in international investment law and suggests new methods and approaches to better reconcile public health and investor rights.
Author: Monique Sasson
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
Release Date: 2016-04-24
This new edition of what has rapidly become the pre-eminent work on the role of municipal law in investment treaty arbitration is justified not only by the accelerating appearance of investment treaty awards but also by the continuing, serious flaws in the application of international law by investment treaty arbitral tribunals. As a matter of international law, arbitrators need to be attentive to the circumstances where municipal law supplies the necessary substantive legal rule. They will find this book to be the best guide to this complex challenge. The author has maintained the overall structure of the first edition and added a new chapter on Article 42 of the ICSID Convention. Certain descriptions and arguments have been rethought and revised to clarify their significance and their applicability. The treatment focuses on the role of municipal law in providing the substance for concepts such as contracts, property rights, and shareholders’ rights, which are relevant in the international investment treaty context but are not regulated under international law. Among the complex questions considered are the following: - If the application of international law requires a renvoi to municipal law, how should that renvoi be conducted? - In investment disputes, what role, if any, should municipal law have in assessing State attribution under international law? - Should shareholders receive compensation for damages suffered by their company due to a violation of an international obligation vis-à-vis the company? - Does a contractual right exist to foreign investment ‘property’? - Under what conditions may a violation of municipal law become internationally wrongful? - May foreign investors rely on ‘expectations’ as an autonomous source of rights in investment treaty disputes? - Does an alleged breach of an umbrella clause transform a breach of contract claim covered by municipal law into an international law claim? The chapters answer these and many other questions in extraordinary depth, drawing on detailed analyses of the issues and implications posed by major relevant cases and arbitral decisions. The author’s analysis of the unavoidable interaction of municipal law and international law in investment treaty arbitration – and the consequences stemming from rejecting the application of municipal law when relevant – will continue to prove of immeasurable value to arbitrators, arbitration counsel, corporate counsel, and scholars of international law.
Author: Christian Tietje
Publisher: BWV Verlag
Release Date: 2011-01-01
Genre: Arbitration (International law
HauptbeschreibungIn the last years, the law of international investment protection has increasingly caught the attention of international lawyers, both practitioners and academics. In this regard, two related but often not comprehensively covered aspects are relevant: arbitral proceedings and awards on the one side, and individual commercial interests of enterprises which are engaged in foreign direct investment or international portfolio investment on the other. The applicable law in order to protect these commercial interests is both, of an international and national character, and concerns.
In 2005, as part of its research activities in the field of investment treaty law and arbitration, the Investment Treaty Forum at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law organized two very successful public conferences in London addressing the issues of 'Nationality and Investment Treaty Claims' and 'Fair and Equitable Treatment in Investment Treaty Law.' This publication records the presentations given by very distinguished experts in the field. The first conference addressed a central issue in international law. Nationality sits at the heart of the debate over the rights and participation of private parties in international relations. In international investment law, nationality constitutes one of the central criteria defining the scope of application of international investment agreements such as the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) Convention or the several thousands bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and free trade agreements (FTAs). Topics addressed at the conference include the issue of nationality of physical and legal persons, the requirements for substantive and continuous nationality, as well as the issue of nationality in derivative actions and indirect claims. The second conference dealt with potentially the most important and elusive obligation imposed on States by international investment treaties: the fair and equitable treatment standard. The elements that are usually cited by the case law and by legal scholars in the attempt to describe the meaning of the fair and equitable treatment standard include very broad concepts that are open to differing interpretations depending fundamentally on the perceived objectives of the international investment system. Among the topics addressed at the conference were the application of the fair and equitable treatment standard in customary international law and in investment treaty practice; equivalent standards under domestic administrative law; the relationship between the fair and equitable standard and expropriation; and the relevance of the conduct of the investor in determining a breach of the fair and equitable treatment standard.
Author: Berk Demirkol
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2018-01-11
Judicial acts of states are becoming increasingly subjected to international investment claims. This book focuses on distinctive particularities of these claims. Although there are no special responsibility regimes for different functions of the state, the application of investment treaty standards and the threshold for their breach may vary depending on the function involved. Accordingly, in order for the state to incur responsibility for a wrongful act committed in the exercise of its judicial function, there are some specific conditions that should be met: the investor must establish that the state is responsible for a breach attributable to the state; the investment tribunal has jurisdiction over the particular dispute; and the damage that the investor has suffered is a result of the particular breach. Berk Demirkol addresses questions in relation to the substance, jurisdiction, admissibility, and remedies in cases where state responsibility arises from a wrongful judicial act.
Author: Mariel Dimsey
Publisher: Eleven International Publishing
Release Date: 2008-01
This work deals with the current state of investment dispute resolution and analyzes the problems associated with investor-state arbitration. The author examines developments in the existing legal framework and looks at the mechanisms under existing domestic and international systems â?? such as judicial review and class actions â?? to see if these can be applied to investment dispute resolution. The author concludes that the features of traditional arbitration are not flexible enough to meet the needs of this modern form of international dispute resolution. Investment arbitration is now entering a new phase of its development. The traditional, typically arbitration-related issues of consent, privity, and confidentiality are making room for the now more important questions of disclosure, transparency, legal certainty, and consistency. The author calls for setting up a "model procedure," specifically created for international investment disputes as this would enable the establishment of a "tailor-made" process for this ever-growing area of law.