Author: Jack Copeland
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2015-07-29
Presupposing no familiarity with the technical concepts of either philosophy or computing, this clear introduction reviews the progress made in AI since the inception of the field in 1956. Copeland goes on to analyze what those working in AI must achieve before they can claim to have built a thinking machine and appraises their prospects of succeeding. There are clear introductions to connectionism and to the language of thought hypothesis which weave together material from philosophy, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. John Searle's attacks on AI and cognitive science are countered and close attention is given to foundational issues, including the nature of computation, Turing Machines, the Church-Turing Thesis and the difference between classical symbol processing and parallel distributed processing. The book also explores the possibility of machines having free will and consciousness and concludes with a discussion of in what sense the human brain may be a computer.
Author: Matt Carter
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
Release Date: 2007-02-13
Could a computer have a mind? What kind of machine would this be? Exactly what do we mean by 'mind' anyway?The notion of the 'intelligent' machine, whilst continuing to feature in numerous entertaining and frightening fictions, has also been the focus of a serious and dedicated research tradition. Reflecting on these fictions, and on the research tradition that pursues 'Artificial Intelligence', raises a number of vexing philosophical issues. Minds and Computers introduces readers to these issues by offering an engaging, coherent, and highly approachable interdisciplinary introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence.Readers are presented with introductory material from each of the disciplines which constitute Cognitive Science: Philosophy, Neuroscience, Psychology, Computer Science, and Linguistics. Throughout, readers are encouraged to consider the implications of this disparate and wide-ranging material for the possibility of developing machines with minds. And they can expect to de
Alle Teilgebiete der KI werden mit dieser Einführung kompakt, leicht verständlich und anwendungsbezogen dargestellt. Hier schreibt jemand, der das Gebiet nicht nur bestens kennt, sondern auch in der Lehre engagiert und erfolgreich vertritt. Von der klassischen Logik über das Schließen mit Unsicherheit und maschinelles Lernen bis hin zu Anwendungen wie Expertensysteme oder lernfähige Roboter. Sie werden von dem sehr guten Überblick in dieses faszinierende Teilgebiet der Informatik profitieren. Und Sie gewinnen vertiefte Kenntnisse, z. B. hinsichtlich der wichtigsten Verfahren zur Repräsentation und Verarbeitung von Wissen. Vor allem steht der Anwendungsbezug im Fokus der Darstellung. Viele Übungsaufgaben mit Lösungen sowie eine strukturierte Liste mit Verweisen auf Literatur und Ressourcen im Web ermöglichen ein effektives und kurzweiliges Selbststudium. "Wolfgang Ertel [...] schafft es auf rund 300 Seiten verständlich zu erklären, wie Aussagenlogik, maschinelles Lernen und neuronale Netze die Grundlagen für künstliche Intelligenz bilden." Technology Review 04/2008
This is the first major textbook to offer a truly comprehensive review of cognitive science in its fullest sense. Ranging from artificial intelligence models of neural processes and cognitive psychology to recent discursive and cultural theories, Rom Harré offers an original yet accessible integration of the field. At its core, this textbook addresses the question 'How can psychology become a science?'. The answer is based on a clear account of method and explanation in the natural sciences and how they can be adapted to psychological research. Rom Harré has used his experience of both the natural and the human sciences to create a text on which exciting and insightful courses can be built in many ways. The text is based on the idea that underlying the long history of attempts to create a scientific psychology there are many unexamined presuppositions that must be brought to light. Whether describing language, categorization, memory, the brain or connectionism the book always links our intuitions about how we think, feel and act in the contexts of everyday life to the latest accounts of the neural tools with which we accomplish the cognitive tasks demanded of us. Computational and biological models are used to link the discursive analysis of everyday cognition to the necessary activities of the brain and nervous system. Fluently written and well structured, this is an ideal text for students who want to gain a comprehensive view of the current state of the art with its seeming divergence into studies of meanings and studies of neurology. The book is divided into four basic modules, with suggestions for three lectures in each. The plan is related to the overall pattern of the semester programme. The reader is guided with helpful learning points, sections of study questions for review, and key readings for each chapter. Cognitive Science: A Philosophical Introduction, with its remarkable sweep of themes, past and present, truly introduces 'the science of the mind' for a new generation of psychology students. Cognitive Science should be indispensable reading for students at all levels taking courses in cognitive science and cognitive psychology, and useful additional course reading in other areas such as social psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy of the mind and linguistics. Key Points · First major textbook to provide a link between computational, philosophical and biological models in an accessible format for students. Presents a new vision of psychology as a scientific discipline. · Breadth of coverage - ranging from artificial intelligence, to key themes & theories in cognitive science (past and present) - language, memory, the brain and behaviour - to recent discursive and cultural theories. · Plenty of student features to help the student and tutor including helpful learning points, study and essay questions and key readings at the end of every chapter.
How can the human mind represent the external world? What is thought, and can it be studied scientifically? Should we think of the mind as a kind of machine? Is the mind a computer? Can a computer think? Tim Crane sets out to answer these questions and more in a lively and straightforward way, presuming no prior knowledge of philosophy or related disciplines. Since its first publication, The Mechanical Mind has introduced thousands of people to some of the most important ideas in contemporary philosophy of mind. Crane explains the fundamental ideas that cut across philosophy of mind, artificial intelligence and cognitive science: what the mind–body problem is; what a computer is and how it works; what thoughts are and how computers and minds might have them. He examines different theories of the mind from dualist to eliminativist, and questions whether there can be thought without language and whether the mind is subject to the same causal laws as natural phenomena. The result is a fascinating exploration of the theories and arguments surrounding the notions of thought and representation. This third edition has been fully revised and updated, and includes a wholly new chapter on externalism about mental content and the extended and embodied mind. There is a stronger emphasis on the environmental and bodily context in which thought occurs. Many chapters have been reorganised to make the reader’s passage through the book easier. The book now contains a much more detailed guide to further reading, and the chronology and the glossary of technical terms have also been updated. The Mechanical Mind is accessible to anyone interested in the mechanisms of our minds, and essential reading for those studying philosophy of mind, philosophy of psychology, or cognitive psychology.
Author: Professor of Philosophy Tim Crane
Release Date: 2003-12-08
This edition has been fully revised and updated, and includes a new chapter on consciousness and a new section on modularity. There are also guides for further reading, and a new glossary of terms such as mentalese, connectionism, and the homunculus fallacy.
Author: Max Tegmark
Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage
Release Date: 2017-11-17
Genre: Social Science
Die Nobelpreis-Schmiede Massachusetts Institute of Technology ist der bedeutendste technologische Think Tank der USA. Dort arbeitet Professor Max Tegmark mit den weltweit führenden Entwicklern künstlicher Intelligenz zusammen, die ihm exklusive Einblicke in ihre Labors gewähren. Die Erkenntnisse, die er daraus zieht, sind atemberaubend und zutiefst verstörend zugleich. Neigt sich die Ära der Menschen dem Ende zu? Der Physikprofessor Max Tegmark zeigt anhand der neusten Forschung, was die Menschheit erwartet. Hier eine Auswahl möglicher Szenarien: - Eroberer: Künstliche Intelligenz übernimmt die Macht und entledigt sich der Menschheit mit Methoden, die wir noch nicht einmal verstehen. - Der versklavte Gott: Die Menschen bemächtigen sich einer superintelligenten künstlichen Intelligenz und nutzen sie, um Hochtechnologien herzustellen. - Umkehr: Der technologische Fortschritt wird radikal unterbunden und wir kehren zu einer prä-technologischen Gesellschaft im Stil der Amish zurück. - Selbstzerstörung: Superintelligenz wird nicht erreicht, weil sich die Menschheit vorher nuklear oder anders selbst vernichtet. - Egalitäres Utopia: Es gibt weder Superintelligenz noch Besitz, Menschen und kybernetische Organismen existieren friedlich nebeneinander. Max Tegmark bietet kluge und fundierte Zukunftsszenarien basierend auf seinen exklusiven Einblicken in die aktuelle Forschung zur künstlichen Intelligenz.
Artificial Intelligence is a component of Encyclopedia of Technology, Information, and Systems Management Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty Encyclopedias. The Theme on Artificial Intelligence provides the essential aspects and fundamentals of Artificial Intelligence: Definition, Trends, Techniques, and Cases; Logic in Artificial Intelligence (AI); Computational Intelligence; Knowledge Based System Development Tools. It is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students, Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers.
In the chapters in Part I of this textbook the author introduces the fundamental ideas of artificial intelligence and computational intelligence. In Part II he explains key AI methods such as search, evolutionary computing, logic-based reasoning, knowledge representation, rule-based systems, pattern recognition, neural networks, and cognitive architectures. Finally, in Part III, he expands the context to discuss theories of intelligence in philosophy and psychology, key applications of AI systems, and the likely future of artificial intelligence. A key feature of the author's approach is historical and biographical footnotes, stressing the multidisciplinary character of the field and its pioneers. The book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in computer science, engineering, and other applied sciences, and the appendices offer short formal, mathematical models and notes to support the reader.
Author: J.H. Fetzer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information and data-processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychology through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and to computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental and methodological studies will also appear from time to time. The present volume illustrates the approach represented by this series. It addresses fundamental questions lying at the heart of artificial intelligence, including those of the relative virtues of computational and of non-computational conceptions of language and of mind, whether AI should be envisioned as a philosophical or as a scientific discipline, the theoretical character of patterns of inference and modes of argumenta tion (especially, defeasible and inductive reasoning), and the relations that may obtain between AI and epistemology. Alternative positions are developed in detail and subjected to vigorous debate in the justifiable expectation that - here as elsewhere - critical inquiry provides the most promising path to discovering the truth about ourselves and the world around us. lH.F.
'if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory input in machine systems the nature of consciousness the controversial culturing of human neurons. Exploring issues at the heart of the subject, this book is suitable for anyone interested in AI, and provides an illuminating and accessible introduction to this fascinating subject.
An authoritative and accessible one-stop resource, An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence presents the first full examination of AI. Designed to provide an understanding of the foundations of artificial intelligence, it examines the central computational techniques employed by AI, including knowledge representation, search, reasoning, and learning, as well as the principal application domains of expert systems, natural language, vision, robotics, software agents and cognitive modeling. Many of the major philosophical and ethical issues of AI are also introduced. Throughout the volume, the authors provide detailed, well-illustrated treatments of each topic with abundant examples and exercises. The authors bring this exciting field to life by presenting a substantial and robust introduction to artificial intelligence in a clear and concise coursebook form. This book stands as a core text for all computer scientists approaching AI for the first time.
Author: Margaret A. Boden
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 1990
Is `artificial intelligence' a contradiction in terms? Could computers (in principle) model every aspect of the mind, including logic, language, and emotion? What of the more brain-like, connectionist computers: could they really understand, even if digital computers cannot? This collection of classic and contemporary readings (which includes an editor's introduction and an up-to-date reading list) provides a clearly signposted pathway into hotly disputed philosophical issues at the heart of artificial intelligence.