Assessing Systematic Evidence In Crime And Justice

Author: David Weisburd
Publisher: Sage Publications, Incorporated
ISBN: STANFORD:36105112875062
Release Date: 2003-05-01
Genre: Law

What are the factors that shape crime and justice policy? Long-term traditions-steeped in politics, ideology, values, ethics, and faith-along with clinical experience have served as the primary guides for policymakers. However, many contemporary scholars, practitioners, and policymakers encourage heavier reliance on scientific research to form crime and justice policy. Along with this shift toward evidence-based crime prevention, it becomes crucial for practitioners to accurately identify and understand which programs and practices have been the most effective in the past. So relying on systematic reviews of prior research and evaluation is central to the movement toward a more scientific approach to policymaking. The surge of research and evaluation in crime and justice raises a myriad of methodological concerns. This special issue of The ANNALS, which sprang from the Second Annual Jerry Lee Crime Prevention Symposium held at the University of Maryland in April 2002, identifies and addresses those methodological concerns and also presents substantive empirical outcomes of specific studies. Developed by the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group, which continues to focus on issues of evidence, this journal provides valuable insights to researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in the promotion and development of an evidence-based approach to crime and justice policy and practice.

Assessing Systematic Evidence In Crime And Justice

Author: David Weisburd
Publisher: Sage Publications, Incorporated
ISBN: STANFORD:36105112875062
Release Date: 2003-05-01
Genre: Law

What are the factors that shape crime and justice policy? Long-term traditions-steeped in politics, ideology, values, ethics, and faith-along with clinical experience have served as the primary guides for policymakers. However, many contemporary scholars, practitioners, and policymakers encourage heavier reliance on scientific research to form crime and justice policy. Along with this shift toward evidence-based crime prevention, it becomes crucial for practitioners to accurately identify and understand which programs and practices have been the most effective in the past. So relying on systematic reviews of prior research and evaluation is central to the movement toward a more scientific approach to policymaking. The surge of research and evaluation in crime and justice raises a myriad of methodological concerns. This special issue of The ANNALS, which sprang from the Second Annual Jerry Lee Crime Prevention Symposium held at the University of Maryland in April 2002, identifies and addresses those methodological concerns and also presents substantive empirical outcomes of specific studies. Developed by the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group, which continues to focus on issues of evidence, this journal provides valuable insights to researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in the promotion and development of an evidence-based approach to crime and justice policy and practice.

Place Randomized Trials

Author: Robert F. Boruch
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
ISBN: 1412925827
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Social Science

The phrase "evidence-based policy" is frequently used, but it's crucial that such claims are scrutinized and validated. When the data on social and behavioral interventions are presented, high-quality evidence must be clearly defined and the methodology behind such studies held to rigorous standards. Both the Cochrane Collaboration –focusing on healthcare – and the international Campbell Collaboration – concentrating on criminal justice, education, and social services – were created to develop, maintain and improve detailed guidelines for producing high-quality systematic reviews. And both organizations emphasize randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions. As a springboard from the Campbell Collaboration initiative and supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, this special issue of The Annals includes a thorough review of randomized tests across a variety of studies. Exploring significant dimensions of place randomized trials (also called cluster randomized trials or group randomized trials), these papers shed light on recent efforts to enhance the quality of designing such trials as well as on results reporting. The research topics included in this volume are diverse. Taken together, these papers offer important insight into the nuts and bolts of conducting randomized trials: the significance of place in trials; how such studies are initiated; the incentives and justifications needed by participants; how to overcome challenges of implementation; and where to find out what studies have already been conducted or are currently underway. While providing far-reaching insight into the topic of randomized testing, these papers also identify new issues and key questions to be further addressed in future research. Scholars and policymakers alike will find this collection of rigorous research essential in understanding the implications of current evidence-based policies as well as a guidepost for designing and conducting new studies.

High School Dropout Graduation and Completion Rates

Author: Committee for Improved Measurement of High School Dropout and Completion Rates: Expert Guidance on Next Steps for Research and Policy Workshop
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309163071
Release Date: 2011-03-17
Genre: Education

High school graduation and dropout rates have long been used as indicators of educational system productivity and effectiveness and of social and economic well being. While determining these rates may seem like a straightforward task, their calculation is in fact quite complicated. How does one count a student who leaves a regular high school but later completes a GED? How does one count a student who spends most of his/her high school years at one school and then transfers to another? If the student graduates, which school should receive credit? If the student drops out, which school should take responsibility? High School Dropout, Graduation, and Completion Rates addresses these issues and to examine (1) the strengths, limitations, accuracy, and utility of the available dropout and completion measures; (2) the state of the art with respect to longitudinal data systems; and (3) ways that dropout and completion rates can be used to improve policy and practice.

Evidence Based Policy

Author: Ray Pawson
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1446227839
Release Date: 2006-04-07
Genre: Reference

Looking at the spread of evidence-based policy making across the Western world, this book examines the methodological assumptions that lie behind this drive for government departments, academic research projects and NGOs to adopt an 'evidence-based' approach, when so little has been done to ask what works in an evidence-based context.

Perspectives On Evaluating Criminal Justice and Corrections

Author: Erica Bowen
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 9781780526454
Release Date: 2012-06-20
Genre: Social Science

A comprehensive and authoritative overview of issues relating to the evaluation of criminal justice/corrections 'interventions', this book draws on a range of theoretical, cultural and epistemological perspectives with authors from a range of disciplines and countries, and provides a unique reference for academics, practitioners and policy-makers.

The SAGE Handbook of Evaluation

Author: Ian Shaw
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781446270554
Release Date: 2006-07-27
Genre: Social Science

In this comprehensive handbook, an examination of the complexities of contemporary evaluation contributes to the ongoing dialogue that arises in professional efforts to evaluate people-related programs, policies, and practices. The SAGE Handbook of Evaluation is a unique and authoritative resource consisting of 25 chapters covering a range of evaluation theories and techniques in a single, accessible volume. With contributions from world-leading figures in their fields overseen by an eminent international editorial board, this handbook is an extensive and user-friendly resource.

Sociological Abstracts

Author: Leo P. Chall
Publisher:
ISBN: UOM:39015078349480
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Sociology

CSA Sociological Abstracts abstracts and indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,800+ serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, dissertations, and conference papers.

Preventing Crime

Author: Brandon C. Welsh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402042434
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Social Science

Crime prevention should be rational and should be based on the best possible evidence. Decision-makers should weigh heavily any available evidence on what works best. How can a program that has produced no discernable evidence of effectiveness, as shown through numerous evaluations, be considered for implementation? Unfortunately, this happens all the time. Evidence-based crime prevention attempts to overcome this and other obstacles by ensuring that the best available evidence is considered in any decision to implement a program designed to prevent crime. This book is about evidence-based crime prevention. A project of the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group, Preventing Crime brings together the leading scientific evidence on what works best for a wide range of interventions organized around four important domains in criminology: at-risk children, offenders, victims, and places. It is the first book to assess the effectiveness of criminological interventions using the most rigorous review methodology of the systematic review. It is an indispensable guide to the leading scientific evidence on what works best to prevent crime.

Evidence Based Counterterrorism Policy

Author: Cynthia Lum
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461409535
Release Date: 2011-11-06
Genre: Social Science

In the past eight years, there has been a massive increase in government spending on counterterrorism intervention development and implementation. Given this increase, there are two evidence-based policy questions that are important to address: Is there evidence that any of these programs are effective – in other words, can they be shown to be linked to reducing terrorism, terrorist recruiting, or to improving the response and management of terrorist events? Do these interventions have secondary or collateral effects that may be costly, harmful, illegal, beneficial, or otherwise? As Lum and Kennedy discovered in an evaluation research on counterterrorism interventions, only a minuscule number of empirical studies of terrorism exist and there is an almost complete absence of evaluation research on counter-terrorism strategies. This is startling given the enormous increases in the development and use of counter-terrorism programs, as well as spending on counter-terrorism activity. Even more disconcerting was the nature of the evaluations we did find; some programs were shown to either have no discernible effect on terrorism or lead to increases in terrorism. The emphasis of the need for empirical research in evaluating interventions and informing policy cannot be overstated, and is the primary goal of Evidence-Based Counterterrorism Policy.

Making Public Places Safer

Author: Brandon C. Welsh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199716951
Release Date: 2009-11-04
Genre: Law

The United Kingdom has more than 4.2 million public closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras-one for every fourteen citizens. Across the United States, hundreds of video surveillance systems are being installed in town centers, public transportation facilities, and schools at a cost exceeding $100 million annually. And now other Western countries have begun to experiment with CCTV to prevent crime in public places. In light of this expansion and the associated public expenditure, as well as pressing concerns about privacy rights, there is an acute need for an evidence-based approach to inform policy and practice. Drawing on the highest-quality research, criminologists Brandon C. Welsh and David P. Farrington assess the effectiveness and social costs of not only CCTV, but also of other important surveillance methods to prevent crime in public space, such as improved street lighting, security guards, place managers, and defensible space. Importantly, the book goes beyond the question of "Does it work?" and examines the specific conditions and contexts under which these surveillance methods may have an effect on crime as well as the mechanisms that bring about a reduction in crime. At a time when cities need cost-effective methods to fight crime and the public gradually awakens to the burdens of sacrificing their privacy and civil rights for security, Welsh and Farrington provide this timely and reliable guide to the most effective and non-invasive uses of surveillance to make public places safer from crime.

Police Innovation

Author: David Weisburd
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139454339
Release Date: 2006-05-04
Genre: Social Science

Over the last three decades American policing has gone through a period of significant change and innovation. In what is a relatively short historical time frame the police began to reconsider their fundamental mission, the nature of the core strategies of policing, and the character of their relationships with the communities that they serve. This volume brings together leading police scholars to examine eight major innovations which emerged during this period: community policing, broken windows policing, problem oriented policing, pulling levers policing, third party policing, hot spots policing, Compstat and evidence-based policing. Including advocates and critics of each of the eight police innovations, this comprehensive book assesses the evidence on impacts of police innovation on crime and public safety, the extent of the implementation of these new approaches in police departments, and the dilemmas these approaches have created for police management. This book will appeal to students, scholars and researchers.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309142397
Release Date: 2009-07-29
Genre: Law

Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

The Hollow Hope

Author: Gerald N. Rosenberg
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226726681
Release Date: 2008-09-15
Genre: Political Science

In follow-up studies, dozens of reviews, and even a book of essays evaluating his conclusions, Gerald Rosenberg’s critics—not to mention his supporters—have spent nearly two decades debating the arguments he first put forward in The Hollow Hope. With this substantially expanded second edition of his landmark work, Rosenberg himself steps back into the fray, responding to criticism and adding chapters on the same-sex marriage battle that ask anew whether courts can spur political and social reform. Finding that the answer is still a resounding no, Rosenberg reaffirms his powerful contention that it’s nearly impossible to generate significant reforms through litigation. The reason? American courts are ineffective and relatively weak—far from the uniquely powerful sources for change they’re often portrayed as. Rosenberg supports this claim by documenting the direct and secondary effects of key court decisions—particularly Brown v. Board of Education and Roe v. Wade. He reveals, for example, that Congress, the White House, and a determined civil rights movement did far more than Brown to advance desegregation, while pro-choice activists invested too much in Roe at the expense of political mobilization. Further illuminating these cases, as well as the ongoing fight for same-sex marriage rights, Rosenberg also marshals impressive evidence to overturn the common assumption that even unsuccessful litigation can advance a cause by raising its profile. Directly addressing its critics in a new conclusion, The Hollow Hope, Second Edition promises to reignite for a new generation the national debate it sparked seventeen years ago.