Atmospheric Radiation

Author: R. M. Goody
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195356101
Release Date: 1995-12-07
Genre: Science

A complete revision of Goody's classic 1964 work, this volume offers a systematic discussion of atmospheric radiation processes that today are at the center of worldwide study and concern. It deals with the ways in which incident solar radiation is transformed into scattered and thermal radiation, and the thermodynamic consequences for the Earth's gaseous envelope, identifying aspects of the interaction between radiation and atmospheric motions as the central theme for atmospheric radiation studies. As a complete treatment of physical and mathematical foundations, the text assumes no prior knowledge of atmospheric physics. The theoretical discussion is systematic, and can therefore be applied with minor extension to any planetary atmosphere.

Radiation in the Atmosphere

Author: Wilford Zdunkowski
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139464604
Release Date: 2007-03-29
Genre: Science

This book presents the theory and applications of radiative transfer in the atmosphere. It is written for graduate students and researchers in the fields of meteorology and related sciences. The book begins with important basic definitions of the radiative transfer theory. It presents the hydrodynamic derivation of the radiative transfer equation and the principles of variance. The authors examine in detail various quasi-exact solutions of the radiative transfer equation and give a thorough treatment of the radiative perturbation theory. A rigorous treatment of Mie scattering is given, including Rayleigh scattering as a special case, and the important efficiency factors for extinction, scattering and absorption are derived. The fundamentals of remote sensing applications of radiative transfer are presented. Problems of varying degrees of difficulty are included at the end of each chapter, so readers can further their understanding of the materials covered in the book.

Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean

Author: Knut Stamnes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107094734
Release Date: 2017-07-31
Genre: Science

This new and completely updated edition gives a detailed description of radiative transfer processes at a level accessible to advanced students. The volume gives the reader a basic understanding of global warming and enhanced levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation caused by ozone depletion. It teaches the basic physics of absorption, scattering and emission processes in turbid media, such as the atmosphere and ocean, using simple semi-classical models. The radiative transfer equation, including multiple scattering, is formulated and solved for several prototype problems, using both simple approximate and accurate numerical methods. In addition, the reader has access to a powerful, state-of-the-art computational code for simulating radiative transfer processes in coupled atmosphere-water systems including snow and ice. This computational code can be regarded as a powerful educational aid, but also as a research tool that can be applied to solve a variety of research problems in environmental sciences.

Lectures in Meteorology

Author: Nicole Mölders
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319021447
Release Date: 2014-07-05
Genre: Science

Lectures in Meteorology is a comprehensive reference book for meteorologists and environmental scientists to look up material on the thermodynamics, dynamics and chemistry of the troposphere. The lectures demonstrate how to derive/develop equations – an essential tool for model development. All chapters present applications of the material including numerical models. The lectures are written in modular form, i.e. they can be used at the undergraduate level for classes covered by the chapters or at the graduate level as a comprehensive, intensive course. The student/instructor can address chapters 2 (thermodynamics) and 4 (radiation) in any order. They can also switch the order of chapter 5 (chemistry) and 6 (dynamics). Chapter 7 (climatology and climate) requires an understanding of all chapters. Chapter 3 (cloud physics) needs basics from chapter 2 to understand the cloud microphysical processes. The governing conservation equations for trace constituents, dry air, water substances, total mass, energy, entropy and momentum are presented, including simplifications and their application in models. A brief introduction to atmospheric boundary layer processes is presented as well. Basic principles of climatology discussed include analysis methods, atmospheric waves and their analytical solutions, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones, classical and non-classical mesoscale circulations, and the global circulation. The atmospheric chemistry section encompasses photolytic and gas-phase processes, aqueous chemistry, aerosol processes, fundamentals of biogeochemical cycles and the ozone layer. Solar and terrestrial radiation; major absorber; radiation balance; radiative equilibrium; radiative-convective equilibrium; and basics of molecular, aerosol and cloud adsorption and scattering and their use in remote sensing are also presented.

Remote Sensing of the Environment and Radiation Transfer

Author: Anatoly Kuznetsov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642148996
Release Date: 2012-01-25
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The interaction of the solar and heat radiation with the atmosphere and surface is the subject of the book. It is useful also for wide circle scientists involved in environmental studies. The book contains the description of 17 computer studying programs supporting different topics of courses. It includes only the base ground for comprehension of key topics and provides the accomplishment of practical works with using specially elaborated computer programs. Themes of practical works reflect main sections of mentioned courses of lectures. The packet of computer programs is added for solution of direct and inverse problems. It promotes deep and reliable comprehension of corresponding topics by students. All described approaches and computer programs are valuable resources for solving radiative transfer problems and they could be used by students for courses and diploma studies concerned atmospheric optics.

The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

Author: James Evans
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019987445X
Release Date: 1998-10-01
Genre: Science

The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach readers how to do real astronomy using the methods of ancient astronomers. For example, readers will learn to predict the next retrograde motion of Jupiter using either the arithmetical methods of the Babylonians or the geometric methods of Ptolemy. They will learn how to use an astrolabe and how to design sundials using Greek and Roman techniques. The book also contains supplementary exercises and patterns for making some working astronomical instruments, including an astrolabe and an equatorium. More than a presentation of astronomical methods, the book provides a critical look at the evidence used to reconstruct ancient astronomy. It includes extensive excerpts from ancient texts, meticulous documentation, and lively discussions of the role of astronomy in the various cultures. Accessible to a wide audience, this book will appeal to anyone interested in how our understanding of our place in the universe has changed and developed, from ancient times through the Renaissance.

Physics of Radiation and Climate

Author: Michael A. Box
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781466572065
Release Date: 2015-10-14
Genre: Science

Our current climate is strongly influenced by atmospheric composition, and changes in this composition are leading to climate change. Physics of Radiation and Climate takes a look at how the outward flow of longwave or terrestrial radiation is affected by the complexities of the atmosphere’s molecular spectroscopy. This book examines the planet in its current state and considers the radiation fluxes, including multiple scattering, photochemistry, and the ozone layer, and their impact on our climate overall. Starting from the physical fundamentals of how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the various components of the Earth’s atmosphere, the book covers the essential radiation physics leading to the radiative transfer equation. The book then develops the central physics of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and gases and particles: absorption, emission, and scattering. It examines the physics that describes the absorption and emission of radiation, using quantum mechanics, and scattering, using electromagnetism. It also dedicates a detailed chapter to aerosols, now recognized as a key factor of climate change. Written to be used for a first course in climate physics or a physics elective, the text contains case studies, sample problems, and an extensive reference list as a guide for further research. In addition, the authors: Provide a complete derivation of molecular spectroscopy from quantum mechanical first principles Present a formal derivation of the scattering of radiation by molecules and particles Include the latest results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) Physics of Radiation and Climate shows how radiation measurements are used to aid our understanding of weather and climate change and provides an introduction to the atmosphere. This book covers the key branches of physics with a specific focus on thermodynamics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics.

Topics in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Atmospheric Dynamics Dynamo Theory and Climate Dynamics

Author: M. Ghil
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461210528
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

The vigorous stirring of a cup of tea gives rise, as we all know, to interesting fluid dynamical phenomena, some of which are very hard to explain. In this book our "cup of tea" contains the currents of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, mantle, and fluid core. Our goal is to under stand the basic physical processes which are most important in describing what we observe, directly or indirectly, in these complex systems. While in many respects our understanding is measured by the ability to predict, the focus here will be on relatively simple models which can aid our physical intuition by suggesting useful mathematical methods of investiga tion. These elementary models can be viewed as part of a hierarchy of models of increasing complexity, moving toward those which might be use fully predictive. The discussion in this book will deal primarily with the Earth. Interplanetary probes of Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn have revealed many exciting phenomena which bear on geophysical fluid dynamics. They have also enabled us to see the effect of changing the values of certain parameters, such as gravity and rotation rate, on geophysical flows. On the other hand, satellite observations of our own planet on a daily and hourly basis have turned it into a unique laboratory for the study of fluid motions on a scale never dreamt of before: the motion of cyclones can be observed via satellite just as wing tip vortices are studied in a wind tunnel.

Giant Planets of Our Solar System

Author: Patrick Irwin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540006818
Release Date: 2003-01-01
Genre: Science

"Drawing from all relevant areas of scientific research and knowledge, Giant Planets of Our Solar System provides a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge about the atmospheres, composition and structure of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, the largest planetary bodies in the Solar System. Whilst acknowledging that scientific opinion in many areas of this fascinating subject is still divided, this book attempts to give a balanced comparison between the various theories and models. It condenses the many disparate fields in this area of research into a single volume, covering everything from the formation of the planets in the early Solar System through to the remote sensing of their atmospheric properties." "The book is an invaluable source of reference and contains detailed and extensive tables on composition, both solar and of the planets, together with a comprehensive bibliography and reference list."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres

Author: Alexander Marshak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540285199
Release Date: 2006-03-30
Genre: Science

Developments in three-dimensional cloud radiation over the past few decades are assessed and distilled into this contributed volume. Chapters are authored by subject-matter experts who address a broad audience of graduate students, researchers, and anyone interested in cloud-radiation processes in the solar and infrared spectral regions. After two introductory chapters and a section on the fundamental physics and computational techniques, the volume extensively treats two main application areas: the impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation budget, which is an essential aspect of climate modeling; and remote observation of clouds, especially with the advanced sensors on current and future satellite missions.

Remote Sensing of the Earth from Space Atmospheric Correction

Author: Kirill Y. Kondratyev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642767470
Release Date: 2013-11-11
Genre: Science

The monograph being proposed for the English-speaking research community is concentrated on the atmospheric correction of satellite images as a part of thematic interpretation procedures while processing remote sensing data. For linguistic reasons a large section of the community may have been unaware of the progress made in Russia in this field of science and technology. Meanwhile, Russia was the first country to launch the first artificial satellite in 1957 and to obtain from space for the first time spectra of the Earth's atmosphere in the 1960's. New applications of the radiation transfer theory for the atmosphere underlying surface system appeared first in Russia in the 1970's. Direct and in verse problems of the atmospheric optics were then formulated giving the scientific basis for studies of natural resources from space. Since that time new mathematical treatments for the atmospheric correction procedures have been widely developed in Russia, including both analytical and numerical tech niques to simulate spectral, angular, and spatial distributions of the outgoing radiation in visual and infrared regions. The authors of the book were at the beginning of the scientific approach. A wide range of mathematical im provements to elaborate polinomial approximations for dependencies between atmospheric radiation field and parameters of space surveying was due to the necessity to process satellite images in real time using special software of ex isted computer means for the studies.

Principles of Planetary Climate

Author: Raymond T. Pierrehumbert
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139495066
Release Date: 2010-12-02
Genre: Science

This book introduces the reader to all the basic physical building blocks of climate needed to understand the present and past climate of Earth, the climates of Solar System planets, and the climates of extrasolar planets. These building blocks include thermodynamics, infrared radiative transfer, scattering, surface heat transfer and various processes governing the evolution of atmospheric composition. Nearly four hundred problems are supplied to help consolidate the reader's understanding, and to lead the reader towards original research on planetary climate. This textbook is invaluable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in atmospheric science, Earth and planetary science, astrobiology, and physics. It also provides a superb reference text for researchers in these subjects, and is very suitable for academic researchers trained in physics or chemistry who wish to rapidly gain enough background to participate in the excitement of the new research opportunities opening in planetary climate.