Behavior based Robotics

Author: Ronald C. Arkin
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262011654
Release Date: 1998
Genre: Computers

foreword by Michael Arbib "Hard to put down and necessary to know -- Arkin's book provides a comprehensive intellectual history of robots and a thorough compilation of robotic organizational paradigms from reflexes through social interaction." -- Chris Brown, Professor of Computer Science, University of Rochester This introduction to the principles, design, and practice of intelligent behavior-based autonomous robotic systems is the first true survey of this robotics field. The author presents the tools and techniques central to the development of this class of systems in a clear and thorough manner. Following a discussion of the relevant biological and psychological models of behavior, he covers the use of knowledge and learning in autonomous robots, behavior-based and hybrid robot architectures, modular perception, robot colonies, and future trends in robot intelligence. The text throughout refers to actual implemented robots and includes many pictures and descriptions of hardware, making it clear that these are not abstract simulations, but real machines capable of perception, cognition, and action.

The Robotics Primer

Author: Maja J. Matarić
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262633543
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Computers

1. What is a robot? 2. Where do robots come from? 3. What's in a robot? 4. Arms, legs, wheels, tracks, and really drives them 5. Move it! 6. Grasping at straws 7. What's going on? 8. Switch on ghe light 9. Sonars, lasers, and cameras 10. Stay in control 11. The building bolcks of control 12. What's in your head? 13. Think hard, act later 14. Don't think, react! 15. Think and act separately, in parallel 16. Think the way you act 17. Making your robot behave 18. When the unexpected happens 19. Going places 20. Go, team! 21. Things keep getting better 22. Where to next?

Introduction to AI Robotics

Author: Robin Murphy
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262133830
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Computers

A comprehensive introduction to the AI approach to robotics, combining theoretical rigor and practical applications; with case studies and exercises. This text covers all the material needed to understand the principles behind the AI approach to robotics and to program an artificially intelligent robot for applications involving sensing, navigation, planning, and uncertainty. Robin Murphy is extremely effective at combining theoretical and practical rigor with a light narrative touch. In the overview, for example, she touches upon anthropomorphic robots from classic films and science fiction stories before delving into the nuts and bolts of organizing intelligence in robots. Following the overview, Murphy contrasts AI and engineering approaches and discusses what she calls the three paradigms of AI robotics: hierarchical, reactive, and hybrid deliberative/reactive. Later chapters explore multiagent scenarios, navigation and path-planning for mobile robots, and the basics of computer vision and range sensing. Each chapter includes objectives, review questions, and exercises. Many chapters contain one or more case studies showing how the concepts were implemented on real robots. Murphy, who is well known for her classroom teaching, conveys the intellectual adventure of mastering complex theoretical and technical material. An Instructor's Manual including slides, solutions, sample tests, and programming assignments is available to qualified professors who are considering using the book or who are using the book for class use.

Robot Shaping

Author: Marco Dorigo
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262041642
Release Date: 1998
Genre: Computers

foreword by Lashon Booker To program an autonomous robot to act reliably in a dynamic environment is a complex task. The dynamics of the environment are unpredictable, and the robots' sensors provide noisy input. A learning autonomous robot, one that can acquire knowledge through interaction with its environment and then adapt its behavior, greatly simplifies the designer's work. A learning robot need not be given all of the details of its environment, and its sensors and actuators need not be finely tuned. Robot Shaping is about designing and building learning autonomous robots. The term "shaping" comes from experimental psychology, where it describes the incremental training of animals. The authors propose a new engineering discipline, "behavior engineering," to provide the methodologies and tools for creating autonomous robots. Their techniques are based on classifier systems, a reinforcement learning architecture originated by John Holland, to which they have added several new ideas, such as "mutespec," classifier system "energy,"and dynamic population size. In the book they present Behavior Analysis and Training (BAT) as an example of a behavior engineering methodology.

Autonomous Robots

Author: George A. Bekey
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262025787
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Technology & Engineering

An introduction to the science and practice of autonomous robots that reviews over 300 current systems and examines the underlying technology.

Sensors for Mobile Robots

Author: H.R. Everett
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439863480
Release Date: 1995-07-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The author compiles everything a student or experienced developmental engineer needs to know about the supporting technologies associated with the rapidly evolving field of robotics. From the table of contents: Design Considerations * Dead Reckoning * Odometry Sensors * Doppler and Inertial Navigation * Typical Mobility Configurations * Tactile and Proximity Sensing * Triangulation Ranging * Stereo Disparity * Active Triangulation * Active Stereoscopic * Hermies * Structured Light * Known Target Size * Time of Flight * Phase-Shift Measurement * Frequency Modulation * Interferometry * Range from Focus * Return Signal Intensity * Acoustical Energy * Electromagnetic Energy * Optical Energy * Microwave Radar * Collision Avoidance * Guidepath Following * Position-Location Systems * Ultrasonic and Optical Position-Location Systems * Wall, Doorway, andCeiling Referencing * Application-Specific Mission Sensors

Bio Inspired Artificial Intelligence

Author: Dario Floreano
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262303910
Release Date: 2008-08-22
Genre: Computers

New approaches to artificial intelligence spring from the idea that intelligence emerges as much from cells, bodies, and societies as it does from evolution, development, and learning. Traditionally, artificial intelligence has been concerned with reproducing the abilities of human brains; newer approaches take inspiration from a wider range of biological structures that that are capable of autonomous self-organization. Examples of these new approaches include evolutionary computation and evolutionary electronics, artificial neural networks, immune systems, biorobotics, and swarm intelligence -- to mention only a few. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of biologically inspired artificial intelligence that can be used as an upper-level text or as a reference for researchers. Each chapter presents computational approaches inspired by a different biological system; each begins with background information about the biological system and then proceeds to develop computational models that make use of biological concepts. The chapters cover evolutionary computation and electronics; cellular systems; neural systems, including neuromorphic engineering; developmental systems; immune systems; behavioral systems -- including several approaches to robotics, including behavior-based, bio-mimetic, epigenetic, and evolutionary robots; and collective systems, including swarm robotics as well as cooperative and competitive co-evolving systems. Chapters end with a concluding overview and suggested reading.

Robot Colonies

Author: Ronald C. Arkin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781475764512
Release Date: 2013-03-14
Genre: Computers

Robots in groups or colonies can exhibit an enormous variety and richness of behaviors which cannot be observed with singly autonomous systems. Of course, this is analogous to the amazing variety of group animal behaviors which can be observed in nature. In recent years more and more investigators have started to study these behaviors. The studies range from classifications and taxonomies of behaviors, to development of architectures which cause such group activities as flocking or swarming, and from emphasis on the role of intelligent agents in such groups to studies of learning and obstacle avoidance. There used to be a time when many robotics researchers would question those who were interested in working with teams of robots: `Why are you worried about robotic teams when it's hard enough to just get one to work?'. This issue responds to that question. Robot Colonies provides a new approach to task problem-solving that is similar in many ways to distributed computing. Multiagent robotic teams offer the possibility of spatially distributed parallel and concurrent perception and action. A paradigm shift results when using multiple robots, providing a different perspective on how to carry out complex tasks. New issues such as interagent communications, spatial task distribution, heterogeneous or homogeneous societies, and interference management are now central to achieving coordinated and productive activity within a colony. Fortunately mobile robot hardware has evolved sufficiently in terms of both cost and robustness to enable these issues to be studied on actual robots and not merely in simulation. Robot Colonies presents a sampling of the research in this field. While capturing a reasonable representation of the most important work within this area, its objective is not to be a comprehensive survey, but rather to stimulate new research by exposing readers to the principles of robot group behaviors, architectures and theories. Robot Colonies is an edited volume of peer-reviewed original research comprising eight invited contributions by leading researchers. This research work has also been published as a special issue of Autonomous Robots (Volume 4, Number 1).

Multiagent Systems

Author: Gerhard Weiss
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262018890
Release Date: 2013-03-08
Genre: Computers

This is the first comprehensive introduction to multiagent systems and contemporary distributed artificial intelligence that is suitable as a textbook.

Probabilistic Robotics

Author: Sebastian Thrun
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262201629
Release Date: 2005-08-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Probablistic robotics is a growing area in the subject, concerned with perception and control in the face of uncertainty and giving robots a level of robustness in real-world situations. This book introduces techniques and algorithms in the field.

Robot Ethics

Author: Patrick Lin
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262297752
Release Date: 2011-12-09
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Robots today serve in many roles, from entertainer to educator to executioner. As robotics technology advances, ethical concerns become more pressing: Should robots be programmed to follow a code of ethics, if this is even possible? Are there risks in forming emotional bonds with robots? How might society -- and ethics -- change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging field.Starting with an overview of the issues and relevant ethical theories, the topics flow naturally from the possibility of programming robot ethics to the ethical use of military robots in war to legal and policy questions, including liability and privacy concerns. The contributors then turn to human-robot emotional relationships, examining the ethical implications of robots as sexual partners, caregivers, and servants. Finally, they explore the possibility that robots, whether biological-computational hybrids or pure machines, should be given rights or moral consideration.Ethics is often slow to catch up with technological developments. This authoritative and accessible volume fills a gap in both scholarly literature and policy discussion, offering an impressive collection of expert analyses of the most crucial topics in this increasingly important field.

Robot Programming

Author: Joe Jones
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 9780071708500
Release Date: 2004-01-02
Genre: Technology & Engineering

* Teaches the concepts of behavior-based programming through text, programming examples, and a unique online simulator robot * Explains how to design new behaviors by manipulating old ones and adjusting programming * Does not assume reader familiarity with robotics or programming languages * Includes a section on designing your own behavior-based system from scratch

Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots

Author: Roland Siegwart
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262015356
Release Date: 2011-02-18
Genre: Computers

Machine generated contents note: |g 1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.2. |t An Overview of the Book -- |g 2. |t Locomotion -- |g 2.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.1.1. |t Key issues for locomotion -- |g 2.2. |t Legged Mobile Robots -- |g 2.2.1. |t Leg configurations and stability -- |g 2.2.2. |t Consideration of dynamics -- |g 2.2.3. |t Examples of legged robot locomotion -- |g 2.3. |t Wheeled Mobile Robots -- |g 2.3.1. |t Wheeled locomotion: The design space -- |g 2.3.2. |t Wheeled locomotion: Case studies -- |g 2.4. |t Aerial Mobile Robots -- |g 2.4.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.4.2. |t Aircraft configurations -- |g 2.4.3. |t State of the art in autonomous VTOL -- |g 2.5. |t Problems -- |g 3. |t Mobile Robot Kinematics -- |g 3.1. |t Introduction -- |g 3.2. |t Kinematic Models and Constraints -- |g 3.2.1. |t Representing robot position -- |g 3.2.2. |t Forward kinematic models -- |g 3.2.3. |t Wheel kinematic constraints -- |g 3.2.4. |t Robot kinematic constraints -- |g 3.g 3.3. |t Mobile Robot Maneuverability -- |g 3.3.1. |t Degree of mobility -- |g 3.3.2. |t Degree of steerability -- |g 3.3.3. |t Robot maneuverability -- |g 3.4. |t Mobile Robot Workspace -- |g 3.4.1. |t Degrees of freedom -- |g 3.4.2. |t Holonomic robots -- |g 3.4.3. |t Path and trajectory considerations -- |g 3.5. |t Beyond Basic Kinematics -- |g 3.6. |t Motion Control (Kinematic Control) -- |g 3.6.1. |t Open loop control (trajectory-following) -- |g 3.6.2. |t Feedback control -- |g 3.7. |t Problems -- |g 4. |t Perception -- |g 4.1. |t Sensors for Mobile Robots -- |g 4.1.1. |t Sensor classification -- |g 4.1.2. |t Characterizing sensor performance -- |g 4.1.3. |t Representing uncertainty -- |g 4.1.4. |t Wheel/motor sensors -- |g 4.1.5. |t Heading sensors -- |g 4.1.6. |t Accelerometers -- |g 4.1.7. |t Inertial measurement unit (IMU) -- |g 4.1.8. |t Ground beacons -- |g 4.1.9. |t Active ranging -- |g 4.1.10. |t Motion/speed sensors -- |g 4.1.11. |t Vision sensors -- |g 4.2. |t Fundameng 4.2.5. |t Structure from stereo -- |g 4.2.6. |t Structure from motion -- |g 4.2.7. |t Motion and optical flow -- |g 4.2.8. |t Color tracking -- |g 4.3. |t Fundamentals of Image Processing -- |g 4.3.1. |t Image filtering -- |g 4.3.2. |t Edge detection -- |g 4.3.3. |t Computing image similarity -- |g 4.4. |t Feature Extraction -- |g 4.5. |t Image Feature Extraction: Interest Point Detectors -- |g 4.5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.5.2. |t Properties of the ideal feature detector -- |g 4.5.3. |t Corner detectors -- |g 4.5.4. |t Invariance to photometric and geometric changes -- |g 4.5.5. |t Blob detectors -- |g 4.6. |t Place Recognition -- |g 4.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.6.2. |t From bag of features to visual words -- |g 4.6.3. |t Efficient location recognition by using an inverted file -- |g 4.6.4. |t Geometric verification for robust place recognition -- |g 4.6.5. |t Applications -- |g 4.6.6. |t Other image representations for place recognition -- |g 4.7. |t Feature Extraction Based ong 4.7.3. |t Range histogram features -- |g 4.7.4. |t Extracting other geometric features -- |g 4.8. |t Problems -- |g 5. |t Mobile Robot Localization -- |g 5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.2. |t The Challenge of Localization: Noise and Aliasing -- |g 5.2.1. |t Sensor noise -- |g 5.2.2. |t Sensor aliasing -- |g 5.2.3. |t Effector noise -- |g 5.2.4. |t An error model for odometric position estimation -- |g 5.3. |t To Localize or Not to Localize: Localization-Based Navigation Versus Programmed Solutions -- |g 5.4. |t Belief Representation -- |g 5.4.1. |t Single-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.4.2. |t Multiple-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.5. |t Map Representation -- |g 5.5.1. |t Continuous representations -- |g 5.5.2. |t Decomposition strategies -- |g 5.5.3. |t State of the art: Current challenges in map representation -- |g 5.6. |t Probabilistic Map-Based Localization -- |g 5.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.6.2. |t The robot localization problem -- |g 5.6.3. |t Basic concepts of probability theory -- |gg 5.6.6. |t Classification of localization problems -- |g 5.6.7. |t Markov localization -- |g 5.6.8. |t Kalman filter localization -- |g 5.7. |t Other Examples of Localization Systems -- |g 5.7.1. |t Landmark-based navigation -- |g 5.7.2. |t Globally unique localization -- |g 5.7.3. |t Positioning beacon systems -- |g 5.7.4. |t Route-based localization -- |g 5.8. |t Autonomous Map Building -- |g 5.8.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.8.2. |t SLAM: The simultaneous localization and mapping problem -- |g 5.8.3. |t Mathematical definition of SLAM -- |g 5.8.4. |t Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) SLAM -- |g 5.8.5. |t Visual SLAM with a single camera -- |g 5.8.6. |t Discussion on EKF SLAM -- |g 5.8.7. |t Graph-based SLAM -- |g 5.8.8. |t Particle filter SLAM -- |g 5.8.9. |t Open challenges in SLAM -- |g 5.8.10. |t Open source SLAM software and other resources -- |g 5.9. |t Problems -- |g 6. |t Planning and Navigation -- |g 6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 6.2. |t Competences for Navigation: Planning and Reactig 6.4. |t Obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.1. |t Bug algorithm -- |g 6.4.2. |t Vector field histogram -- |g 6.4.3. |t The bubble band technique -- |g 6.4.4. |t Curvature velocity techniques -- |g 6.4.5. |t Dynamic window approaches -- |g 6.4.6. |t The Schlegel approach to obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.7. |t Nearness diagram -- |g 6.4.8. |t Gradient method -- |g 6.4.9. |t Adding dynamic constraints -- |g 6.4.10. |t Other approaches -- |g 6.4.11. |t Overview -- |g 6.5. |t Navigation Architectures -- |g 6.5.1. |t Modularity for code reuse and sharing -- |g 6.5.2. |t Control localization -- |g 6.5.3. |t Techniques for decomposition -- |g 6.5.4. |t Case studies: tiered robot architectures -- |g 6.6. |t Problems -- |t Bibliography -- |t Books -- |t Papers -- |t Referenced Webpages.

Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots

Author: Ronald Arkin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420085956
Release Date: 2009-05-27
Genre: Computers

Expounding on the results of the author’s work with the US Army Research Office, DARPA, the Office of Naval Research, and various defense industry contractors, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots explores how to produce an "artificial conscience" in a new class of robots, humane-oids, which are robots that can potentially perform more ethically than humans in the battlefield. The author examines the philosophical basis, motivation, theory, and design recommendations for the implementation of an ethical control and reasoning system in autonomous robot systems, taking into account the Laws of War and Rules of Engagement. The book presents robot architectural design recommendations for Post facto suppression of unethical behavior, Behavioral design that incorporates ethical constraints from the onset, The use of affective functions as an adaptive component in the event of unethical action, and A mechanism that identifies and advises operators regarding their ultimate responsibility for the deployment of autonomous systems. It also examines why soldiers fail in battle regarding ethical decisions; discusses the opinions of the public, researchers, policymakers, and military personnel on the use of lethality by autonomous systems; provides examples that illustrate autonomous systems’ ethical use of force; and includes relevant Laws of War. Helping ensure that warfare is conducted justly with the advent of autonomous robots, this book shows that the first steps toward creating robots that not only conform to international law but outperform human soldiers in their ethical capacity are within reach in the future. It supplies the motivation, philosophy, formalisms, representational requirements, architectural design criteria, recommendations, and test scenarios to design and construct an autonomous robotic system capable of ethically using lethal force. Ron Arkin was quoted in a November 2010 New York Times article about robots in the military.

Developmental Robotics

Author: Angelo Cangelosi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262028011
Release Date: 2015-01-09
Genre: Computers

A comprehensive overview of an interdisciplinary approach to robotics that takes direct inspiration from the developmental and learning phenomena observed in children's cognitive development.