Author: Ann E. Killebrew
Publisher: Society of Biblical Lit
Release Date: 2005-10-01
Ancient Israel did not emerge within a vacuum but rather came to exist alongside various peoples, including Canaanites, Egyptians, and Philistines. Indeed, Israel’s very proximity to these groups has made it difficult—until now—to distinguish the archaeological traces of early Israel and other contemporary groups. Through an analysis of the results from recent excavations in light of relevant historical and later biblical texts, this book proposes that it is possible to identify these peoples and trace culturally or ethnically defined boundaries in the archaeological record. Features of late second-millennium B.C.E. culture are critically examined in their historical and biblical contexts in order to define the complex social boundaries of the early Iron Age and reconstruct the diverse material world of these four peoples. Of particular value to scholars, archaeologists, and historians, this volume will also be a standard reference and resource for students and other readers interested in the emergence of early Israel.
Author: Lester L. Grabbe
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
Release Date: 2008-12-01
For more than a decade the European Seminar in Historical Methodology has debated the history of ancient Israel (or Palestine or the Southern Levant, as some prefer). A number of different topics have been the focus of discussion and published collections, but several have centered on historical periods. The really seminal period--one of great debates over a number of different topics--is the four centuries between the Late Bronze II and Iron IIA, but it seemed appropriate to leave it toward the end of the various historical periods. It was also important to give a prominent place to archaeology, and the best way to do this seemed to be to have a special Seminar session devoted entirely to archaeology.
Author: Thomas Evan Levy
Release Date: 2016-04-08
Genre: Social Science
Joint winner of the 2011 Biblical Archaeology Society Publication Award in the category "Best Scholarly Book on Archaeology" The archaeology of the Holy Land is undergoing major change. 'Historical Biblical Archaeology and the Future' describes the paradigm shift brought about by objective science-based dating methods, geographic information systems, anthropological models, and digital technology tools. The book serves as a model for how researchers can investigate the relationship between ancient texts (both sacred and profane) and the archaeological record. Influential archaeologists and biblical scholars examine a range of texts, materials and cultures: the Vedas and India; the Homeric legends and Greek Classical Archaeology; the Sagas and Icelandic archaeology; Islamic Archaeology; and the Umayyad, Abbasid, and Ayyubid periods. The groundbreaking essays offer a foundation for future research in biblical archaeology, ancient Jewish history and biblical studies.
This book includes thirty contributions - twenty-nine papers and one artistic contribution - by John''s colleagues, former students, and friends, on a variety of topics that represent John''s versatility and many interests, including philology, history, natural history, and art. Many of the papers concentrate on the Akkadian speaking world, reflecting one of the major languages John Huehnergard has worked on throughout the years. Eran Cohen reviews and discusses the functional value of Akkadian iprus in conditional clauses in epistolary and legal texts. Lutz Edzard discusses the Akkadian injunctive umma, used in oath formulae. Daniel Fleming asks who were the ''Apiru people mentioned in Egyptian texts in the Late Bronze Age and what was their social standing as is reflected in the Amarna letters. Shlomo Izre''el offers a revised and improved version of his important study of the language of the Amarna letters. Leonid Kogan offers a comparative etymological study of botanical terminology in Akkadian, while Josef Tropper argues that Akkadian poetry, as well as Northwest Semitic poetry, are based on certain metric principles. Wilfred von Soldt lists and discusses personal names ending in -ayu from Amarna. A number of papers deal with Arabic grammarians and their concepts of language. Gideon Goldenberg discusses the concept of vocalic length in Arabic grammatical tradition and in the medieval Hebrew tradition that was its product. Wolfhart Heinrichs''s contribution shows that Ibn Khaldun held innovative views of language and its evolution. Several other papers deal with Hebrew and the Hebrew Bible. Steven Fassberg deals with verbal t-forms that do not exhibit the expected metathesis in Hebrew and Aramaic of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Randall Garr studies one class of denominal hiphil verbs and asks why these verbs are assigned to the causative stem despite their non-causative semantic content. Ed Greenstein suggests that the roots of biblical wisdom can be located in second-millennium Canaanite literature by identifying wisdom sayings and themes in the Ugaritic corpus. Jeremy Hutton sheds more light on tG forms in Biblical Hebrew. Paul Korchin explains occurrences of the cohortative in Biblical Hebrew that do not conform to the normative volitive function. Dennis Pardee provides a detailed study of the Hebrew verbal system as primarily expressing aspect, not tense. Gary A. Rendsburg argues in favor of Late Biblical Hebrew features in the book of Haggai. Four papers deal with linguistic aspects of non-Classical Semitic languages. Charles H�berl looks into predicates of verbless sentences in Semitic and particularly in Neo-Mandaic. Geoffrey Khan discusses the functional differences between the preterite and the perfect in NENA. Aaron D. Rubin provides Semitic etymologies of two Modern South Arabian words. Ofra Tirosh-Becker discusses the language of the Judeo-Arabic translation of the books of Prophets. Papers on comparative Semitics are likewise numerous. Jo Ann Hackett takes another look at Ugaritic yaqtul and argues for the existence of a preterite yaqtul on comparative grounds, among others. Rebecca Hasselbach tackles the evasive origin of the Semitic verbal endings -u and -a. Na''ama Pat-El continues the discussion of the origin of the Hebrew relative particle seC- from a syntactic and comparative perspective. Richard C. Steiner proposes a new vowel syncope rule for Proto Semitic. David Testen argues for a different reconstruction of the Semitic case system. Tamar Zewi shows that prepositional phrases can function as subjects in a variety of Semitic languages. Andrzej Zaborski suggests that Berber and Cushitic preserve archaic features that have been lost for the most part in the Semitic languages. There is one paper on an Indo-European language with important ties to Semitic languages in P. Oktor Skjaervo discussion of the Pahlavi verb *awas ''to dry.'' Finally, Richard Walton contributes a paper about the jumping spiders of Concord, Massachusetts, a project he labored on with John Huehnergard. The book is beautifully decorated by the drawings of the artist X Bonnie Woods, who prepared special illustration for this volume, based on cuneiform.
This monograph describes the results of the archaeological excavation at the site of Tell Jemmeh, Israel, undertaken by the Smithsonian Institution and directed by Gus W. Van Beek during the years 1970–1990. All the artifacts from the excavations were shipped from Israel to Washington, D.C., and have been restored, studied, and analyzed in the National Museum of Natural History for the past four decades. The site is a strategic and large mound located near Gaza and the Mediterranean coast. It was inhabited continuously for at least 1,400 years during the Middle and Late Bronze Age, the Iron Age, and the Persian period. The highlights of this excavation are the findings of a large and affluent courtyard house from the Late Bronze Age, a sophisticated well-preserved pottery kiln from the early Iron Age, a complex of Assyrian-related administrative buildings during the late Iron Age, and a complete granary of the Persian period. This is a detailed and final report on all of the excavation results, including the architectural remains, stratigraphy, pottery, and other finds. In addition, several more detailed and focused studies of certain aspects of the site’s material include (among others) chapters on imported, decorated, Philistine, Assyrian-style and Greek pottery and chapters on figurines, sealings, jewelry, amulets, scarabs, cylinder seals, flint, coins, ostraca, and fauna. The volume is richly illustrated with nearly 1,000 figures showing field photographs, plans, sections, and drawings and photographs of artifacts. The significance of the results is summarized and discussed in the final chapter. -- Publisher.
The first full description and analysis of Middle Hittite substitution ritual, and as such provides the readers with an important contribution to our understanding of Hittite religious practice. With translations and transcriptions of all duplicate texts, an ample glossary of words, full thematic indices, and elucidating commentaries.
Bisher diente biblische Archäologie zum Beweis der Heiligen Schrift. Die beiden international renommierten Archäologen drehen den Spieß um und lassen die Ausgrabungen eine eigene Sprache sprechen. Ihr dramatisch neues, archäologisch fundiertes Bild von der Geschichte Israels zwingt zum Umdenken. Der Auszug aus Ägypten, die Einnahme Kanaans, das Großreich unter König David und der Tempelbau in Jerusalem unter König Salomon galten lange auch bei den kritischsten Wissenschaftlern als gesichert. Neueste Ausgrabungen, bisher nur Experten bekannt, zeigen ein ganz anderes Bild: " Den Auszug aus Ägypten gab es ebensowenig wie eine "Landnahme". " Jerusalem unter David und Salomon war ein größeres Dorf sicher ohne zentralen Tempel und großen Palast. " Der Monotheismus hat sich viel später entwickelt als bisher angenommen & Das klar und anschaulich geschriebene Buch ist in zwölf Kapitel gegliedert: Auf die Nacherzählung der biblischen Geschichte folgt jeweils die archäologische Spurensuche. Im nächsten Schritt rekonstruieren die Autoren (Israel Finkelstein ist der Direktor des israelischen Instituts Tel Aviv) den tatsächlichen historischen Ablauf, um abschließend zu fragen, wann und warum die Geschichte aufgeschrieben wurde.
Author: Edward Noort
Publisher: Peeters Publishers
Release Date: 1994
Die Zusammenschau von literarischen und archaologischen Quellen ermoglicht eine Revidierung des herkommlichen Bildes der Philister. Ebensowenig, wie Israel en masse aus der Wuste nach Kanaan kam, haben sich die Philister nach der Niederlage gegen Ramses III als ganzes Volk in Kanaan angesiedelt. Die Interpretation des archaologischen Materials war auf die Herkunftsfrage fixiert, und so wurde alles, was nicht aus einer Kontinuitat der kanaanaischen Kultur heraus erklart werden konnte, als Eigenheit der Philister deklariert. Der postulierte mykenisch-agaische Hintergrund wurde auch dort bemuht, wo andere Erklarungen ausreichten. So wurden die Philister in einen Gegensatz zur kanaanaischen Bevolkerung gebracht und als Herrscherschicht bezeichnet. In diesem Schema "verschwand" die Eigenheit der philistaischen Kultur zu einem spateren Zeitpunkt, indem die Philister sich "assimilierten".Die Analyse der Reliefs und Texte aus Medinet Habu sowie das archaologische Material suggerieren etwas anderes. Aus den plst und den Kanaanitern der Kustenebene erwuchs ein neuer Machtfaktor, der spater "Philister" genannt wurde. Dies hat aber zur Folge, dass die Philister nicht mehr ethnisch, sondern hauptsachlich geographisch gedeutet werden. Die eigentliche Konstante ist das Land, die Gruppenbezeichnungen sind nur (oft unzureichende) Hilfskonstruktionen.