Biological Monitoring of Toxic Metals

Author: Thomas W. Clarkson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461309611
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Medical

This document is the result of a conference on "Biological Monitoring of Metals" held in Rochester, June 2-6, 1986, organized jointly by the Environmental Health Sciences Center of the School of Medicine and Dentistry of the University of Rochester, NY, and the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals within the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) at the Karolinska Institute and the National (Swedish) Institute of Environmental Medicine and the University of Umea, Sweden. The aim of the Conference was to define and evaluate the scientific basis for the biological monitoring of metals. The conference was co-sponsored by the World Health Organization through its International Program on Chemical Safety and received substantial encouragement and support from the Swedish Work Environmental Fund and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This was the second conference organized jointly by the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals and The Toxicology Division of the University of Rochester. The previous joint conference was held in 1982 on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Metals. In addition, conferences have been organized by each group (see Appendices A and B). Several of these conferences are specially relevant to the topic of the current conference. These include the joint conference mentioned above and the conferences on dose-effect and dose-response relationship held in Tokyo in 1974 and on accumulation of metals held in Buenos Aires in 1972.

Occupational Neurotoxicology

Author: Lucio G. Costa
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439810435
Release Date: 1998-05-18
Genre: Medical

Many chemical compounds present in workplace settings can produce a number of impairments in the human nervous system. As the situations in which neurotoxic agents have been recognized in exposed workers has grown, so has the importance of occupational neurotoxicology as a specialty. Addressing some of the most vital concerns in the field, Occupational Neurotoxicology discusses: Neurotoxic agents commonly encountered in the workplace Signs and symptoms of neurotoxicity and of the factors affecting neurotoxic effects Biological monitoring and the use of biomarkers Epidemiological methods and clinical approaches to occupational neurotoxicology The analysis of behavioral, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques in the diagnosis of neurotoxicity Occupational neurotoxicity in developing countries The evaluation and management of occupational illnesses due to neurotoxicity Occupational Neurotoxicology concisely covers important facts on the adverse effects of chemical, biological, and physical agents that can impair or alter the structure of the nervous system. Professionals and researchers in the fields of occupational medicine, toxicology, epidemiology, neurology, industrial hygiene, and psychology will all find relevant information on the health problems that can occur from exposure to neurotoxicants.

Handbook of Elemental Speciation II

Author: Rita Cornelis
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470855983
Release Date: 2005-06-17
Genre: Medical

Written by an internationally recognized group of editors and contributors, Handbook of Elemental Speciation, Volume 2 provides a comprehensive, cross-disciplinary presentation of the analytical techniques involved in speciation. Comprehensive coverage of key elements and compounds in situ Addresses the analysis and impact of these elements and compounds, e.g. arsenic, lead, copper, iron, halogens, etc., in food, the environment, clinical and occupational health Detailed methodology and data are reported, as well as regulatory limits Includes general introduction on the impact in these key areas

Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants Children and Other Sensitive Populations

Author: Committee on Measuring Lead in Critical Populations
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309598415
Release Date: 1993-01-15
Genre: Science

Lead is a ubiquitous toxic agent that is especially damaging to the young child and the developing fetus. Unlike many environmental health risks, the risks associated with lead are no longer theoretical but have been observed for many years. Indeed, the first regulation of lead in paint was enacted in the 1920s. Currently, because of growing evidence of lead toxicity at lower concentrations, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently lowered its lead-exposure guideline to 10 ug/dl lead in blood from 25 ug/dl. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations addresses the public health concern about the logistics and feasibility of lead screening in infants and children at such low concentrations. This book will serve as the basis for all U.S. Public Health Service activities and for all state and local programs in monitoring lead.

Lead and Public Health

Author: Paul Mushak
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444515544
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Business & Economics

The book presents a detailed assessment of the health science of lead and the human health risk assessment models for lead's human health impacts, followed by an account of various regulatory efforts in the United States and elsewhere to eliminate or reduce human toxic exposures to lead. The science of lead as presented here covers releases of lead into the environment, lead's movement through the environment to reach humans who are then exposed, and the spectrum of toxic effects, particularly low-level toxic effects, on the developing central nervous system of the very young child. The section on human health risk assessment deals with quantifying not only the dose-response relationships that underlie toxic responses to lead in sensitive populations but also with the likelihood of toxic responses vis-à-vis environmental lead at some level of exposure. This section includes a treatment of computer models of lead exposure, particularly those that use lead in whole blood as a key measure. Various models convert lead intake via various body compartments into measures of body lead burden. Such measures are then directly related to severity of injury. The final section of the book deals with past and present regulatory efforts to control lead releases into the human environment. Current control efforts present a mixed picture. The most problematic issue is the continued presence of lead paint in older housing and lead in soils of urban and mining industry communities. Comprehensive assessment of the three major facets of the public health problem of lead: the voluminous science, the risk assessment approaches, and approaches to controlling lead as a public health problem. Integration of the above three elements to provide a coherent whole Provides a single source of information that will be extremely valuable to all professionals working in areas impacted by this toxic substance

Human Lead Exposure

Author: Herbert L. Needleman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 084936034X
Release Date: 1991-12-07
Genre: Medical

Human Lead Exposure consists of scientific reviews and important contributions intended to increase the understanding of the legal, social, and economic forces that have delayed effective prevention of lead toxicity. Chapters discuss the history (both ancient and recent) of lead, explore its neurobiology and toxicology, review the sources and routes to humans, and examine evidence that indicates that lead may affect humans at levels previously thought to be harmless. Neurobiologists, epidemiologists, public health officials, and others concerned about the effects of lead on the human population will find a tremendous amount of useful information in this timely volume.

Advances in Mercury Toxicology

Author: Tsuguyoshi Suzuki
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781475790719
Release Date: 2013-11-11
Genre: Medical

This book is based on an international meeting organized by the University of Tokyo and the University of Rochester, and is published as one belonging to the series of Rochester International Conferences in Environmental Toxicity. The meeting on "Advances in Mercury Toxicology" was held at the University of Tokyo on August 1 to 3, 1990. The invited papers are published in this book along with an "Overview" chapter that was written by the editors at a meeting held at the University of Rochester on August 1 to 2, 1991. The purpose of the meeting was to assemble leading scientists to discuss their most recent findings on the toxicology of mercury. The time was opportune. Considerable progress has been made on the environmental fate and toxicology of mercury. Recent findings have given new insight into the global model for mercury. Transport in the atmosphere extends great distances resulting in pollution of lakes and rivers far distant from the source of mercury release. The process of methylation leads to accumulation of methylmercury in fish and thus in the human diet. New evidence indicates that acid rain and the impoundment of water for hydroelectric purposes affects the methylation and bioaccumulation processes resulting in higher levels of methylmercury in fish.

Environmental Metal Pollutants Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity

Author: Maria E. Ariza
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461551539
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Medical

Humans are exposed daily to low concentrations of metals that are released into the environment by both natural and industrial processes. Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity examines concerns about the acute and/or chronic exposure of humans to concentrations of these metals that are below the threshold levels established by various federal regulatory agencies. Some of these metals are accumulated in various tissues and over time this may result in the accumulation of a significant body burden. This could increase the risk of developing a variety of diseases later in life, at a time when thresholds for such effects may already be reduced by the processes of aging. Such possibilities could only further compromise the quality of life in the elderly population and could contribute to the rising cost of health care in this country. Studies that have been conducted to determine the possible risks associated with exposure to relatively non-toxic concentrations of environmental metals have been hampered by a lack of appropriate models and a lack of funding. It has also been difficult for researchers to demonstrate a correlation between the exposure of humans or animals to low concentrations of environmental pollutants and disease. This book examines recent technological advances in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, and computer-enhanced image analyses that provide researchers with the tools to begin elucidating the genotoxic effects of environmental metal pollutants and the mechanisms by which these metals cause DNA damage. Environmental Metal Pollutants, Reactive Oxygen Intermediaries and Genotoxicity: Molecular Approaches to Determine Mechanisms of Toxicity presents data that demonstrate that certain environmental metal pollutants are genotoxic. The authors describe the role of reactive oxygen intermediates in causing the DNA damage induced by environmental metal pollutants and discuss their possible role in human disease.

Preventive Strategies for Living in a Chemical World

Author: Eula Bingham
ISBN: 1573310743
Release Date: 1997-01-01
Genre: Medical

This text presents scientific inquiry into the causes of environmental and occupational disease, and the means of reducing the toll of illness and death from environmental agents. The preventive strategies discussed include identifying agents causing disease, determining exposure to them, setting priorities for change based on risk assessment, educating citizens and workers, and regulatory approaches.

Immunotoxicology Of Environmental And Occupational Metals

Author: Judith T Zelicoff
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780748403905
Release Date: 1998-02-20
Genre: Science

Provides an overview of the effects of environmentally and occupationally important metals on the immune system and host defence. The fist ten chapters in the text focus on particular metals or groups of metals, including arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and vanadium. Subsequent chapters examine the immunotoxicological effects of trace metals such as indium and platinum and essential metals such as iron, zinc and copper. The main emphasis is on the in vivo and in vitro effects of these metals on host immune responses in a variety of mammalian species including humans. Each chapter also briefly reviews the history, use, occurrence, biology and toxicology of the metals.

Author: 国立国会図書館 (Japan)
ISBN: UOM:39015033472526
Release Date: 1979
Genre: Science