Biomedical and Behavioral Science Research in Antarctica

Publisher: National Academies
ISBN: NAP:13497
Release Date: 1971
Genre: Antarctica

Discussion of how research in the microenvironment of the Antarctic will yield information enabling the measurement of biological, psychological, and sociological effects.

Polar Human Biology

Author: O. G. Edholm
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 9781483165073
Release Date: 2013-10-22
Genre: Medical

Polar Human Biology documents the proceedings of the SCAR/IUPS/IUBS Symposium on Human Biology and Medicine in the Antarctic held at the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, England on September 19-21, 1972. This book compiles review papers of expeditions conducted by several scientists, demonstrating the multidisciplinary aspects of the work carried out in both polar regions. The first portion of the compilation describes the problems encountered by Antarctic expeditions in the 1930s and today, which illustrates the tremendous changes in the way in which Antarctic expeditions operated then and now. Following the review papers, medical and dental aspects are also described, including a brief discussion on microbiology. The final section of this book deals with psychological and behavioral aspects, indicating that the interpretation of physiological studies of the effects of cold on man would be greatly helped by knowledge of the psychological effects of the polar situation. This text is a good reference for students or individuals conducting research on human and marine biology in the Antarctic regions.

From Antarctica to Outer Space

Author: Albert A. Harrison
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461230120
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Psychology

From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement aims to revitalize and encourage behavioral research in spaceflight as well as in polar and comparable settings. It comprises a broad collection of papers that evolved from presentations at a three day conference entitled The Human Experience in Antarctica: Applications to Life in Space (The Sunnyvale Conference). This conference was co-sponsored by the Division of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and held in 1987. The book provides, through firsthand accounts and research reviews, an introduction to the human facet in isolated and confined environments such as Antarctica, outer space, submarines, and remote national parks. The book discusses some of the theoretical issues underlying research on isolated and confined people, thus demonstrating the applicability of certain general theories of behavior. It also focuses on basic psychological and social responses to isolation and confinement. Studies whose primary purpose is to explore the effects of selection, training, and environmental design on human behavior and mission outcomes are discussed.

Changing Trends in Antarctic Research

Author: A. Elzinga
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780585288499
Release Date: 2007-08-20
Genre: Science

The core of this volume is a report from a symposium held at the University of Goteborg in the Fall of 1991. It deals with the interplay of science and politics and how^ such interplay affects research agendas. The focus is on polar research in Antarctica, a continent that has been much in the news during the past couple of years. It gives me particular pleasure to thank all the speakers who took part in the program. All of them have many commitments and involvements in international polar research and the protection of Antarctica for its scientific and aesthetic values. The fact that such a distinguished group has been willing to come to Goteborg, to my mind attests to the importance and timeliness of our topic and the relevance of epistemological and policy issues in this field. A presentation of each speaker and author is made within the relevant chapters in the text. My interest in the Antarctic has its origins in discussions with Anders Karlqvist, the Director of the Swedish Polar Research Secretariate at the Royal Academy of Science in Stockholm. Anders and I had worked together in the early 80's in a program on Technology and Culture, among other at the Research Policy Institute in Lund. At the time he was with the Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research (FRN), its Committee for Future Oriented Research headed by Torsten Hagerstrand.

Human Adaptability to Antarctic Conditions

Author: E. K. Eric Gunderson
Publisher: Wiley-AGU
ISBN: UVA:X030313203
Release Date: 1974
Genre: Science

This volume was made possible by the interest and support of George A. Llano, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation. He originally suggested the need for such a review of research on man's adaptation to the antarctic environment and gave encouragement and assistance in carrying out this objective.In the planning of this volume the decision was made to solicit contributions from investigators who were actively engaged in antarctic research. An effort was made to encompass all major medical and behavioral investigations and to reflect the multidisciplinary and multinational character of research in Antarctica. It was possible to obtain contributions from distinguished scientists who themselves directed major national programs and who were in excellent positions to review progress over the past decade.

Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

Author: Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309220392
Release Date: 2011-12-05
Genre: Science

For many years, experiments using chimpanzees have been instrumental in advancing scientific knowledge and have led to new medicines to prevent life-threatening and debilitating diseases. However, recent advances in alternate research tools have rendered chimpanzees largely unnecessary as research subjects. The Institute of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Research Council, conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific necessity for chimpanzees in NIH-funded biomedical and behavioral research. The committee concludes that while the chimpanzee has been a valuable animal model in the past, most current biomedical research use of chimpanzees is not necessary, though noted that it is impossible to predict whether research on emerging or new diseases may necessitate chimpanzees in the future.

Antarctic Treaty System

Author: Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309127202
Release Date: 1986-01-01
Genre: Science

The international agreements covering Antarctica are models of cooperation and joined purpose. Convening at the Beardmore South Field Camp, near the Transantarctic Mountains, the Polar Research Board studied the Antarctic Treaty System and its implications for improved relationships between countries. This study examines the structure, meaning, and international repercussions of the Antarctic Treaty, focusing on the ways it benefits both the scientific and political communities. Chapters cover the history, science, environment, resources, and international status of Antarctica.

Oceanography of the Ross Sea Antarctica

Author: Giancarlo Spezie
Publisher: Springer Verlag
ISBN: 8847000394
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Nature

"This volume provides an overview of recent observation results in Antarctica and particularly the Ross Sea. A general description of the oceanography in the area is given. The links between circulation and particle fluxes of biogenic elements are explored." "This up-to-date data analysis and modelling contributes to a more complete understanding of the Ross Sea as a dynamic and ecological system and will be of great interest to scientists involved in physical oceanography, meteorology, climate, and marine biology research."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Research Fraud in the Behavioral and Biomedical Sciences

Author: David J. Miller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471520683
Release Date: 1992-03-24
Genre: Medical

Deals with the issues of fraud in research, a subject which has appeared in the newspapers with increasing frequency of late. Includes moral and ethical aspects and legal ramifications as well as the institutional and career pressures to perform.