Polar Human Biology

Author: O. G. Edholm
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 9781483165073
Release Date: 2013-10-22
Genre: Medical

Polar Human Biology documents the proceedings of the SCAR/IUPS/IUBS Symposium on Human Biology and Medicine in the Antarctic held at the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, England on September 19-21, 1972. This book compiles review papers of expeditions conducted by several scientists, demonstrating the multidisciplinary aspects of the work carried out in both polar regions. The first portion of the compilation describes the problems encountered by Antarctic expeditions in the 1930s and today, which illustrates the tremendous changes in the way in which Antarctic expeditions operated then and now. Following the review papers, medical and dental aspects are also described, including a brief discussion on microbiology. The final section of this book deals with psychological and behavioral aspects, indicating that the interpretation of physiological studies of the effects of cold on man would be greatly helped by knowledge of the psychological effects of the polar situation. This text is a good reference for students or individuals conducting research on human and marine biology in the Antarctic regions.

From Antarctica to Outer Space

Author: Albert A. Harrison
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461230120
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Psychology

From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement aims to revitalize and encourage behavioral research in spaceflight as well as in polar and comparable settings. It comprises a broad collection of papers that evolved from presentations at a three day conference entitled The Human Experience in Antarctica: Applications to Life in Space (The Sunnyvale Conference). This conference was co-sponsored by the Division of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and held in 1987. The book provides, through firsthand accounts and research reviews, an introduction to the human facet in isolated and confined environments such as Antarctica, outer space, submarines, and remote national parks. The book discusses some of the theoretical issues underlying research on isolated and confined people, thus demonstrating the applicability of certain general theories of behavior. It also focuses on basic psychological and social responses to isolation and confinement. Studies whose primary purpose is to explore the effects of selection, training, and environmental design on human behavior and mission outcomes are discussed.

Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

Author: Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309220392
Release Date: 2011-12-05
Genre: Science

For many years, experiments using chimpanzees have been instrumental in advancing scientific knowledge and have led to new medicines to prevent life-threatening and debilitating diseases. However, recent advances in alternate research tools have rendered chimpanzees largely unnecessary as research subjects. The Institute of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Research Council, conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific necessity for chimpanzees in NIH-funded biomedical and behavioral research. The committee concludes that while the chimpanzee has been a valuable animal model in the past, most current biomedical research use of chimpanzees is not necessary, though noted that it is impossible to predict whether research on emerging or new diseases may necessitate chimpanzees in the future.

Human Adaptability to Antarctic Conditions

Author: E. K. Eric Gunderson
Publisher: Wiley-AGU
ISBN: UVA:X030313203
Release Date: 1974
Genre: Science

This volume was made possible by the interest and support of George A. Llano, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation. He originally suggested the need for such a review of research on man's adaptation to the antarctic environment and gave encouragement and assistance in carrying out this objective.In the planning of this volume the decision was made to solicit contributions from investigators who were actively engaged in antarctic research. An effort was made to encompass all major medical and behavioral investigations and to reflect the multidisciplinary and multinational character of research in Antarctica. It was possible to obtain contributions from distinguished scientists who themselves directed major national programs and who were in excellent positions to review progress over the past decade.

Polar Research

Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Polar Research
Publisher: National Academies
ISBN: NAP:12273
Release Date: 1970
Genre: Polar regions

Identification and assessment of scientific problems for future study in Arctic and Antarctic.

On Orbit and Beyond

Author: Douglas A. Vakoch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642305832
Release Date: 2012-12-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering

As we stand poised on the verge of a new era of spaceflight, we must rethink every element, including the human dimension. This book explores some of the contributions of psychology to yesterday’s great space race, today’s orbiter and International Space Station missions, and tomorrow’s journeys beyond Earth’s orbit. Early missions into space were typically brief, and crews were small, often drawn from a single nation. As international cooperation in space exploration has increased over the decades, the challenges of communicating across cultural boundaries and dealing with interpersonal conflicts have become all the more important, requiring different coping skills and sensibilities than “the right stuff” expected of early astronauts. As astronauts travel to asteroids or establish a permanent colony on the Moon, with the eventual goal of reaching Mars, the duration of expeditions will increase markedly, as will the psychosocial stresses. Away from their home planet for extended times, future spacefarers will need to be increasingly self-sufficient, while simultaneously dealing with the complexities of heterogeneous, multicultural crews. "On Orbit and Beyond: Psychological Perspectives on Human Spaceflight," the second, considerably expanded edition of "Psychology of Space Exploration: Contemporary Research in Historical Perspective," provides an analysis of these and other challenges facing future space explorers while at the same time presenting new empirical research on topics ranging from simulation studies of commercial spaceflights to the psychological benefits of viewing Earth from space. This second edition includes an all new section exploring the challenges astronauts will encounter as they travel to asteroids, Mars, Saturn, and the stars, requiring an unprecedented level of autonomy. Updated essays discuss the increasingly important role of China in human spaceflight. In addition to examining contemporary psychological research, several of the essays also explicitly address the history of the psychology of space exploration. Leading contributors to the field place the latest theories and empirical findings in historical context by exploring changes in space missions over the past half century, as well as reviewing developments in the psychological sciences during the same period. The essays are innovative in their approaches and conclusions, providing novel insights for behavioral researchers and historians alike.

Antarctic Treaty System

Author: Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309127202
Release Date: 1986-01-01
Genre: Science

The international agreements covering Antarctica are models of cooperation and joined purpose. Convening at the Beardmore South Field Camp, near the Transantarctic Mountains, the Polar Research Board studied the Antarctic Treaty System and its implications for improved relationships between countries. This study examines the structure, meaning, and international repercussions of the Antarctic Treaty, focusing on the ways it benefits both the scientific and political communities. Chapters cover the history, science, environment, resources, and international status of Antarctica.