Author: O. G. Edholm
Release Date: 2013-10-22
Polar Human Biology documents the proceedings of the SCAR/IUPS/IUBS Symposium on Human Biology and Medicine in the Antarctic held at the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, England on September 19-21, 1972. This book compiles review papers of expeditions conducted by several scientists, demonstrating the multidisciplinary aspects of the work carried out in both polar regions. The first portion of the compilation describes the problems encountered by Antarctic expeditions in the 1930s and today, which illustrates the tremendous changes in the way in which Antarctic expeditions operated then and now. Following the review papers, medical and dental aspects are also described, including a brief discussion on microbiology. The final section of this book deals with psychological and behavioral aspects, indicating that the interpretation of physiological studies of the effects of cold on man would be greatly helped by knowledge of the psychological effects of the polar situation. This text is a good reference for students or individuals conducting research on human and marine biology in the Antarctic regions.
Author: Albert A. Harrison
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and Confinement aims to revitalize and encourage behavioral research in spaceflight as well as in polar and comparable settings. It comprises a broad collection of papers that evolved from presentations at a three day conference entitled The Human Experience in Antarctica: Applications to Life in Space (The Sunnyvale Conference). This conference was co-sponsored by the Division of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and held in 1987. The book provides, through firsthand accounts and research reviews, an introduction to the human facet in isolated and confined environments such as Antarctica, outer space, submarines, and remote national parks. The book discusses some of the theoretical issues underlying research on isolated and confined people, thus demonstrating the applicability of certain general theories of behavior. It also focuses on basic psychological and social responses to isolation and confinement. Studies whose primary purpose is to explore the effects of selection, training, and environmental design on human behavior and mission outcomes are discussed.
Author: E. K. Eric Gunderson
Release Date: 1974
This volume was made possible by the interest and support of George A. Llano, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation. He originally suggested the need for such a review of research on man's adaptation to the antarctic environment and gave encouragement and assistance in carrying out this objective.In the planning of this volume the decision was made to solicit contributions from investigators who were actively engaged in antarctic research. An effort was made to encompass all major medical and behavioral investigations and to reflect the multidisciplinary and multinational character of research in Antarctica. It was possible to obtain contributions from distinguished scientists who themselves directed major national programs and who were in excellent positions to review progress over the past decade.
Author: Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2011-12-05
For many years, experiments using chimpanzees have been instrumental in advancing scientific knowledge and have led to new medicines to prevent life-threatening and debilitating diseases. However, recent advances in alternate research tools have rendered chimpanzees largely unnecessary as research subjects. The Institute of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Research Council, conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific necessity for chimpanzees in NIH-funded biomedical and behavioral research. The committee concludes that while the chimpanzee has been a valuable animal model in the past, most current biomedical research use of chimpanzees is not necessary, though noted that it is impossible to predict whether research on emerging or new diseases may necessitate chimpanzees in the future.
Author: Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 1986-01-01
The international agreements covering Antarctica are models of cooperation and joined purpose. Convening at the Beardmore South Field Camp, near the Transantarctic Mountains, the Polar Research Board studied the Antarctic Treaty System and its implications for improved relationships between countries. This study examines the structure, meaning, and international repercussions of the Antarctic Treaty, focusing on the ways it benefits both the scientific and political communities. Chapters cover the history, science, environment, resources, and international status of Antarctica.