Black and Blue

Author: Paul Frymer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140083726X
Release Date: 2011-06-27
Genre: Political Science

In the 1930s, fewer than one in one hundred U.S. labor union members were African American. By 1980, the figure was more than one in five. Black and Blue explores the politics and history that led to this dramatic integration of organized labor. In the process, the book tells a broader story about how the Democratic Party unintentionally sowed the seeds of labor's decline. The labor and civil rights movements are the cornerstones of the Democratic Party, but for much of the twentieth century these movements worked independently of one another. Paul Frymer argues that as Democrats passed separate legislation to promote labor rights and racial equality they split the issues of class and race into two sets of institutions, neither of which had enough authority to integrate the labor movement. From this division, the courts became the leading enforcers of workplace civil rights, threatening unions with bankruptcy if they resisted integration. The courts' previously unappreciated power, however, was also a problem: in diversifying unions, judges and lawyers enfeebled them financially, thus democratizing through destruction. Sharply delineating the double-edged sword of state and legal power, Black and Blue chronicles an achievement that was as problematic as it was remarkable, and that demonstrates the deficiencies of race- and class-based understandings of labor, equality, and power in America.

Building the Judiciary

Author: Justin Crowe
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400842575
Release Date: 2012-03-25
Genre: Political Science

How did the federal judiciary transcend early limitations to become a powerful institution of American governance? How did the Supreme Court move from political irrelevance to political centrality? Building the Judiciary uncovers the causes and consequences of judicial institution-building in the United States from the commencement of the new government in 1789 through the close of the twentieth century. Explaining why and how the federal judiciary became an independent, autonomous, and powerful political institution, Justin Crowe moves away from the notion that the judiciary is exceptional in the scheme of American politics, illustrating instead how it is subject to the same architectonic politics as other political institutions. Arguing that judicial institution-building is fundamentally based on a series of contested questions regarding institutional design and delegation, Crowe develops a theory to explain why political actors seek to build the judiciary and the conditions under which they are successful. He both demonstrates how the motivations of institution-builders ranged from substantive policy to partisan and electoral politics to judicial performance, and details how reform was often provoked by substantial changes in the political universe or transformational entrepreneurship by political leaders. Embedding case studies of landmark institution-building episodes within a contextual understanding of each era under consideration, Crowe presents a historically rich narrative that offers analytically grounded explanations for why judicial institution-building was pursued, how it was accomplished, and what--in the broader scheme of American constitutional democracy--it achieved.

Presidential Party Building

Author: Daniel J. Galvin
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400831173
Release Date: 2009-09-21
Genre: Political Science

Modern presidents are usually depicted as party "predators" who neglect their parties, exploit them for personal advantage, or undercut their organizational capacities. Challenging this view, Presidential Party Building demonstrates that every Republican president since Dwight D. Eisenhower worked to build his party into a more durable political organization while every Democratic president refused to do the same. Yet whether they supported their party or stood in its way, each president contributed to the distinctive organizational trajectories taken by the two parties in the modern era. Unearthing new archival evidence, Daniel Galvin reveals that Republican presidents responded to their party's minority status by building its capacities to mobilize voters, recruit candidates, train activists, provide campaign services, and raise funds. From Eisenhower's "Modern Republicanism" to Richard Nixon's "New Majority" to George W. Bush's hopes for a partisan realignment, Republican presidents saw party building as a means of forging a new political majority in their image. Though they usually met with little success, their efforts made important contributions to the GOP's cumulative organizational development. Democratic presidents, in contrast, were primarily interested in exploiting the majority they inherited, not in building a new one. Until their majority disappeared during Bill Clinton's presidency, Democratic presidents eschewed party building and expressed indifference to the long-term effects of their actions. Bringing these dynamics into sharp relief, Presidential Party Building offers profound new insights into presidential behavior, party organizational change, and modern American political development.

When Movements Anchor Parties

Author: Daniel Schlozman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400873838
Release Date: 2015-09-01
Genre: Political Science

Throughout American history, some social movements, such as organized labor and the Christian Right, have forged influential alliances with political parties, while others, such as the antiwar movement, have not. When Movements Anchor Parties provides a bold new interpretation of American electoral history by examining five prominent movements and their relationships with political parties. Taking readers from the Civil War to today, Daniel Schlozman shows how two powerful alliances—those of organized labor and Democrats in the New Deal, and the Christian Right and Republicans since the 1970s—have defined the basic priorities of parties and shaped the available alternatives in national politics. He traces how they diverged sharply from three other major social movements that failed to establish a place inside political parties—the abolitionists following the Civil War, the Populists in the 1890s, and the antiwar movement in the 1960s and 1970s. Moving beyond a view of political parties simply as collections of groups vying for preeminence, Schlozman explores how would-be influencers gain influence—or do not. He reveals how movements join with parties only when the alliance is beneficial to parties, and how alliance exacts a high price from movements. Their sweeping visions give way to compromise and partial victories. Yet as Schlozman demonstrates, it is well worth paying the price as movements reorient parties' priorities. Timely and compelling, When Movements Anchor Parties demonstrates how alliances have transformed American political parties.

Uneasy Alliances

Author: Paul Frymer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400836417
Release Date: 2010-08-16
Genre: Political Science

Uneasy Alliances is a powerful challenge to how we think about the relationship between race, political parties, and American democracy. While scholars frequently claim that the need to win elections makes government officials responsive to any and all voters, Paul Frymer shows that not all groups are treated equally; politicians spend most of their time and resources on white swing voters--to the detriment of the African American community. As both parties try to attract white swing voters by distancing themselves from blacks, black voters are often ignored and left with unappealing alternatives. African Americans are thus the leading example of a "captured minority." Frymer argues that our two-party system bears much of the blame for this state of affairs. Often overlooked in current discussions of racial politics, the party system represents a genuine form of institutional racism. Frymer shows that this is no accident, for the party system was set up in part to keep African American concerns off the political agenda. Today, the party system continues to restrict the political opportunities of African American voters, as was shown most recently when Bill Clinton took pains to distance himself from African Americans in order to capture conservative votes and win the presidency. Frymer compares the position of black voters with other social groups--gays and lesbians and the Christian right, for example--who have recently found themselves similarly "captured." Rigorously argued and researched, Uneasy Alliances is a powerful challenge to how we think about the relationship between black voters, political parties, and American democracy. In a new afterword, Frymer examines the impact of Barack Obama's election on the delicate relationship between race and party politics in America.

Fighting for democracy

Author: Christopher S. Parker
Publisher: Princeton Univ Pr
ISBN: 0691140030
Release Date: 2009-08-17
Genre: History

Fighting for Democracy shows how the experiences of African American soldiers during World War II and the Korean War influenced many of them to challenge white supremacy in the South when they returned home. Focusing on the motivations of individual black veterans, this groundbreaking book explores the relationship between military service and political activism. Christopher Parker draws on unique sources of evidence, including interviews and survey data, to illustrate how and why black servicemen who fought for their country in wartime returned to America prepared to fight for their own equality.Parker discusses the history of African American military service and how the wartime experiences of black veterans inspired them to contest Jim Crow. Black veterans gained courage and confidence by fighting their nation's enemies on the battlefield and racism in the ranks. Viewing their military service as patriotic sacrifice in the defense of democracy, these veterans returned home with the determination and commitment to pursue equality and social reform in the South. Just as they had risked their lives to protect democratic rights while abroad, they risked their lives to demand those same rights on the domestic front.Providing a sophisticated understanding of how war abroad impacts efforts for social change at home, Fighting for Democracy recovers a vital story about black veterans and demonstrates their distinct contributions to the American political landscape.

Reforms at risk

Author: Eric M. Patashnik
Publisher: Princeton Univ Pr
ISBN: 0691119988
Release Date: 2008-08-25
Genre: Business & Economics

Reforms at Riskis the first book to closely examine what happens to sweeping and seemingly successful policy reforms after they are passed. Most books focus on the politics of reform adoption, yet as Eric Patashnik shows here, the political struggle does not end when major reforms become enacted. Why do certain highly praised policy reforms endure while others are quietly reversed or eroded away?Patashnik peers into some of the most critical arenas of domestic-policy reform--including taxes, agricultural subsidies, airline deregulation, emissions trading, welfare state reform, and reform of government procurement--to identify the factors that enable reform measures to survive. He argues that the reforms that stick destroy an existing policy subsystem and reconfigure the political dynamic. Patashnik demonstrates that sustainable reforms create positive policy feedbacks, transform institutions, and often unleash the ''creative destructiveness'' of market forces.Reforms at Riskdebunks the argument that reforms inevitably fail because Congress is prey to special interests, and the book provides a more realistic portrait of the possibilities and limits of positive change in American government. It is essential reading for scholars and practitioners of U.S. politics and public policy, offering practical lessons for anyone who wants to ensure that hard-fought reform victories survive.

Building an American Empire

Author: Paul Frymer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400885350
Release Date: 2017-05-02
Genre: Political Science

How American westward expansion was governmentally engineered to promote the formation of a white settler nation Westward expansion of the United States is most conventionally remembered for rugged individualism, geographic isolationism, and a fair amount of luck. Yet the establishment of the forty-eight contiguous states was hardly a foregone conclusion, and the federal government played a critical role in its success. This book examines the politics of American expansion, showing how the government's regulation of population movements on the frontier, both settlement and removal, advanced national aspirations for empire and promoted the formation of a white settler nation. Building an American Empire details how a government that struggled to exercise plenary power used federal land policy to assert authority over the direction of expansion by engineering the pace and patterns of settlement and to control the movement of populations. At times, the government mobilized populations for compact settlement in strategically important areas of the frontier; at other times, policies were designed to actively restrain settler populations in order to prevent violence, international conflict, and breakaway states. Paul Frymer examines how these settlement patterns helped construct a dominant racial vision for America by incentivizing and directing the movement of white European settlers onto indigenous and diversely populated lands. These efforts were hardly seamless, and Frymer pays close attention to the failures as well, from the lack of further expansion into Latin America to the defeat of the black colonization movement. Building an American Empire reveals the lasting and profound significance government settlement policies had for the nation, both for establishing America as dominantly white and for restricting broader aspirations for empire in lands that could not be so racially engineered.

Gerechte Freiheit

Author: Philip Pettit
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 9783518740989
Release Date: 2015-05-09
Genre: Philosophy

Was heißt Freiheit heute – jenseits einer auf persönliche Interessendurchsetzung zielenden neoliberalen Marktfreiheit? Können wir noch ein Freiheitsverständnis entwickeln, das uns moralische Orientierung in einer immer komplexer werdenden Welt bietet? Philip Pettit, einer der meistdiskutierten Philosophen der Gegenwart, entwickelt in seinem mitreißenden Buch einen Freiheitsbegriff, der die Idee eines nichtbeherrschten Lebens in sein Zentrum stellt. Freiheit heißt ihm zufolge: sein eigener Herr sein, allen auf Augenhöhe begegnen können und den Einfluss anderer Menschen nicht fürchten müssen. Das hat weitreichende soziale, ökonomische und politische Konsequenzen. Ein unverzichtbarer Kompass für die Navigation im 21. Jahrhundert.

We were eight years in power

Author: Ta-Nehisi Coates
Publisher: Hanser Berlin
ISBN: 9783446259805
Release Date: 2017-03-12
Genre: Political Science

Mit Barack Obama sollte die amerikanische Gesellschaft ihren jahrhundertealten Rassismus überwinden. Am Ende seiner Amtszeit zerschlugen sich die Reste dieser Hoffnung mit der Machtübernahme Donald Trumps, den Ta-Nehisi Coates als "Amerikas ersten weißen Präsidenten" bezeichnet: ein Mann, dessen politische Existenz in der Abgrenzung zu Obama besteht. Coates zeichnet ein bestechend kluges und leidenschaftliches Porträt der Obama-Ära und ihres Vermächtnisses – ein essenzielles Werk zum Verständnis der Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der USA, von einem Autor, dessen eigene Geschichte jener acht Jahre von einem Arbeitsamt in Harlem bis ins Oval Office führte, wo er den Präsidenten interviewte.

Kleine Geschichte des Neoliberalismus

Author: David Harvey
Publisher: Rotpunktverlag
ISBN: 9783858695284
Release Date: 2012-09-19
Genre: Political Science

Neoliberalismus ist eine Doktrin. Sie besagt, dass der Markt an sich eine Ethik darstellt und in der Lage ist, alles menschliche Tun und Trachten in die richtigen Bahnen zu lenken. Seit rund dreißig Jahren ist der Neoliberalismus aber auch politische Praxis, und viel ist darüber schon publiziert worden. Doch David Harvey legt mit diesem Buch das "lebendigste, lesenswerteste, verständlichste und kritischste Handbuch über den Neoliberalismus vor, das es derzeit gibt". (Leo Panitch, Professor für vergleichende politische Ökonomie an der York-Universität in Toronto) Harvey rekapituliert die Geschichte des Neoliberalismus, wobei nicht nur die allgemein bekannten "Pioniere" Thatcher und Reagan zu Ehren kommen, sondern auch das neoliberale "Modellland" Chile (unter Diktator Pinochet) oder das China des Deng Xiaoping. Er beschreibt den rasanten globalen Siegeszug der neoliberalen politischen Praxis in den 90er-Jahren und analysiert deren verheerende Auswirkungen in den meisten Ländern des Globus. Er zeigt aber auch anhand zahlreicher Beispiele, wie mit Zahlenmaterial gemogelt wird, um den "Erfolg" des Neoliberalismus zu beweisen. Nach diesem Buch wird das nicht mehr so einfach möglich sein.

konomische Theorie der Demokratie

Author: Anthony Downs
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 3165290520
Release Date: 1968
Genre: Business & Economics

English summary: It was Anthony Downs' objective to create a model dealing with voter and government behavior. In order to do so, he established goals which governments, parties and lobbyists as well as the voters can pursue. To motivate all those concerned, he introduced the self-interest axiom and called for rationality in order to attain these goals. With the help of marginal analysis, each voter determines his/her party differential, which will help to determine each voter's choice at the ballot box and to decide which party's rule will give him/her greater utility in the future. Downs describes how crucial the concept of ideology is to his theory. He maintains that a two-party democracy could not provide stable and effective government unless there is a large measure of ideological consensus amongst its citizens, and that political parties encouraged voters to be irrational by remaining vague and ambiguous. German description: Anthony Downs' inzwischen klassisches Demokratie-Modell des Wahler- und Regierungsverhaltens orientiert sich an der okonomischen Theorie. Er nimmt an, dass politische Parteien und Wahler in der Verfolgung bestimmter, deutlich spezifizierter Ziele optimal handeln. So treffen die Wahler unter Ungewissheit uber den Wahlvorgang und die zukunftige Regierungsbildung ihre Wahl nach dem mutmasslichen Nutzen. Die Regierung versucht, mit Hilfe der Manipulation des Budgets ihre Wiederwahl zu erreichen.Ideologien der Parteien auf der einen Seite, Interessengruppen auf der anderen stellen den Wahlern bzw. der Regierung Informationen zur rationalen Entscheidungsfindung zur Verfugung. Dabei wird deutlich, dass Mehrparteiensysteme und Verhaltniswahlrecht jedes Wahl-Kalkul unlosbar werden lassen. Auf die weiteren Folgerungen fur Demokratie-Forschung und -Verstandnis geht Downs im letzten Teil seines Werkes ausfuhrlich ein.

Das Verschwinden der DDR und der Untergang des Kommunismus

Author: Charles S. Maier
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 9783105615423
Release Date: 2016-12-15
Genre: History

Charles S. Maier hat erfolgreich die Herausforderung angenommen, die Ereignisse und Hintergründe, die zum Zusammenbruch des Kommunismus und der DDR führten, in einen umfassenden historischen Kontext einzuordnen: Ein äußerst profundes, auf breitem Quellen- und Archivstudium basierendes und überdies stilistisch brillantes Werk, das seinesgleichen sucht. (Dieser Text bezieht sich auf eine frühere Ausgabe.)