Brain Computation as Hierarchical Abstraction

Author: Dana H. Ballard
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262028615
Release Date: 2015-02-20
Genre: Computers

An argument that the complexities of brain function can be understood hierarchically, in terms of different levels of abstraction, as silicon computing is.

Grundlagen zur Neuroinformatik und Neurobiologie

Author: Patricia S. Churchland
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783322868213
Release Date: 2013-03-08
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The Computational Brain, das außergewöhnliche Buch über vergleichende Forschung in den Bereichen von menschlichem Gehirn und neuesten Möglichkeiten der Computertechnologie, liegt hiermit erstmals in deutscher Sprache vor. Geschrieben von einem führenden Forscherteam in den USA, ist es eine Fundgrube für alle, die wissen wollen, was der Stand der Wissenschaft auf diesem Gebiet ist. Die Autoren führen die Bereiche der Neuroinformatik und Neurobiologie mit gut ausgesuchten Beispielen und der gebotenen Hintergrundinformation gekonnt zusammen. Das Buch wird somit nicht nur dem Fachwissenschaftler sondern auch dem interdisziplinären Interesse des Informatikers und des Biologen auf eine hervorragende Weise gerecht. Übersetzt wurde das Buch von Prof. Dr. Steffen Hölldobler und Dipl.-Biol. Claudia Hölldobler, einem Informatiker und einer Biologin. Rezension in Spektrum der Wissenschaft nr. 10, S. 122 f. im Oktober 1997 (...) Die 1992 erschienene amerikanische Originalausgabe des vorliegenden Werkes ist so erfolgreich, daß man bereits von einem Klassiker reden kann. (...) (...) ....ist das Buch sehr zu empfehlen. In Verbindung von Neurobiologie und Neuroinformatik konkurrenzlos, vermittelt es einiges von der Faszination theoretischer Hirnforschung, die auch in Deutschland zunehmend mehr Wissenschaftler in ihren Bann schlägt. Rezension erschienen in: Computer Spektrum 3/1997, S. 2 (...)Das Buch wird somit nicht nur dem Fachwissenschaftler, sondern auch den interdisziplinären Interesse des Informatikers und des Biologen auf eine hervorragende Weise gerecht(...)

Computing the Mind

Author: Shimon Edelman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019971763X
Release Date: 2008-09-08
Genre: Psychology

In a culmination of humanity's millennia-long quest for self knowledge, the sciences of the mind are now in a position to offer concrete, empirically validated answers to the most fundamental questions about human nature. What does it mean to be a mind? How is the mind related to the brain? How are minds shaped by their embodiment and environment? What are the principles behind cognitive functions such as perception, memory, language, thought, and consciousness? By analyzing the tasks facing any sentient being that is subject to stimulation and a pressure to act, Shimon Edelman identifies computation as the common denominator in the emerging answers to all these questions. Any system composed of elements that exchange signals with each other and occasionally with the rest of the world can be said to be engaged in computation. A brain composed of neurons is one example of a system that computes, and the computations that the neurons collectively carry out constitute the brain's mind. Edelman presents a computational account of the entire spectrum of cognitive phenomena that constitutes the mind. He begins with sentience, and uses examples from visual perception to demonstrate that it must, at its very core, be a type of computation. Throughout his account, Edelman acknowledges the human mind's biological origins. Along the way, he also demystifies traits such as creativity, language, and individual and collective consciousness, and hints at how naturally evolved minds can transcend some of their limitations by moving to computational substrates other than brains. The account that Edelman gives in this book is accessible, yet unified and rigorous, and the big picture he presents is supported by evidence ranging from neurobiology to computer science. The book should be read by anyone seeking a comprehensive and current introduction to cognitive psychology.

Creating Smart Enterprises

Author: Vivek Kale
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781351648493
Release Date: 2017-10-25
Genre: Business & Economics

"Vivek Kale's Creating Smart Enterprises goes smack-dab at the heart of harnessing technology for competing in today's chaotic digital era. Actually, for him, it's SMACT-dab: SMACT (Social media, Mobile, Analytics and big data, Cloud computing, and internet of Things) technologies. This book is required reading for those that want to stay relevant and win, and optional for those that don't." —Peter Fingar, Author of Cognitive Computing and business technology consultant Creating Smart Enterprises unravels the mystery of social media, mobile, analytics and big data, cloud, and Internet of Things (SMACT) computing and explains how it can transform the operating context of business enterprises. It provides a clear understanding of what SMACT really means, what it can do for smart enterprises, and application areas where it is practical to use them. All IT professionals who are involved with any aspect of a SMACT computing project will profit by using this book as a roadmap to make a more meaningful contribution to the success of their computing initiatives. This pragmatic book: Introduces the VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity) business ecosystem confronted by the businesses today. Describes the challenges of defining business and IT strategies and of aligning them as well as their impact on enterprise governance. Provides a very wide treatment of the various components of SMACT computing, including the Internet of Things (IoT) and its constituting technologies like RFID, wireless networks, sensors, and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This book addresses the key differentiator of SMACT computing environments and solutions that combine the power of an elastic infrastructure with analytics. The SMACT environment is cloud-based and inherently mobile. Information management processes can analyze and discern recurring patterns in colossal pools of operational and transactional data. Analytics, big data, and IoT computing leverage and transform these data patterns to help create successful, smart enterprises.

Struktur Und Interpretation Von Computerprogrammen Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs

Author: Harold Abelson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540423427
Release Date: 2001-09-11
Genre: Computers

Die Übersetzung der bewährten Einführung in die Informatik, entstanden am Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), wird seit Jahren erfolgreich in der Lehre eingesetzt. Schritt für Schritt werden Konstruktion und Abstraktion von Daten und Prozeduren dargestellt. Von der Modularisierung bis zum Problemlösen mit Registermaschinen werden verschiedene Programmierparadigmen entwickelt und die effektive Handhabung von Komplexität gezeigt. Als Programmiersprache wird SCHEME verwendet, ein Dialekt von LISP. Alle Programme laufen in jeder dem IEEE-Standard entsprechenden SCHEME-Implementierung.

Perception Action and Consciousness

Author: Nivedita Gangopadhyay
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199551118
Release Date: 2010-08-19
Genre: Medical

What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? This book is an interdisciplinary exploration of the relationship between perception and action, with a focus on the debate about the dual visual systems hypothesis, against action oriented theories of perception.

Biological Neural Networks Hierarchical Concept of Brain Function

Author: Konstantin V. Baev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0817638598
Release Date: 1998-04-30
Genre: Medical

This book is devoted to a novel conceptual theoretical framework of neuro science and is an attempt to show that we can postulate a very small number of assumptions and utilize their heuristics to explain a very large spectrum of brain phenomena. The major assumption made in this book is that inborn and acquired neural automatisms are generated according to the same func tional principles. Accordingly, the principles that have been revealed experi mentally to govern inborn motor automatisms, such as locomotion and scratching, are used to elucidate the nature of acquired or learned automat isms. This approach allowed me to apply the language of control theory to describe functions of biological neural networks. You, the reader, can judge the logic of the conclusions regarding brain phenomena that the book derives from these assumptions. If you find the argument flawless, one can call it common sense and consider that to be the best praise for a chain of logical conclusions. For the sake of clarity, I have attempted to make this monograph as readable as possible. Special attention has been given to describing some of the concepts of optimal control theory in such a way that it will be under standable to a biologist or physician. I have also included plenty of illustra tive examples and references designed to demonstrate the appropriateness and applicability of these conceptual theoretical notions for the neurosciences.

Die Natur der Sprache

Author: Dieter Hillert
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783658201135
Release Date: 2017-11-21
Genre: Psychology

Dieter Hillert untersucht, wie Bausteine der sprachlichen Evolution diskutiert werden können und wie sich diese in Bezug auf den modernen Menschen entwickelt haben. Insbesondere die hier vorgestellten neuronalen Kartierungsmethoden ermöglichen, wichtige Ergebnisse über die neuronalen Schaltkreise zu gewinnen, die an der Sprachverarbeitung beteiligt sind. Der Autor verdeutlich zudem kortikale Kartierungen sowohl bei typischem und als auch bei atypischem Sprachverhalten. Entsprechend wird aus diesen angesprochenen Perspektiven besprochen, wie sich unser Sprachvermögen evolutionär entwickelten hat, um beispielsweise Ideen, Gefühle, Ziele und Humor lautsprachlich vermitteln zu können. Das vorgestellte evolutionäre Sprachmodell beruht auf den kognitiven Fähigkeiten unserer biologischen Vorahnen.

Das Geheimnis des menschlichen Denkens

Author: Ray Kurzweil
Publisher: Lola Books
ISBN: 9783944203164
Release Date: 2015-07-31
Genre: Science

Der Wettlauf um das Gehirn hat begonnen. Sowohl die EU als auch die USA haben gewaltige Forschungsprojekte ins Leben gerufen um das Geheimnis des menschlichen Denkens zu entschlüsseln. 2023 soll es dann soweit sein: Das menschliche Gehirn kann vollständig simuliert werden. In "Das Geheimnis des menschlichen Denkens" gewährt Googles Chefingenieur Ray Kurzweil einen spannenden Einblick in das Reverse Engineering des Gehirns. Er legt dar, wie mithilfe der Mustererkennungstheorie des Geistes der ungeheuren Komplexität des Gehirns beizukommen ist und wirft einen ebenso präzisen wie überraschenden Blick auf die am Horizont sich bereits abzeichnende Zukunft. Ist das menschliche Gehirn erst einmal simuliert, wird künstliche Intelligenz die Fähigkeiten des Menschen schon bald übertreffen. Ein Ereignis, das Kurzweil aufgrund der bereits in "Menschheit 2.0" entworfenen exponentiellen Wachstumskurve der Informationstechnologien bereits für das Jahr 2029 prognostiziert. Aber was dann? Kurzweil ist zuversichtlich, dass die Vorteile künstlicher Intelligenz mögliche Bedrohungsszenarien überwiegen und sie uns entscheidend dabei hilft, uns weiterzuentwickeln und die Herausforderungen der Zukunft zu meistern.

Spatial Information Theory Cognitive and Computational Foundations of Geographic Information Science

Author: C. Freksa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540663652
Release Date: 1999-08-11
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Spatial Information Theory, COSIT '99, held in Stade, Germany, in August 1999. The 30 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 70 submissions. The book is divided into topical sections on landmarks and navigation, route directions, abstraction and spatial hierarchies, spatial reasoning calculi, ontology of space, visual representation and reasoning, maps and routes, and granularity and qualitative abstraction.

Die Rechenmaschine und das Gehirn

Author: John von Neumann
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9783486819663
Release Date: 1991-01-01
Genre: Computers

"The Computer and the Brain" war der Titel von John von Neumanns letzter hinterlassener Arbeit, in der er den wechselseitigen Beziehungen zwischen der Rechenmaschine und dem menschlichen Denk- und Nervensystem nachgeht. Diese Arbeit gibt ein zusammengefaßtes Zeugnis seiner eindringlichen und unorthodoxen Denkweise. John von Neumann gilt heute als einer der Pioniere der modernen Rechentechnik.

Evolution and the Emergent Self

Author: Raymond L. Neubauer
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231521680
Release Date: 2011-12-06
Genre: Science

Evolution and the Emergent Self is an eloquent and evocative new synthesis that explores how the human species emerged from the cosmic dust. Lucidly presenting ideas about the rise of complexity in our genetic, neuronal, ecological, and ultimately cosmological settings, the author takes readers on a provocative tour of modern science's quest to understand our place in nature and in our universe. Readers fascinated with "Big History" and drawn to examine big ideas will be challenged and enthralled by Raymond L. Neubauer's ambitious narrative. How did humans emerge from the cosmos and the pre-biotic Earth, and what mechanisms of biological, chemical, and physical sciences drove this increasingly complex process? Neubauer presents a view of nature that describes the rising complexity of life in terms of increasing information content, first in genes and then in brains. The evolution of the nervous system expanded the capacity of organisms to store information, making learning possible. In key chapters, the author portrays four species with high brain:body ratios—chimpanzees, elephants, ravens, and dolphins—showing how each species shares with humans the capacity for complex communication, elaborate social relationships, flexible behavior, tool use, and powers of abstraction. A large brain can have a hierarchical arrangement of circuits that facilitates higher levels of abstraction. Neubauer describes this constellation of qualities as an emergent self, arguing that self-awareness is nascent in several species besides humans and that potential human characteristics are embedded in the evolutionary process and have emerged repeatedly in a variety of lineages on our planet. He ultimately demonstrates that human culture is not a unique offshoot of a language-specialized primate, but an analogue of fundamental mechanisms that organisms have used since the beginning of life on Earth to gather and process information in order to buffer themselves from fluctuations in the environment. Neubauer also views these developments in a cosmic setting, detailing open thermodynamic systems that grow more complex as the energy flowing through them increases. Similar processes of increasing complexity can be found in the "self-organizing" structures of both living and nonliving forms. Recent evidence from astronomy indicates that planet formation may be nearly as frequent as star formation. Since life makes use of the elements commonly seeded into space by burning and expiring stars, it is reasonable to speculate that the evolution of life and intelligence that happened on our planet may be found across the universe.

Entwurfsmuster

Author:
Publisher: Pearson Deutschland GmbH
ISBN: 3827328241
Release Date: 2009
Genre:


Computational and Robotic Models of the Hierarchical Organization of Behavior

Author: Gianluca Baldassarre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642398759
Release Date: 2013-11-19
Genre: Computers

Current robots and other artificial systems are typically able to accomplish only one single task. Overcoming this limitation requires the development of control architectures and learning algorithms that can support the acquisition and deployment of several different skills, which in turn seems to require a modular and hierarchical organization. In this way, different modules can acquire different skills without catastrophic interference, and higher-level components of the system can solve complex tasks by exploiting the skills encapsulated in the lower-level modules. While machine learning and robotics recognize the fundamental importance of the hierarchical organization of behavior for building robots that scale up to solve complex tasks, research in psychology and neuroscience shows increasing evidence that modularity and hierarchy are pivotal organization principles of behavior and of the brain. They might even lead to the cumulative acquisition of an ever-increasing number of skills, which seems to be a characteristic of mammals, and humans in particular. This book is a comprehensive overview of the state of the art on the modeling of the hierarchical organization of behavior in animals, and on its exploitation in robot controllers. The book perspective is highly interdisciplinary, featuring models belonging to all relevant areas, including machine learning, robotics, neural networks, and computational modeling in psychology and neuroscience. The book chapters review the authors' most recent contributions to the investigation of hierarchical behavior, and highlight the open questions and most promising research directions. As the contributing authors are among the pioneers carrying out fundamental work on this topic, the book covers the most important and topical issues in the field from a computationally informed, theoretically oriented perspective. The book will be of benefit to academic and industrial researchers and graduate students in related disciplines.