Categories Bundles and Spacetime Topology

Author: C.T. Dodson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401577762
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Mathematics

Approach your problems from the right end It isn't that they can't see the solution. It is and begin with the answers. Then one day, that they can't see the problem. perhaps you will find the final question. G. K. Chesterton. The Scandal of Father 'The Hermit Gad in Crane Feathers' in R. Brown'The point of a Pin'. van Gulik's TheChinese Maze Murders. Growing specialization and diversification have brought a host of monographs and textbooks on increasingly specialized topics. However, the "tree" of knowledge of mathematics and related fields does not grow only by putting forth new branches. It also happens, quite often in fact, that branches which were thought to be completely disparate are suddenly seen to be related. Further, the kind and level of sophistication of mathematics applied in various sciences has changed drastically in recent years: measure theory is used (non-trivially) in regional and theoretical economics; algebraic geometry interacts with physics; the Minkowsky lemma, coding theory and the structure of water meet one another in packing and covering theory; quantum fields, crystal defects and mathematical programming profit from homotopy theory; Lie algebras are relevant to filtering; and prediction and electrical engineering can use Stein spaces. And in addition to this there are such new emerging SUbdisciplines as "experimental mathematics", "CFD", "completely integrable systems", "chaos, synergetics and large-scale order", which are almost impossible to fit into the existing classification schemes. They draw upon widely different sections of mathematics.

Introduction to Geometry of Manifolds with Symmetry

Author: V.V. Trofimov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401719612
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Mathematics

One ofthe most important features of the development of physical and mathematical sciences in the beginning of the 20th century was the demolition of prevailing views of the three-dimensional Euclidean space as the only possible mathematical description of real physical space. Apriorization of geometrical notions and identification of physical 3 space with its mathematical modellR were characteristic for these views. The discovery of non-Euclidean geometries led mathematicians to the understanding that Euclidean geometry is nothing more than one of many logically admissible geometrical systems. Relativity theory amended our understanding of the problem of space by amalgamating space and time into an integral four-dimensional manifold. One of the most important problems, lying at the crossroad of natural sciences and philosophy is the problem of the structure of the world as a whole. There are a lot of possibilities for the topology offour dimensional space-time, and at first sight a lot of possibilities arise in cosmology. In principle, not only can the global topology of the universe be complicated, but also smaller scale topological structures can be very nontrivial. One can imagine two "usual" spaces connected with a "throat", making the topology of the union complicated.

Topological Fixed Point Theory of Multivalued Mappings

Author: Lech Górniewicz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 079236001X
Release Date: 1999-01-01
Genre: Mathematics

This volume presents a broad introduction to the topological fixed point theory of multivalued (set-valued) mappings, treating both classical concepts as well as modern techniques. A variety of up-to-date results is described within a unified framework. Topics covered include the basic theory of set-valued mappings with both convex and nonconvex values, approximation and homological methods in the fixed point theory together with a thorough discussion of various index theories for mappings with a topologically complex structure of values, applications to many fields of mathematics, mathematical economics and related subjects, and the fixed point approach to the theory of ordinary differential inclusions. The work emphasises the topological aspect of the theory, and gives special attention to the Lefschetz and Nielsen fixed point theory for acyclic valued mappings with diverse compactness assumptions via graph approximation and the homological approach. Audience: This work will be of interest to researchers and graduate students working in the area of fixed point theory, topology, nonlinear functional analysis, differential inclusions, and applications such as game theory and mathematical economics.

Lightlike Submanifolds of Semi Riemannian Manifolds and Applications

Author: Krishan L. Duggal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401720892
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Mathematics

This book is about the light like (degenerate) geometry of submanifolds needed to fill a gap in the general theory of submanifolds. The growing importance of light like hypersurfaces in mathematical physics, in particular their extensive use in relativity, and very limited information available on the general theory of lightlike submanifolds, motivated the present authors, in 1990, to do collaborative research on the subject matter of this book. Based on a series of author's papers (Bejancu [3], Bejancu-Duggal [1,3], Dug gal [13], Duggal-Bejancu [1,2,3]) and several other researchers, this volume was conceived and developed during the Fall '91 and Fall '94 visits of Bejancu to the University of Windsor, Canada. The primary difference between the lightlike submanifold and that of its non degenerate counterpart arises due to the fact that in the first case, the normal vector bundle intersects with the tangent bundle of the submanifold. Thus, one fails to use, in the usual way, the theory of non-degenerate submanifolds (cf. Chen [1]) to define the induced geometric objects (such as linear connection, second fundamental form, Gauss and Weingarten equations) on the light like submanifold. Some work is known on null hypersurfaces and degenerate submanifolds (see an up-to-date list of references on pages 138 and 140 respectively). Our approach, in this book, has the following outstanding features: (a) It is the first-ever attempt of an up-to-date information on null curves, lightlike hypersur faces and submanifolds, consistent with the theory of non-degenerate submanifolds.

Geometry of Lie Groups

Author: B. Rosenfeld
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781475753257
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Mathematics

This book is the result of many years of research in Non-Euclidean Geometries and Geometry of Lie groups, as well as teaching at Moscow State University (1947- 1949), Azerbaijan State University (Baku) (1950-1955), Kolomna Pedagogical Col lege (1955-1970), Moscow Pedagogical University (1971-1990), and Pennsylvania State University (1990-1995). My first books on Non-Euclidean Geometries and Geometry of Lie groups were written in Russian and published in Moscow: Non-Euclidean Geometries (1955) [Ro1] , Multidimensional Spaces (1966) [Ro2] , and Non-Euclidean Spaces (1969) [Ro3]. In [Ro1] I considered non-Euclidean geometries in the broad sense, as geometry of simple Lie groups, since classical non-Euclidean geometries, hyperbolic and elliptic, are geometries of simple Lie groups of classes Bn and D , and geometries of complex n and quaternionic Hermitian elliptic and hyperbolic spaces are geometries of simple Lie groups of classes An and en. [Ro1] contains an exposition of the geometry of classical real non-Euclidean spaces and their interpretations as hyperspheres with identified antipodal points in Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean spaces, and in projective and conformal spaces. Numerous interpretations of various spaces different from our usual space allow us, like stereoscopic vision, to see many traits of these spaces absent in the usual space.

A Study of Braids

Author: Kunio Murasugi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0792357671
Release Date: 1999-06-30
Genre: Computers

This book provides a comprehensive exposition of the theory of braids, beginning with the basic mathematical definitions and structures. Among the many topics explained in detail are: the braid group for various surfaces; the solution of the word problem for the braid group; braids in the context of knots and links (Alexander's theorem); Markov's theorem and its use in obtaining braid invariants; the connection between the Platonic solids (regular polyhedra) and braids; the use of braids in the solution of algebraic equations. Dirac's problem and special types of braids termed Mexican plaits are also discussed. Audience: Since the book relies on concepts and techniques from algebra and topology, the authors also provide a couple of appendices that cover the necessary material from these two branches of mathematics. Hence, the book is accessible not only to mathematicians but also to anybody who might have an interest in the theory of braids. In particular, as more and more applications of braid theory are found outside the realm of mathematics, this book is ideal for any physicist, chemist or biologist who would like to understand the mathematics of braids. With its use of numerous figures to explain clearly the mathematics, and exercises to solidify the understanding, this book may also be used as a textbook for a course on knots and braids, or as a supplementary textbook for a course on topology or algebra.

The structure of classical diffeomorphism groups

Author: Augustin Banyaga
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub
ISBN: UOM:39015039880771
Release Date: 1997
Genre: Mathematics

The book introduces and explains most of the main techniques and ideas in the study of the structure of diffeomorphism groups. A quite complete proof of Thurston's theorem on the simplicity of some diffeomorphism groups is given. The method of the proof is generalized to symplectic and volume-preserving diffeomorphisms. The Mather-Thurston theory relating foliations with diffeomorphism groups is outlined. A central role is played by the flux homomorphism. Various cohomology classes connected with the flux are defined on the group of diffeomorphisms. The main results on the structure of diffeomorphism groups are applied to showing that classical structures are determined by their automorphism groups, a contribution to the Erlanger Program of Klein. Audience: Graduate students and researchers in mathematics and physics.

Applications of Lie Algebras to Hyperbolic and Stochastic Differential Equations

Author: Constantin Vârsan
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub
ISBN: 0792357183
Release Date: 1999-05-31
Genre: Mathematics

This book deals mainly with the relevance of integral manifolds associated with a Lie algebra with singularities for studying systems of first order partial differential equations, stochastic differential equations and nonlinear control systems. The analysis is based on the algebraic representation of gradient systems in a Lie algebra, allowing the recovery of the original vector fields and the associated Lie algebra as well. Special attention is paid to nonlinear control systems encompassing specific problems of this theory and their significance for stochastic differential equations. The work is written in a self-contained manner, presupposing only some basic knowledge of algebra, geometry and differential equations. Audience: This volume will be of interest to mathematicians and engineers working in the field of applied geometric and algebraic methods in differential equations. It can also be recommended as a supplementary text for postgraduate students.

Tensor Geometry

Author: C. T. J. Dodson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: UOM:39015021630408
Release Date: 1991
Genre: Mathematics