Author: Martin Meisel
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2016-01-05
Genre: Literary Criticism
The stories we tell in our attempt to make sense of the world—our myths and religion, literature and philosophy, science and art—are the comforting vehicles we use to transmit ideas of order. But beneath the quest for order lies the uneasy dread of fundamental disorder. True chaos is hard to imagine and even harder to represent. In this book, Martin Meisel considers the long effort to conjure, depict, and rationalize extreme disorder, with all the passion, excitement, and compromises the act provokes. Meisel builds a rough history from major social, psychological, and cosmological turning points in the imagining of chaos. He uses examples from literature, philosophy, painting, graphic art, science, linguistics, music, and film, particularly exploring the remarkable shift in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries from conceiving of chaos as disruptive to celebrating its liberating and energizing potential. Discussions of Sophocles, Plato, Lucretius, Calderon, Milton, Haydn, Blake, Faraday, Chekhov, Faulkner, Wells, and Beckett, among others, are matched with incisive readings of art by Brueghel, Rubens, Goya, Turner, Dix, Dada, and the futurists. Meisel addresses the revolution in mapping energy and entropy and the manifold effect of thermodynamics. He then uses this chaotic frame to elaborate on purpose, mortality, meaning, and mind.
Physics underlies all complexity, including our own existence: how is this possible? How can our own lives emerge from interactions of electrons, protons, and neutrons? This book considers the interaction of physical and non-physical causation in complex systems such as living beings, and in particular in the human brain, relating this to the emergence of higher levels of complexity with real causal powers. In particular it explores the idea of top-down causation, which is the key effect allowing the emergence of true complexity and also enables the causal efficacy of non-physical entities, including the value of money, social conventions, and ethical choices.
Application of New Cybernetics in Physics describes the application of new cybernetics to physical problems and the resolution of basic physical paradoxes by considering external observer influence. This aids the reader in solving problems that were solved incorrectly or have not been solved. Three groups of problems of the new cybernetics are considered in the book: (a) Systems that can be calculated based on known physics of subsystems. This includes the external observer influence calculated from basic physical laws (ideal dynamics) and dynamics of a physical system influenced even by low noise. (b) Emergent systems. This includes external noise from the observer by using the black box model (complex dynamics), external noise from the observer by using the observer’s intuition (unpredictable dynamics), defining boundaries of application of scientific methods for system behavior prediction, and the role of the observer’s intuition for unpredictable systems. (c) Methods for solution of basic physical paradoxes by using methods of the new cybernetics: the entropy increase paradox, Schrödinger’s cat paradox (wave package reduction in quantum mechanics), the black holes information paradox, and the time wormholes grandfather paradox. All of the above paradoxes have the same resolution based on the principles of new cybernetics. Indeed, even a small interaction of an observer with an observed system results in their time arrows’ alignment (synchronization) and results in the paradox resolution and appearance of the universal time arrow. Provides solutions to the basic physical paradoxes and demonstrates their practical actuality for modern physics Describes a wide class of molecular physics and kinetic problems to present semi-analytical and semi-qualitative calculations of solvation, flame propagation, and high-molecular formation Demonstrates the effectiveness in application to complex molecular systems and other many-component objects Includes numerous illustrations to support the text
`I found the book excellent and read every one of the 450 pages_. Many of the chapters reflect the Fielding Institute′s focus on human and organizational behaviour, educational leadership, and organizational management. The book will be particularly appropriate for readers from a corporate, training or business school background, though there is much for academics and online educators at all levels and subject areas to learn from this well crafted book. There are many books and articles about online learning. This is one of the better ones!′ - Robin Mason, Computers and Education Technology-mediated instruction has taken the university and the corporate sector by storm. As more instructors teach online for a dispersed learning community in both academic and business environments, there′s a need for resources that will help them adapt to this new teaching method. Educators who come out of traditional academic institutions tend to use traditional methods when offering courses online (e.g. lectures, textbooks and readings, examinations) rather than attend to small-group processes and principles of what the editors of this volume call "andragogy." This Handbook goes beyond the mechanics of how to create and direct an online learning experience to consider such a new approach to pedagogy in doing so. The editors primary purpose is to clarify the conceptual issues that underlie effective online teaching and to offer practical guidance to educators and corporate trainers who plan to teach in a virtual environment. Their central tenet is: the adoption of computer networks as the teaching vehicle of the future demands a re-examination of our core beliefs about pedagogy and how students learn. The transfer of a classroom curriculum into cyberspace is deceptively simple, but doing so without an appreciation of the nuances and implications of learning online ignores not only the potential of this medium but the inevitable realities of entering it. Rather than fear the challenges that new technology brings to systems of learning, the editors hope to help instructors embrace it by re-thinking how knowledge is acquired and how educational processes may be optimally designed in a new age of teaching and learning. Features/Benefits - Part I provides an overview and includes discussion of the unique structural aspects of the electronic learning environment, pedagogical issues, curriculum design, psychological and group dynamics, and ethical issues. - Part II examines practical issues associated with implementing courses online, both in the traditional university setting and in professionalrporate training environments. - The book draws heavily on personal case examples, many from The Fielding Graduate Institute′s 26+ years of teaching in nontraditional distributed learning environments.
Tremendous technological developments and rapid progress in theory have opened a new area of modern physics called high-field electrodynamics: the systematic study of the interaction of relativistic electrons or positrons with ultrahigh-intensity, coherent electromagnetic radiation. This advanced undergraduate/graduate-level text provides a detailed introduction to high-field electrodynamics, from its fundamentals to some of its important modern applications. The author describes a broad collection of theoretical techniques, and where possible, approaches derivations by at least two different routes to yield deeper physical insight and a wider range of mathematical and physical techniques. He also discusses some of the outstanding ramifications of electrodynamics in areas ranging from quantum optics, squeezed states, and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox to rotating black holes, non-Abelian gauge field theories, and the Bohm-Aharanov effect. High-Field Electrodynamics gives a comprehensive description of the theoretical tools needed to approach this novel discipline. It highlights important modern applications and serves as a starting point for more advanced and specialized research at the frontiers of modern physics.
Author: Harry Varvoglis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2014-01-29
Our understanding of nature, and in particular of physics and the laws governing it, has changed radically since the days of the ancient Greek natural philosophers. This book explains how and why these changes occurred, through landmark experiments as well as theories that - for their time - were revolutionary. The presentation covers Mechanics, Optics, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, Relativity Theory, Atomic Physics and Quantum Physics. The book places emphasis on ideas and on a qualitative presentation, rather than on mathematics and equations. Thus, although primarily addressed to those who are studying or have studied science, it can also be read by non-specialists. The author concludes with a discussion of the evolution and organization of universities, from ancient times until today, and of the organization and dissemination of knowledge through scientific publications and conferences.
Author: Edmund Blair Bolles
Publisher: Joseph Henry Press
Release Date: 2004-05-09
"I find the idea quite intolerable that an electron exposed to radiation should choose of its own free will, not only its moment to jump off, but also its direction. In that case, I would rather be a cobbler, or even an employee in a gaming house, than a physicist." -Albert Einstein A scandal hovers over the history of 20th century physics. Albert Einstein -- the century's greatest physicist -- was never able to come to terms with quantum mechanics, the century's greatest theoretical achievement. For physicists who routinely use both quantum laws and Einstein's ideas, this contradiction can be almost too embarrassing to dwell on. Yet Einstein was one of the founders of quantum physics and he spent many years preaching the quantum's importance and its revolutionary nature. The Danish genius Neils Bohr was another founder of quantum physics. He had managed to solve one of the few physics problems that Einstein ever shied away from, linking quantum mathematics with a new model of the atom. This leap immediately yielded results that explained electron behavior and the periodic table of the elements. Despite their mutual appreciation of the quantum's importance, these two giants of modern physics never agreed on the fundamentals of their work. In fact, they clashed repeatedly throughout the 1920s, arguing first over Einstein's theory of "light quanta"(photons), then over Niels Bohr's short-lived theory that denied the conservation of energy at the quantum level, and climactically over the new quantum mechanics that Bohr enthusiastically embraced and Einstein stubbornly defied. This contest of visions stripped the scientific imagination naked. Einstein was a staunch realist, demanding to know the physical reasons behind physical events. At odds with this approach was Bohr's more pragmatic perspective that favored theories that worked, even if he might not have a corresponding explanation of the underlying reality. Powerful and illuminating, Einstein Defiant is the first book to capture the soul and the science that inspired this dramatic duel, revealing the personalities and the passions -- and, in the end, what was at stake for the world.
Author: C.U.M. Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
Release Date: 2014-04-23
This volume of essays examines the problem of mind, looking at how the problem has appeared to neuroscientists (in the widest sense) from classical antiquity through to contemporary times. Beginning with a look at ventricular neuropsychology in antiquity, this book goes on to look at Spinozan ideas on the links between mind and body, Thomas Willis and the foundation of Neurology, Hooke’s mechanical model of the mind and Joseph Priestley’s approach to the mind-body problem. The volume offers a chapter on the 19th century Ottoman perspective on western thinking. Further chapters trace the work of nineteenth century scholars including George Henry Lewes, Herbert Spencer and Emil du Bois-Reymond. The book covers significant work from the twentieth century, including an examination of Alfred North Whitehead and the history of consciousness, and particular attention is given to the development of quantum consciousness. Chapters on slavery and the self and the development of an understanding of Dualism bring this examination up to date on the latest 21st century work in the field. At the heart of this book is the matter of how we define the problem of consciousness itself: has there been any progress in our understanding of the working of mind and brain? This work at the interface between science and the humanities will appeal to experts from across many fields who wish to develop their understanding of the problem of consciousness, including scholars of Neuroscience, Behavioural Science and the History of Science.
Author: Frances K. McSweeney
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2014-05-23
This combined survey of operant and classical conditioning provides professional and academic readers with an up-to-date, inclusive account of a core field of psychology research, with in-depth coverage of the basic theory, its applications, and current topics including behavioral economics. Provides comprehensive coverage of operant and classical conditioning, relevant fundamental theory, and applications including the latest techniques Features chapters by leading researchers, professionals, and academicians Reviews a range of core literature on conditioning Covers cutting-edge topics such as behavioral economics
Author: Clifford A. Pickover
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 2008-04-16
Genre: Biography & Autobiography
A fascinating account of some of the greatest ideas of history takes readers on a journey across the centuries as it explores the eponymous physical laws whose ramifications have altered our everyday lives and our understanding of the universe.
This is the story of Chaitin's revolutionary discovery - the omega number. The omega number is Chaitin's representation of the profound enigma at the heart of maths, which sheds light on the very nature of life itself.