This unique book provides a gentle introduction to an increasingly important type of formal logic called CLAUSAL FORM LOGIC (CFL). Having evolved out of human reasoning, CFL represents the ideal to which all computer-based systems must approximate. Most present day computational logic systems are based on it, including the well-know artificial intelligence language PROLOG.
This book reports on advanced theories and methods in three related fields of research: applied physics, system science and computers. It is organized in two main parts, the first of which covers applied physics topics, including lasers and accelerators; condensed matter, soft matter and materials science; nanoscience and quantum engineering; atomic, molecular, optical and plasma physics; as well as nuclear and high-energy particle physics. It also addresses astrophysics, gravitation, earth and environmental science, as well as medical and biological physics. The second part focuses on advances in system science and computers, exploring automatic circuit control, power systems, computer communication, fluid mechanics, simulation and modeling, software engineering, data structures and applications of artificial intelligence among other areas. Offering a collection of contributions presented at the 1st International Conference on Applied Physics, System Science and Computers (APSAC 2016), the book bridges the gap between applied physics and electrical engineering. It not only to presents new methods, but also promotes collaborations between different communities working on related topics at the interface between physics and engineering, with a special focus on communication, data modeling and visualization, quantum information, applied mechanics as well as bio and geophysics.
This book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd Computer Science On-line Conference 2014 (CSOC 2014). The conference is intended to provide an international forum for discussions on the latest high-quality research results in all areas related to Computer Science. The topics addressed are the theoretical aspects and applications of Artificial Intelligences, Computer Science, Informatics and Software Engineering. The authors provide new approaches and methods to real-world problems, and in particular, exploratory research that describes novel approaches in their field. Particular emphasis is laid on modern trends in selected fields of interest. New algorithms or methods in a variety of fields are also presented. This book is divided into three sections and covers topics including Artificial Intelligence, Computer Science and Software Engineering. Each section consists of new theoretical contributions and applications which can be used for the further development of knowledge of everybody who is looking for new knowledge or new inspiration for further research.
Author: Robert Kowalski
Publisher: Ediciones Díaz de Santos
Release Date: 1979-01-01
Genre: Computer programming
Representation in clausal form; Top-down and bottom-up clause proof procedures; Horn clause problem-solving; The procedural interpretation of horn clauses; Plan-formation and the frame problem; Global problem-solving strategies; Formalisation of provability.
Author: Steve Reeves
Publisher: Addison Wesley Publishing Company
Release Date: 1990
An understanding of logic is essential to computer science. This book provides a highly accessible account of the logical basis required for reasoning about computer programs and applying logic in fields like artificial intelligence. The text contains extended examples, algorithms, and programs written in Standard ML and Prolog. No prior knowledge of either language is required. The book contains a clear account of classical first-order logic, one of the basic tools for program verification, as well as an introductory survey of modal and temporal logics and possible world semantics. An introduction to intuitionistic logic as a basis for an important style of program specification is also featured in the book.
Author: Robert Kowalski
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date: 2014-11-18
This seminal book of Computer Science is the most cited reference on the subject of programming in logic. Originally published in 1979, this now classic text was the first comprehensive attempt to define the scope of logic for problem solving. In this extended edition, Robert Kowalski revisits his classic text in the light of subsequent developments in a substantial commentary of fifty pages. This work investigates the application of logic to problem-solving and computer programming. It assumes no previous knowledge of these fields, and may be appropriate therefore as an introduction to logic, the theory of problem-solving, and computer programming. At the focal point is Computational Logic. It centers around the famous slogan: Algorithm = Logic + Control, which was coined by the author and is explained in this book. According to this view, an algorithm consists of a problem description (the logic part) and a strategy to perform useful computations on this description (the control part). This separation of concerns ideally leads to declarative programs that are simple to develop, clear to understand and easy to maintain.
Author: Jean H. Gallier
Publisher: Courier Dover Publications
Release Date: 2015-06-18
This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in first-order logic; SLD-resolution, logic programming, and the foundations of PROLOG; and many-sorted first-order logic. Numerous problems appear throughout the book, and two Appendixes provide practical background information.
Author: Michael Genesereth
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release Date: 2012-11-01
This book is a gentle but rigorous introduction to formal logic. It is intended primarily for use at the college level. However, it can also be used for advanced secondary school students, and it can be used at the start of graduate school for those who have not yet seen the material. The approach to teaching logic used here emerged from more than 20 years of teaching logic to students at Stanford University and from teaching logic to tens of thousands of others via online courses on the World Wide Web. The approach differs from that taken by other books in logic in two essential ways, one having to do with content, the other with form. Like many other books on logic, this one covers logical syntax and semantics and proof theory plus induction. However, unlike other books, this book begins with Herbrand semantics rather than the more traditional Tarskian semantics. This approach makes the material considerably easier for students to understand and leaves them with a deeper understanding of what logic is all about. The primary content difference concerns the semantics of the logic that is taught. In addition to this text, there are online exercises (with automated grading), online logic tools and applications, online videos of lectures, and an online forum for discussion. They are available at logic.stanford.edu/intrologic/.
The Handbook of Modal Logic contains 20 articles, which collectively introduce contemporary modal logic, survey current research, and indicate the way in which the field is developing. The articles survey the field from a wide variety of perspectives: the underling theory is explored in depth, modern computational approaches are treated, and six major applications areas of modal logic (in Mathematics, Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, Game Theory, and Philosophy) are surveyed. The book contains both well-written expository articles, suitable for beginners approaching the subject for the first time, and advanced articles, which will help those already familiar with the field to deepen their expertise. Please visit: http://people.uleth.ca/~woods/RedSeriesPromo_WP/PubSLPR.html - Compact modal logic reference - Computational approaches fully discussed - Contemporary applications of modal logic covered in depth