Climate Change

Author: Marie-Antoinette Méli?res
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118708521
Release Date: 2015-05-04
Genre: Nature

The book use an approach that explains the mechanisms but is equation-free. It is written from the point of view of a physicist and treats the physical processes in detail providing a deep understanding in particular of the energy balance and the greenhouse effect. It avoids technical jargon and presents the issues in a simple and clear manner. In addition to the fuller explanations, the approach is innovative. The record of past climates is used as a benchmark to assess current climate changes and to apprehend the true magnitude of coming changes that stem from human activity. It is for this reason that such emphasis is given to understanding the mechanisms (Parts 1 and 2) and the lessons from past climates (Part 3). The central subject of the book is thus that of Work Package 1 of IPCC, namely “Climate changes in the past and to come”. Although many topics are covered, the book focuses on the fundamental mechanisms that underlie climate equilibrium. These are discussed in depth and placed in a hierarchy, which provides a better perspective of the different factors, parameters and mechanisms that drive the variations in the average climate. One of its novelties is to present the notion of average climate in terms of energy required to maintain the climate. This allows the reader to understand the basic role of the available energy on the Earth and to generalise the concept of climate on the scale of the whole planet. In this way the fundamental importance of the greenhouse effect is introduced, as well as the average temperature as an indicator of climate change, i.e., the pertinence of the temperature – energy parameter. This is why it describes the average climate in terms of the three key components : temperature, rainfall and wind. Special attention is given to the energy balance of the planet in all its aspects and to understanding clearly the mechanism of the greenhouse effect and the physical notion of temperature. These last two form the basis of the perturbation generated by human activity and the means of quantifying its impact. By presenting the detailed climate archives over the last few million years (Part 3, Lessons of the Past), in particular the glacial - interglacial cycles of the Quaternary era, the mechanism that drives the natural climate changes is revealed, and the lessons to be learnt from the past follow naturally. Emphasis is laid on the means of characterizing and quantifying global climate change: -Global warming is accompanied by an average rise in temperature that increases with latitude. Mean latitudes experience a rise in temperature twice as great as that of the overall average (a finding that is confirmed by the recent warming and which is forecast in the models for the 21st century). -Throughout the whole of the Quaternary era (last few million years) the warm interglacial periods never encountered a rise in the average temperature greater than 2°C beyond the current warm period. This provides a reference for the global warming that is approaching. -Finally, with respect to biodiversity, the glacial - interglacial cycles of the past illustrate how the impact of large temperature changes can affect the biosphere, and promote greater biodiversity at lower latitudes. These points serve to circumscribe the magnitude of the changes, both in the climate and in the biosphere, that are in store in the 21st century. The whole of Part 4 (Recent evolution in the climate) summarizes the consequences of the recent global warming. The interest here is to illustrate the observed impact on the planet of a global climate change. This highlights the predictions of the models, which are entirely consistent with these observations (Part 5).

The Oceans and Rapid Climate Change

Author: Dan Seidov
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
ISBN: UCSD:31822031304793
Release Date: 2001-01-09
Genre: Science

Explores the role of the ocean in fast climate changes in the past and conceivable future. The first half of the 16 papers present data interpretation, hypotheses based on data analyses, and ideas that shed new light on past climates and their evolution. The remaining papers describe climate system models that focus on the global ocean, starting with simpler, ocean-only models that develop into full, three-dimensional models of entire climate systems. Topics include the key climate transitions during the Quaternary period, stochastic resonance in the North Atlantic, and the relationship between glacial- to-interglacial changes of ocean circulation and eolian sediment transport. No index. c. Book News Inc.

Climate Change

Author: U. B. Mathur
Publisher:
ISBN: 818586795X
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Climatic changes


Climate Change in Deserts

Author: Martin Williams
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781316060735
Release Date: 2014-08-11
Genre: Science

Reconstructing climatic changes in deserts and their margins at a variety of scales in space and time, this book draws upon evidence from land and sea, including desert dunes, wind-blown dust, river and lake sediments, glacial moraines, plant and animal fossils, isotope geochemistry, speleothems, soils, and prehistoric archaeology. The book summarises the Cenozoic evolution of the major deserts of the Americas, Eurasia, Africa and Australia and the causes of historic floods and droughts. The book then considers the causes and consequences of desertification and proposes four key conditions for achieving ecologically sustainable use of natural resources in arid and semi-arid areas. Climate Change in Deserts is an invaluable reference for researchers and advanced students interested in the climate and geomorphology of deserts: geographers, geologists, ecologists, archaeologists, soil scientists, hydrologists, climatologists and natural resource managers.

Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions Past Present Future

Author: Henry F. Diaz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401512527
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30° S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.

It s Getting Hot in Here

Author: Bridget Heos
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780544750593
Release Date: 2016-02-23
Genre: Juvenile Nonfiction

Tackling the issue of global warming head-on for a teen audience, Bridget Heos examines the science behind it, the history of climate change on our planet, and the ways in which humans have affected the current crisis we face. It’s Getting Hot in Here illustrates how interconnected we are not just with everyone else on the planet, but with the people who came before us and the ones who will inherit the planet after us. This eye-opening approach to one of today’s most pressing issues focuses on the past human influences, the current state of affairs, the grim picture for the future—and how young readers can help to make a positive change.

Rising Seas

Author: Vivien Gornitz
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231147385
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Science

The Earth's climate is already warming due to increased concentrations of human-produced greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and the specter of rising sea level is one of global warming's most far-reaching threats. Sea level will keep rising long after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, because of the delay in penetration of surface warming to the ocean depths and because of the slow dissipation of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. Adopting a long perspective that interprets sea level changes both underway and expected in the near future, Vivien Gornitz completes a highly relevant and necessary study of an unprecedented age in Earth's history. Gornitz consults past climate archives to help better anticipate future developments and prepare for them more effectively. She focuses on several understudied historical events, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Anomaly, the Messinian salinity crisis, the rapid filling of the Black Sea (which may have inspired the story of Noah's flood), and the Storrega submarine slide, an incident possibly connected to a sea level occurrence roughly 8,000 years old. By examining dramatic variations in past sea level and climate, Gornitz concretizes the potential consequences of rapid, human-induced warming. She builds historical precedent for coastal hazards associated with a higher ocean level, such as increased damage from storm surge flooding, even if storm characteristics remain unchanged. Citing the examples of Rotterdam, London, New York City, and other forward-looking urban centers that are effectively preparing for higher sea level, Gornitz also delineates the difficult economic and political choices of curbing carbon emissions while underscoring, through past geological analysis, the urgent need to do so.

Climate Change

Author: John T. Hardy
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470850191
Release Date: 2003-06-27
Genre: Nature

This book addresses civilization ́s most important environmental challenge; climate change. Burning of fossil fuels has greatly increased the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases, trapping more of the sun ́s energy near the Earth ́s surface. In response, our planet is warming at an unprecedented rate, and ecosystems are already changing. Climate Change - Causes, Effects, and Solutions, is divided into three main sections; Climate Change; Past, Present, and Future; Ecological Effects of Climate Change; Human Dimensions of Climate Change. It presents an accurate account of what we do and do not know about climate change. Key features of this book include - A comprehensive analysis of both the science and policy issues of climate change. A clear description of the causes of climate change Documentation of the predicted effects of climate change on ecosystems, agriculture, sea level, human health and infrastructure A range of case studies from North America, Europe, Australasia, and elsewhere A discussion of proposed actions at the individual, national and international levels to reduce climate change or its impacts.This book is an ideal text for courses in global climate change, or as a supplement to courses in environmental studies, natural science, climatology, or physical geography. Additionally, it is essential reading for journalists, environmental policymakers, and everyone who seeks to understand the consequences of climate change and the steps we must take to sustain a livable planet.

Persistent Pollution Past Present and Future

Author: Markus Quante
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642174191
Release Date: 2011-05-26
Genre: Science

This book evolved from the 5th School of Environmental Research entitled „Persistent Pollution – Past, Present and Future", which has set a focus on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), heavy metals and aerosols. - reconstruction of past changes based on the scientific analysis of natural archives such as ice cores and peat deposits, - evaluation of the present environmental state by the integration of measurements and modelling and the establishment of cause-effect-patterns, - assessment of possible environmental future scenarios including emission and climate change perspectives.

Tropical Rainforests

Author: Eldredge Bermingham
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226044682
Release Date: 2005-08-01
Genre: Nature

Synthesizing theoretical and empirical analyses of the processes that help shape these unique ecosystems, Tropical Rainforests looks at the effects of evolutionary histories, past climate change, and ecological dynamics on the origin and maintenance of tropical rainforest communities. Featuring recent advances in paleoecology, climatology, geology, molecular systematics, biogeography, and community ecology, the volume also offers insights from those fields into how rainforests will endure the impact of anthropogenic change. With more than sixty contributors, Tropical Rainforests will be of great interest to students and professionals in tropical ecology and conservation.

The Human Impact on the Natural Environment

Author: Andrew S. Goudie
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118688151
Release Date: 2013-04-25
Genre: Science

The new edition of this classic student text provides an up-to-dateand comprehensive view of the major environmental issues facing theworld today, and is an essential introduction to the past, presentand future impact of humans on Earth. Explores the impact of humans upon vegetation, animals, soils,water, landforms, and the atmosphere. Updated extensively, with many new figures and up-to-datestatistics. Four completely new chapters explore the ways in which globalclimate change may have an impact on Earth in the future. A new design makes the text even more accessible and easy touse. Visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/humanimpactto access the artwork from the book.