Common Sense the Turing Test and the Quest for Real AI

Author: Hector J. Levesque
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262338370
Release Date: 2017-02-17
Genre: Computers

What can artificial intelligence teach us about the mind? If AI's underlying concept is that thinking is a computational process, then how can computation illuminate thinking? It's a timely question. AI is all the rage, and the buzziest AI buzz surrounds adaptive machine learning: computer systems that learn intelligent behavior from massive amounts of data. This is what powers a driverless car, for example. In this book, Hector Levesque shifts the conversation to "good old fashioned artificial intelligence," which is based not on heaps of data but on understanding commonsense intelligence. This kind of artificial intelligence is equipped to handle situations that depart from previous patterns -- as we do in real life, when, for example, we encounter a washed-out bridge or when the barista informs us there's no more soy milk. Levesque considers the role of language in learning. He argues that a computer program that passes the famous Turing Test could be a mindless zombie, and he proposes another way to test for intelligence -- the Winograd Schema Test, developed by Levesque and his colleagues. "If our goal is to understand intelligent behavior, we had better understand the difference between making it and faking it," he observes. He identifies a possible mechanism behind common sense and the capacity to call on background knowledge: the ability to represent objects of thought symbolically. As AI migrates more and more into everyday life, we should worry if systems without common sense are making decisions where common sense is needed.

Common Sense the Turing Test and the Quest for Real AI

Author: Hector J. Levesque
Publisher: Mit Press
ISBN: 0262535203
Release Date: 2018-02-09
Genre: Computers

What artificial intelligence can tell us about the mind and intelligent behavior. What can artificial intelligence teach us about the mind? If AI's underlying concept is that thinking is a computational process, then how can computation illuminate thinking? It's a timely question. AI is all the rage, and the buzziest AI buzz surrounds adaptive machine learning: computer systems that learn intelligent behavior from massive amounts of data. This is what powers a driverless car, for example. In this book, Hector Levesque shifts the conversation to "good old fashioned artificial intelligence," which is based not on heaps of data but on understanding commonsense intelligence. This kind of artificial intelligence is equipped to handle situations that depart from previous patterns -- as we do in real life, when, for example, we encounter a washed-out bridge or when the barista informs us there's no more soy milk. Levesque considers the role of language in learning. He argues that a computer program that passes the famous Turing Test could be a mindless zombie, and he proposes another way to test for intelligence -- the Winograd Schema Test, developed by Levesque and his colleagues. "If our goal is to understand intelligent behavior, we had better understand the difference between making it and faking it," he observes. He identifies a possible mechanism behind common sense and the capacity to call on background knowledge: the ability to represent objects of thought symbolically. As AI migrates more and more into everyday life, we should worry if systems without common sense are making decisions where common sense is needed.

The Turing Option

Author: Harry Harrison
Publisher: Tor Books
ISBN: 9781466822825
Release Date: 2012-07-03
Genre: Fiction

Turing Option is written by Harry Harrison who is also the author of Deathworld, Make Room! Make Room! (filmed as Soylent Green), the popular Stainless Steel Rat books, and many other famous works of SF. At the Publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management Software (DRM) applied.

The Digital Mind

Author: Arlindo Oliveira
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262036030
Release Date: 2017-03-17
Genre: Computers

How developments in science and technology may enable the emergence of purely digital minds -- intelligent machines equal to or greater in power than the human brain.

Thinking as Computation

Author: Hector J. Levesque
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262300643
Release Date: 2012-01-06
Genre: Computers

This book guides students through an exploration of the idea that thinking might be understood as a form of computation. Students make the connection between thinking and computing by learning to write computer programs for a variety of tasks that require thought, including solving puzzles, understanding natural language, recognizing objects in visual scenes, planning courses of action, and playing strategic games. The material is presented with minimal technicalities and is accessible to undergraduate students with no specialized knowledge or technical background beyond high school mathematics. Students use Prolog (without having to learn algorithms: "Prolog without tears!"), learning to express what they need as a Prolog program and letting Prolog search for answers. After an introduction to the basic concepts, Thinking as Computation offers three chapters on Prolog, covering back-chaining, programs and queries, and how to write the sorts of Prolog programs used in the book. The book follows this with case studies of tasks that appear to require thought, then looks beyond Prolog to consider learning, explaining, and propositional reasoning. Most of the chapters conclude with short bibliographic notes and exercises. The book is based on a popular course at the University of Toronto and can be used in a variety of classroom contexts, by students ranging from first-year liberal arts undergraduates to more technically advanced computer science students.

What is Thought

Author: Eric B. Baum
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262025485
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Computers

Toward a computational explanation of thought: an argument that underlying mind is a complex but compact program that corresponds to the underlying complex structure of the world.

Alan Turing His Work and Impact

Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780123870124
Release Date: 2013-03-18
Genre: Mathematics

In this 2013 winner of the prestigious R.R. Hawkins Award from the Association of American Publishers, as well as the 2013 PROSE Awards for Mathematics and Best in Physical Sciences & Mathematics, also from the AAP, readers will find many of the most significant contributions from the four-volume set of the Collected Works of A. M. Turing. These contributions, together with commentaries from current experts in a wide spectrum of fields and backgrounds, provide insight on the significance and contemporary impact of Alan Turing's work. Offering a more modern perspective than anything currently available, Alan Turing: His Work and Impact gives wide coverage of the many ways in which Turing's scientific endeavors have impacted current research and understanding of the world. His pivotal writings on subjects including computing, artificial intelligence, cryptography, morphogenesis, and more display continued relevance and insight into today's scientific and technological landscape. This collection provides a great service to researchers, but is also an approachable entry point for readers with limited training in the science, but an urge to learn more about the details of Turing's work. 2013 winner of the prestigious R.R. Hawkins Award from the Association of American Publishers, as well as the 2013 PROSE Awards for Mathematics and Best in Physical Sciences & Mathematics, also from the AAP Named a 2013 Notable Computer Book in Computing Milieux by Computing Reviews Affordable, key collection of the most significant papers by A.M. Turing Commentary explaining the significance of each seminal paper by preeminent leaders in the field Additional resources available online

Inventing the Medium

Author: Janet H. Murray
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262302807
Release Date: 2011-11-23
Genre: Design

Digital artifacts from iPads to databases pervade our lives, and the design decisions that shape them affect how we think, act, communicate, and understand the world. But the pace of change has been so rapid that technical innovation is outstripping design. Interactors are often mystified and frustrated by their enticing but confusing new devices; meanwhile, product design teams struggle to articulate shared and enduring design goals. With Inventing the Medium, Janet Murray provides a unified vocabulary and a common methodology for the design of digital objects and environments. It will be an essential guide for both students and practitioners in this evolving field.Murray explains that innovative interaction designers should think of all objects made with bits -- whether games or Web pages, robots or the latest killer apps -- as belonging to a single new medium: the digital medium. Designers can speed the process of useful and lasting innovation by focusing on the collective cultural task of inventing this new medium. Exploring strategies for maximizing the expressive power of digital artifacts, Murray identifies and examines four representational affordances of digital environments that provide the core palette for designers across applications: computational procedures, user participation, navigable space, and encyclopedic capacity. Each chapter includes a set of Design Explorations -- creative exercises for students and thought experiments for practitioners -- that allow readers to apply the ideas in the chapter to particular design problems. Inventing the Medium also provides more than 200 illustrations of specific design strategies drawn from multiple genres and platforms and a glossary of design concepts.

Reasoning about Uncertainty

Author: Joseph Y. Halpern
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262533805
Release Date: 2017-04-07
Genre: Computers

Formal ways of representing uncertainty and various logics for reasoning about it; updated with new material on weighted probability measures, complexity-theoretic considerations, and other topics.

Parsing the Turing Test

Author: Robert Epstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402067105
Release Date: 2007-11-23
Genre: Computers

An exhaustive work that represents a landmark exploration of both the philosophical and methodological issues surrounding the search for true artificial intelligence. Distinguished psychologists, computer scientists, philosophers, and programmers from around the world debate weighty issues such as whether a self-conscious computer would create an internet ‘world mind’. This hugely important volume explores nothing less than the future of the human race itself.

Leonardo s Laptop

Author: Ben Shneiderman
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262692996
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Computers

Using the inspiration of Leonardo da Vinci to build a new, humanistic computing that focuses on users' needs and goals.

The Most Human Human

Author: Brian Christian
Publisher: Anchor
ISBN: 9780307476708
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Computers

Explores how computers are reshaping ideas about what it means to be human profiling the annual Turing Test to assess a computer's capacity for thought while analyzing related philosophical, biological, and moral issues.

The Quest for Artificial Intelligence

Author: Nils J. Nilsson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139642828
Release Date: 2009-10-30
Genre: Computers

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field within computer science that is attempting to build enhanced intelligence into computer systems. This book traces the history of the subject, from the early dreams of eighteenth-century (and earlier) pioneers to the more successful work of today's AI engineers. AI is becoming more and more a part of everyone's life. The technology is already embedded in face-recognizing cameras, speech-recognition software, Internet search engines, and health-care robots, among other applications. The book's many diagrams and easy-to-understand descriptions of AI programs will help the casual reader gain an understanding of how these and other AI systems actually work. Its thorough (but unobtrusive) end-of-chapter notes containing citations to important source materials will be of great use to AI scholars and researchers. This book promises to be the definitive history of a field that has captivated the imaginations of scientists, philosophers, and writers for centuries.