Compact NMR

Author: Bernhard Blümich
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9783110374582
Release Date: 2014-08-22
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue depicting the brain function and the beating heart. The book offers a basic introduction to NMR with portable devices, the equipment, the experimental set-up, types of NMR experiments, example applications, and data evaluation procedures. Each description follows the same didactic pattern: introduction, basic theory, pulse sequences and parameters, beginners-level measurements, advanced-level measurements, data processing. Mobile NMR simplified to approach the level of operating a smart phone!

Compact NMR Spectroscopy for Real time Monitoring of a Biodiesel Production

ISBN: OCLC:1052067256
Release Date: 2015

Graphical abstract: Highlights: On-line monitoring of a transesterification reaction by compact 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Developed PLS models from NMR-spectra recorded at 1 T to monitor biodiesel conversion. Real-time observation of methanol partitioning between glycerol and oleic phases. Resonance frequency of hydroxylic MeOH protons used to predict the conversion ratio. Abstract: The use of biodiesel shows innumerous advantages compared to fossil fuels, since biodiesel is a biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. Nowadays, most of the biodiesel commercialized in the world is produced by the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with methanol and basic catalysis. Understanding the reaction kinetics and controlling its optimum progress for improving the quality of the final product and to reduce production costs is of paramount importance. The present work explores compact 1 H NMR spectroscopy to follow the course of the transesterification reaction in real time. For this purpose the magnet is integrated into a flow setup which allows one to transport the neat solution from the reactor into the measurement zone and back again into the reactor. A multivariate calibration model applying Partial Least Squares regression was built to analyze the measured data and to obtain information about the biodiesel conversion ratio with errors on the order of 1%. This information is used in combination with a Lorentzian deconvolution of the spectra to estimate the relative concentrations of methanol present in the ester-rich phase in comparison with the one in the glycerol phase, the second medium involved in the reaction mixture. Finally, we demonstrate that the conversion ratio can also be monitored by measuring the chemical shift of the hydroxylic protons of methanol and glycerol present in the ester-rich phase. These results demonstrate that a compact NMR spectrometer can provide spectra with good quality and time resolution suitable for real time quality control of biodiesel production.

Micro and Nano Scale NMR

Author: Jens Anders
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527697335
Release Date: 2018-05-11
Genre: Science

This must-have book is the first self-contained summary of recent developments in the field of microscale nuclear magnetic resonance hardware, covering the entire technology from miniaturized detectors, the signal processing chain, and detection sequences. Chapters cover the latest advances in interventional NMR and implantable NMR sensors, as well as in using CMOS technology to manufacture miniaturized, highly scalable NMR detectors for NMR microscopy and high-throughput arrays of NMR spectroscopy detectors.

Mobile NMR and MRI

Author: Michael L Johns
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781782628095
Release Date: 2015-10-27
Genre: Science

There has been a recent surge in hardware developments with respect to mobile NMR and MRI systems, from which novel applications are starting to emerge. These comparatively low cost systems allow either for more routine use of NMR and MRI, generally for material quality control, or they allow for the analysis of samples whose size and shape precludes conventional NMR and MRI application. This book will, for the first time, summarise these recent hardware developments, highlight the challenges facing mobile and generally low-field NMR and MRI and describe various applications. Including chapters on commercial applications in well logging and food content measurements, the broad appeal of this book will fill a gap in the literature for NMR spectroscopists, analytical chemists and all those involved in measurement science in both industry and academia.

Compact Low field NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics A Tool Box for Quality Control of Raw Rubber

ISBN: OCLC:1051946552
Release Date: 2018

Abstract: Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is a major source material for the fabrication of elastomer products. Depending on its origin, differences are observed between SBR samples by tabletop NMR spectroscopy that relate to the constitution of the macromolecular chains. This study reports experimental results from the analysis of 108 SBR samples by low-field 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy at 1T in combination with partial least squares regression to develop a methodology for quality control of raw rubber. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models were developed for quantifying the individual monomer units present in SBR which are impossible to quantify directly because of peak overlap in a 1 H NMR spectrum obtained at 1T. The spectra revealed differences between samples from the same and different manufacturing batches of the same and different manufacturers in a qualitative and quantitative fashion. The range of samples included regular and oil-extended solution and emulsion polymerized SBR. Referring to high-field spectra acquired at 9.4T the peaks in the low-field 13 C NMR spectra could be assigned for determining the rubber microstructure, and the content of different repeat units could be quantified by partial least squares regression. Over 12 repeatable measurements the standard deviation in mass % was 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.05%, 0.33% and 0.37% for the contents of styrene, 1, 2-butadiene, 1, 4-butadiene, trans -1, 4-butadiene and cis -1, 4-butadiene units, respectively. Among 7 different sampling points in a delivery, the standard deviation was 0.51% for 1, 2-butadiene, 0.88% for styrene, 0.56% for 1, 4-butadiene unit, 0.42% for trans -1, 4-butadiene and 0.68% for cis -1, 4-butadiene units. The root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) for styrene, 1, 2-butadiene, 1, 4-butadiene, and trans -1, 4-butadiene was 0.15, 0.29, 0.29, and 0.28 with R 2 values of 0.93, 0.92, 0.92, and 0.95, respectively, demonstrating the potential of low-field NMR spectroscopy with compact instruments for quality control of raw rubber when used in combination with effective data analysis procedures such as chemometrics. Graphical abstract: Highlights: Contents of different repeat units from emulsion and solution SBR are determined by compact NMR at 1T and PLS-R method. Differences between solution SBR and emulsion SBR can be quantified with one-dimensional 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Differences between rubber samples drawn from same lot and different sampling points can be quantified. Differences in raw SBR obtained from different sources and produced in different ways can be detected quickly.

Mobile Compact 1H NMR Spectrometer Promises Fast Quality Control of Diesel Fuel

ISBN: OCLC:1052073597
Release Date: 2017

Graphical abstract: Highlights: Bench top NMR spectrometer to determine different quality parameters of diesel fuel. 9 important diesel fuel quality parameters determined in less than 1 min. Similar results compared to reference methods applied nowadays. Low field NMR spectroscopy as a powerful technique for police control of diesel fuel. Abstract: To address the need for fast quality control of diesel fuel, this study introduces a compact 1 H NMR spectrometer to develop Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models for rapidly determining several quality parameters of diesel fuel such as specific gravity, cetane number, flash point, and distillation temperatures to 10% and 50% of recovery. For all these quality parameters, the developed models showed margins of error better or comparable than reference analytical techniques. The compact NMR spectrometer was also applied for determining biodiesel content (methyl- and ethyl esters) in diesel fuel by using a univariate calibration curve. For all tested commercial diesel fuel samples, this new tool generated comparable results, within the tolerable margin of error, to those obtained with Mid-IR as a reference technique. Operation of the compact low-field NMR spectrometer is simple and fast: no sample pre-treatment or dilution in deuterated solvents is required, and the single-scan measurements take only 15 s per spectrum.

Superdense QCD Matter and Compact Stars

Author: David Blaschke
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402034296
Release Date: 2005-12-22
Genre: Science

2 Homogeneous superconducting state 210 3 Superconducting phases with broken space symmetries 213 4 Flavor asymmetric quark condensates 219 5 Concluding remarks 221 Acknowledgments 222 References 223 Neutral Dense Quark Matter 225 Mei Huang and Igor Shovkovy 1 Introduction 225 2 Local charge neutrality: homogeneous phase 226 3 Global charge neutrality: mixed phase 234 4 Conclusion 238 References 238 Possibility of color magnetic superconductivity 241 Toshitaka Tatsumi, Tomoyuki Maruyama, and Eiji Nakano 1 Introduction 241 2 What is ferromagnetism in quark matter? 243 3 Color magnetic superconductivity 248 4 Chiral symmetry and magnetism 253 5 Summary and Concluding remarks 258 Acknowledgments 260 References 260 Magnetic Fields of Compact Stars with Superconducting Quark Cores 263 David M. Sedrakian, David Blaschke, and Karen M. Shahabasyan 1 Introduction 263 2 Free Energy 265 3 Ginzburg-Landau equations 267 4 Vortex Structure 269 5 Solution of Ginzburg-Landau Equations 271 6 The Magnetic Field Components 273 7 Summary 275 Acknowledgments 275 References 275 Thermal Color-superconducting Fluctuations in Dense Quark Matter 277 D. N.

Applied Superconductivity

Author: Paul Seidel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527670659
Release Date: 2015-01-29
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This wide-ranging presentation of applied superconductivity, from fundamentals and materials right up to the details of many applications, is an essential reference for physicists and engineers in academic research as well as in industry. Readers looking for a comprehensive overview on basic effects related to superconductivity and superconducting materials will expand their knowledge and understanding of both low and high Tc superconductors with respect to their application. Technology, preparation and characterization are covered for bulk, single crystals, thins fi lms as well as electronic devices, wires and tapes. The main benefit of this work lies in its broad coverage of significant applications in magnets, power engineering, electronics, sensors and quantum metrology. The reader will find information on superconducting magnets for diverse applications like particle physics, fusion research, medicine, and biomagnetism as well as materials processing. SQUIDs and their usage in medicine or geophysics are thoroughly covered, as are superconducting radiation and particle detectors, aspects on superconductor digital electronics, leading readers to quantum computing and new devices.

Magnetic Resonance in Porous Media

Author: Martin Hürlimann
Publisher: Amer Inst of Physics
ISBN: UCSD:31822036967354
Release Date: 2008-12-11
Genre: Medical

The International Bologna conference of Magnetic Resonance in Porous Media is devoted to the progress in Magnetic Resonance in Porous Media and to our understanding of Porous Media themselves, and to stimulate the contact among people from various parts of Academia and Industry. Researchers in Physics, Chemistry, Engineering, Life Sciences, Mathematics, Computer Sciences, and in Industrial Applications will benefit from exchange of ideas, experiences, and new approaches. Topics include innovative techniques to study structure, behavior of fluids, and their interactions in every kind of natural and artificial materials, including rocks, cements, biological tissues, foodstuffs, wood, particle packs, sediments, pharmaceuticals, zeolites, and bioconstructs. New data acquisition and processing techniques are also strong features. This year’s conference (MRPM9) also incorporates the 8th Colloquium on Mobile NMR (CMMR8).

Magnetic Resonance in Food Science

Author: P. S. Belton
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 0854048863
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Science

The term magnetic resonance covers a wide range of techniques, spectroscopy, relaxation and imaging. In turn, these areas are evolving and leading to various new applications of NMR and ESR in food science and nutrition. From assessment of meat quality, through to a study of beer components and the effect of microwaves on potato texture, Magnetic Resonance in Food Science: Latest Developments provides an account of the state of the art in this lively area. Coverage includes: recent developments in magnetic resonance; human aspects of food; structure and dynamics in food; and food quality control. With contributions from international experts, this book is essential reading for academics and industrialists in food science. It is the latest in a series of titles in this area published by the RSC.

NMR in Biological Systems

Author: K.V.R. Chary
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402066795
Release Date: 2008-04-08
Genre: Science

During teaching NMR to students and researchers, we felt the need for a text-book which can cover modern trends in the application of NMR to biological systems. This book covers the entire area of NMR in Biological Sciences (Biomolecules, cells and tissues, animals, plants and drug design). As well as being useful to researchers, this is an excellent book for teaching a course on NMR in Biological Systems.

Automatic Control of Food Manufacturing Processes

Author: I. McFarlane
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0751402079
Release Date: 1995-12-31
Genre: Cooking

In the ten years since the first edition of this book appeared there have been significant developments in food process engineering, notably in biotechnology and membrane application. Advances have been made in the use of sensors for process control, and the growth of information technology and on-line computer applications continues apace. In addition, plant investment decisions are increasingly determined by quality assurance considerations and have to incorporate a greater emphasis on health and safety issues. The content of this edition has been rearranged to include descriptions of recent developments and to reflect the influence of new technology on the control and operations of automated plant. Original examples have been retained where relevant and these, together with many new illustrations, provide a comprehensive guide to good practice.

NMR Imaging in Chemical Engineering

Author: Siegfried Stapf
Publisher: Wiley-VCH
ISBN: 352731234X
Release Date: 2006-02-10
Genre: Technology & Engineering

How to use nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in chemical engineering. Written by the internationally recognized top experts from academia and industry, this first book dedicated to the topic provides an overview of existing methods and strategies to solve individual problems in chemical engineering. Written in a simple and lively manner and backed by various industrial examples, the book begins with a look at hardware and methods, continuing on to cover porous materials, fluids and flow of increasing complexity from different fields of Chemical Engineering, before finishing off with a review of reactors and reactions. The result allows engineers, industrial and academic researchers and decision-makers to gain a detailed insight into the NMR toolbox, such that they can estimate the benefit of NMR imaging with regard to cost efficiency and scientific results.

Arithmetic of Quadratic Forms

Author: Goro Shimura
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441917322
Release Date: 2010-08-09
Genre: Mathematics

This book is divided into two parts. The first part is preliminary and consists of algebraic number theory and the theory of semisimple algebras. There are two principal topics: classification of quadratic forms and quadratic Diophantine equations. The second topic is a new framework which contains the investigation of Gauss on the sums of three squares as a special case. To make the book concise, the author proves some basic theorems in number theory only in some special cases. However, the book is self-contained when the base field is the rational number field, and the main theorems are stated with an arbitrary number field as the base field. So the reader familiar with class field theory will be able to learn the arithmetic theory of quadratic forms with no further references.