Compact NMR

Author: Bernhard Blümich
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9783110374582
Release Date: 2014-08-22
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue depicting the brain function and the beating heart. The book offers a basic introduction to NMR with portable devices, the equipment, the experimental set-up, types of NMR experiments, example applications, and data evaluation procedures. Each description follows the same didactic pattern: introduction, basic theory, pulse sequences and parameters, beginners-level measurements, advanced-level measurements, data processing. Mobile NMR simplified to approach the level of operating a smart phone!

Compact NMR Spectroscopy for Real time Monitoring of a Biodiesel Production

ISBN: OCLC:1052067256
Release Date: 2015

Graphical abstract: Highlights: On-line monitoring of a transesterification reaction by compact 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Developed PLS models from NMR-spectra recorded at 1 T to monitor biodiesel conversion. Real-time observation of methanol partitioning between glycerol and oleic phases. Resonance frequency of hydroxylic MeOH protons used to predict the conversion ratio. Abstract: The use of biodiesel shows innumerous advantages compared to fossil fuels, since biodiesel is a biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. Nowadays, most of the biodiesel commercialized in the world is produced by the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with methanol and basic catalysis. Understanding the reaction kinetics and controlling its optimum progress for improving the quality of the final product and to reduce production costs is of paramount importance. The present work explores compact 1 H NMR spectroscopy to follow the course of the transesterification reaction in real time. For this purpose the magnet is integrated into a flow setup which allows one to transport the neat solution from the reactor into the measurement zone and back again into the reactor. A multivariate calibration model applying Partial Least Squares regression was built to analyze the measured data and to obtain information about the biodiesel conversion ratio with errors on the order of 1%. This information is used in combination with a Lorentzian deconvolution of the spectra to estimate the relative concentrations of methanol present in the ester-rich phase in comparison with the one in the glycerol phase, the second medium involved in the reaction mixture. Finally, we demonstrate that the conversion ratio can also be monitored by measuring the chemical shift of the hydroxylic protons of methanol and glycerol present in the ester-rich phase. These results demonstrate that a compact NMR spectrometer can provide spectra with good quality and time resolution suitable for real time quality control of biodiesel production.

Micro and Nano Scale NMR

Author: Jens Anders
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527697335
Release Date: 2018-05-11
Genre: Science

This must-have book is the first self-contained summary of recent developments in the field of microscale nuclear magnetic resonance hardware, covering the entire technology from miniaturized detectors, the signal processing chain, and detection sequences. Chapters cover the latest advances in interventional NMR and implantable NMR sensors, as well as in using CMOS technology to manufacture miniaturized, highly scalable NMR detectors for NMR microscopy and high-throughput arrays of NMR spectroscopy detectors.

Mobile NMR and MRI

Author: Michael L Johns
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781782628095
Release Date: 2015-10-27
Genre: Science

There has been a recent surge in hardware developments with respect to mobile NMR and MRI systems, from which novel applications are starting to emerge. These comparatively low cost systems allow either for more routine use of NMR and MRI, generally for material quality control, or they allow for the analysis of samples whose size and shape precludes conventional NMR and MRI application. This book will, for the first time, summarise these recent hardware developments, highlight the challenges facing mobile and generally low-field NMR and MRI and describe various applications. Including chapters on commercial applications in well logging and food content measurements, the broad appeal of this book will fill a gap in the literature for NMR spectroscopists, analytical chemists and all those involved in measurement science in both industry and academia.

Compact Low field NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics A Tool Box for Quality Control of Raw Rubber

ISBN: OCLC:1051946552
Release Date: 2018

Abstract: Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is a major source material for the fabrication of elastomer products. Depending on its origin, differences are observed between SBR samples by tabletop NMR spectroscopy that relate to the constitution of the macromolecular chains. This study reports experimental results from the analysis of 108 SBR samples by low-field 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy at 1T in combination with partial least squares regression to develop a methodology for quality control of raw rubber. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models were developed for quantifying the individual monomer units present in SBR which are impossible to quantify directly because of peak overlap in a 1 H NMR spectrum obtained at 1T. The spectra revealed differences between samples from the same and different manufacturing batches of the same and different manufacturers in a qualitative and quantitative fashion. The range of samples included regular and oil-extended solution and emulsion polymerized SBR. Referring to high-field spectra acquired at 9.4T the peaks in the low-field 13 C NMR spectra could be assigned for determining the rubber microstructure, and the content of different repeat units could be quantified by partial least squares regression. Over 12 repeatable measurements the standard deviation in mass % was 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.05%, 0.33% and 0.37% for the contents of styrene, 1, 2-butadiene, 1, 4-butadiene, trans -1, 4-butadiene and cis -1, 4-butadiene units, respectively. Among 7 different sampling points in a delivery, the standard deviation was 0.51% for 1, 2-butadiene, 0.88% for styrene, 0.56% for 1, 4-butadiene unit, 0.42% for trans -1, 4-butadiene and 0.68% for cis -1, 4-butadiene units. The root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) for styrene, 1, 2-butadiene, 1, 4-butadiene, and trans -1, 4-butadiene was 0.15, 0.29, 0.29, and 0.28 with R 2 values of 0.93, 0.92, 0.92, and 0.95, respectively, demonstrating the potential of low-field NMR spectroscopy with compact instruments for quality control of raw rubber when used in combination with effective data analysis procedures such as chemometrics. Graphical abstract: Highlights: Contents of different repeat units from emulsion and solution SBR are determined by compact NMR at 1T and PLS-R method. Differences between solution SBR and emulsion SBR can be quantified with one-dimensional 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Differences between rubber samples drawn from same lot and different sampling points can be quantified. Differences in raw SBR obtained from different sources and produced in different ways can be detected quickly.

Understanding NMR Spectroscopy

Author: James Keeler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119964933
Release Date: 2011-09-19
Genre: Science

This text is aimed at people who have some familiarity with high-resolution NMR and who wish to deepen their understanding of how NMR experiments actually ‘work’. This revised and updated edition takes the same approach as the highly-acclaimed first edition. The text concentrates on the description of commonly-used experiments and explains in detail the theory behind how such experiments work. The quantum mechanical tools needed to analyse pulse sequences are introduced set by step, but the approach is relatively informal with the emphasis on obtaining a good understanding of how the experiments actually work. The use of two-colour printing and a new larger format improves the readability of the text. In addition, a number of new topics have been introduced: How product operators can be extended to describe experiments in AX2 and AX3 spin systems, thus making it possible to discuss the important APT, INEPT and DEPT experiments often used in carbon-13 NMR. Spin system analysis i.e. how shifts and couplings can be extracted from strongly-coupled (second-order) spectra. How the presence of chemically equivalent spins leads to spectral features which are somewhat unusual and possibly misleading, even at high magnetic fields. A discussion of chemical exchange effects has been introduced in order to help with the explanation of transverse relaxation. The double-quantum spectroscopy of a three-spin system is now considered in more detail. Reviews of the First Edition “For anyone wishing to know what really goes on in their NMR experiments, I would highly recommend this book” – Chemistry World “…I warmly recommend for budding NMR spectroscopists, or others who wish to deepen their understanding of elementary NMR theory or theoretical tools” – Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry

Compact Orthogonal NMR Field Sensor

ISBN: OCLC:873795858
Release Date: 2009

A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.

Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions

Author: Richard R. Ernst
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198556473
Release Date: 1990
Genre: Science

This comprehensive review of modern NMR techniques and underlying principles is now available in paperback. ` ... a triumph of careful and clear exposition ... This will be the lasting text of its age.' Nature

Superdense QCD Matter and Compact Stars

Author: David Blaschke
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402034296
Release Date: 2005-12-22
Genre: Science

2 Homogeneous superconducting state 210 3 Superconducting phases with broken space symmetries 213 4 Flavor asymmetric quark condensates 219 5 Concluding remarks 221 Acknowledgments 222 References 223 Neutral Dense Quark Matter 225 Mei Huang and Igor Shovkovy 1 Introduction 225 2 Local charge neutrality: homogeneous phase 226 3 Global charge neutrality: mixed phase 234 4 Conclusion 238 References 238 Possibility of color magnetic superconductivity 241 Toshitaka Tatsumi, Tomoyuki Maruyama, and Eiji Nakano 1 Introduction 241 2 What is ferromagnetism in quark matter? 243 3 Color magnetic superconductivity 248 4 Chiral symmetry and magnetism 253 5 Summary and Concluding remarks 258 Acknowledgments 260 References 260 Magnetic Fields of Compact Stars with Superconducting Quark Cores 263 David M. Sedrakian, David Blaschke, and Karen M. Shahabasyan 1 Introduction 263 2 Free Energy 265 3 Ginzburg-Landau equations 267 4 Vortex Structure 269 5 Solution of Ginzburg-Landau Equations 271 6 The Magnetic Field Components 273 7 Summary 275 Acknowledgments 275 References 275 Thermal Color-superconducting Fluctuations in Dense Quark Matter 277 D. N.

Modern NMR Techniques for Chemistry Research

Author: A.E. Derome
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9781483286426
Release Date: 2013-10-22
Genre: Science

Presents an introduction to modern NMR methods at a level suited to organic and inorganic chemists engaged in the solution of structural and mechanistic problems. The book assumes familiarity only with the simple use of proton and carbon spectra as sources of structural information and describes the advantages of pulse and Fourier transform spectroscopy which form the basis of all modern NMR experiments. Discussion of key experiments is illustrated by numerous examples of the solutions to real problems. The emphasis throughout is on the practical side of NMR and the book will be of great use to chemists engaged in both academic and industrial research who wish to realise the full possibilities of the new wave NMR.

Applied Superconductivity

Author: Paul Seidel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527670659
Release Date: 2015-01-29
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This wide-ranging presentation of applied superconductivity, from fundamentals and materials right up to the details of many applications, is an essential reference for physicists and engineers in academic research as well as in industry. Readers looking for a comprehensive overview on basic effects related to superconductivity and superconducting materials will expand their knowledge and understanding of both low and high Tc superconductors with respect to their application. Technology, preparation and characterization are covered for bulk, single crystals, thins fi lms as well as electronic devices, wires and tapes. The main benefit of this work lies in its broad coverage of significant applications in magnets, power engineering, electronics, sensors and quantum metrology. The reader will find information on superconducting magnets for diverse applications like particle physics, fusion research, medicine, and biomagnetism as well as materials processing. SQUIDs and their usage in medicine or geophysics are thoroughly covered, as are superconducting radiation and particle detectors, aspects on superconductor digital electronics, leading readers to quantum computing and new devices.

Solid State NMR

Author: David C. Apperley
Publisher: Momentum Press
ISBN: 9781606503522
Release Date: 2012-06-10
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The power of nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, for characterizing molecules dissolved in solution is widely acknowledged and NMR forms an essential component of undergraduate chemistry degrees. However, the application of NMR to the solid state is much less well appreciated. This text sets out the fundamental principles of solid-state NMR, explaining how NMR in solids differs from that in solution, showing how the various interactions of NMR can be manipulated to yield high-resolution spectra and to give information on local structure and dynamics in solids. This book aims to take some of the mystique out of solid-state NMR by providing a comprehensible discussion of the methodology, including the basic concepts and a practical guide to implementation of the experiments. A basic knowledge of solution-state NMR is assumed and is only briefly covered. The text is intended for those in academia and industry expecting to use solid-state NMR in their research and looking for an accessible introduction to the field. It will also be valuable for non-experts interested in learning how NMR can be usefully applied to solid systems. Detailed mathematical treatments are delayed to a chapter at the mid-point of the text and can be skipped. Introductions to experiments and numerical simulations are provided to help link NMR results to experimental practice. The different aspects of solid-state NMR, from basic pulse-and-acquire experiments to sophisticated techniques for the measurement of anisotropy information are presented. Examples illustrate the wide variety of applications of the technique and its complementarity to other solid-state characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction. Various aspects of NMR crystallography are covered as are topics of motion in solids.

NMR Spectroscopy in Food Analysis

Author: Apostolos Spyros
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 9781782625667
Release Date: 2015-10-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering

During the last two decades, the use of NMR spectroscopy for the characterization and analysis of food materials has flourished, and this trend continues to increase today. Currently, there exists no book that fulfils specifically the needs of food scientists that are interested in adding or expanding the use of NMR spectroscopy in their arsenal of food analysis techniques. Current books and monographs are rather addressed to experienced researchers in food analysis providing new information in the field. This book, written by acknowledged experts in the field, fills the gap by offering a day to day NMR guide for the food scientist, affording not only the basic theoretical aspects of NMR spectroscopy, but also practical information on sample preparation, experimental conditions and data analysis. Current developments in the field covered in this book are the availability of solid state NMR experiments such as CP/MAS and more importantly HR-MAS NMR for the analysis of semisolid foods, and the increasing use of chemometrics to analyze NMR data in food metabonomics. Moreover, this book contains an up to date discussion of MRI in food analysis including topics such as food processing and natural changes in food such as ripening. The book is a compact and complete source of information for food scientists who wish to apply methodologies based on NMR spectroscopy in food analysis. It contains information so far scattered in the primary literature, in NMR treatises and food analysis books, in a concise format that makes it appealing to food scientists who have no or minimal experience in magnetic resonance techniques. The inclusion of practical information about NMR instrumentation, experiment setup, acquisition and spectral analysis for the study of different food categories make this book a hands-on manual for food scientists wishing to implement novel NMR spectroscopy-based analytical techniques in their field.

Magnetic Resonance in Porous Media

Author: Martin Hürlimann
Publisher: Amer Inst of Physics
ISBN: UCSD:31822036967354
Release Date: 2008-12-11
Genre: Medical

The International Bologna conference of Magnetic Resonance in Porous Media is devoted to the progress in Magnetic Resonance in Porous Media and to our understanding of Porous Media themselves, and to stimulate the contact among people from various parts of Academia and Industry. Researchers in Physics, Chemistry, Engineering, Life Sciences, Mathematics, Computer Sciences, and in Industrial Applications will benefit from exchange of ideas, experiences, and new approaches. Topics include innovative techniques to study structure, behavior of fluids, and their interactions in every kind of natural and artificial materials, including rocks, cements, biological tissues, foodstuffs, wood, particle packs, sediments, pharmaceuticals, zeolites, and bioconstructs. New data acquisition and processing techniques are also strong features. This year’s conference (MRPM9) also incorporates the 8th Colloquium on Mobile NMR (CMMR8).