Author: Bradley J. Adams
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2012
In the forensic context it is quite common for nonhuman bones to be confused with human remains and end up in the medical examiner or coroner system. It is also quite common for skeletal remains (both human and nonhuman) to be discovered in archaeological contexts. While the difference between human and nonhuman bones is often very striking, it can also be quite subtle. Fragmentation only compounds the problem. The ability to differentiate between human and nonhuman bones is dependent on the training of the analyst and the available reference and/or comparative material. Comparative Osteology is a photographic atlas of common North American animal bones designed for use as a laboratory and field guide by the forensic scientist or archaeologist. The intent of the guide is not to be inclusive of all animals, but rather to present some of the most common species which also have the highest likelihood of being potentially confused with human remains. * An affordably priced, compact laboratory/field manual, comparing human and nonhuman bones. * Contains almost 600 high-quality black and white images and diagrams, including inch and centimeter scales with each photograph. * Written by the foremost forensic scientists with decades of experience in the laboratory and as expert witnesses. * An additional Companion Web site hosts images from the volume the reader can magnify and zoom into to see specific landmarks and features on bones http://booksite.academicpress.com/9780123884374
Author: Bradley J. Adams
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2009-12-13
This is a photographic atlas of common animal bones, designed for use by the forensic scientist or archaeologist. This volume is the first to focus comparatively on both human and animal osteology. It features more than 300 illustrations of skeletons. Throughout, animal bones are photographed alongside the corresponding human bone, allowing the reader to observe size and shape variations.
Author: Louise Scheuer
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2010-07-28
The need for a laboratory and field manual to assist with the evaluation of juvenile skeletal material is long overdue. This resource is essential for the practising osteoarchaeologist and forensic anthropologist who requires a quick, reliable and easy-to-use reference to aid in the identification, siding and aging of juvenile osseous material. While excellent reference books on juvenile osteology are currently available, no pre-existing source adequately fills this particular niche in the market. This field manual is designed with practicality as its primary directive. Descriptions of each bone contain 1) morphological characteristics useful for identification, 2) other elements with which the bone may be confused, 2) tips for siding, 3) illustrations of varying developmental phases, 4) data useful for ageing, and 5) a summary of developmental timings. Concise, bullet-style descriptions assist with quick retrieval of information. Unique to this manual is the presentation of data collected from a variety of populations, utilizing a range of observational methods, as an alternative to providing one overall aging summary that is derived from a compilation of many individual sources. This manual provides a host of data on a variety of populations to enable the user to select the reference most applicable to their needs. The final chapter combines information from each bone to provide a summary of developmental changes occurring at different life stages to act as an immediate 'ready reckoner' for the knowledgeable practitioner. It also provides forms useful for documenting juvenile material and diagrams to help with the recognition of commingled juvenile remains. The manual is a must for anyone responsible for the evaluation of juvenile osseous material through dry bone assessment, radiographs, sonograms, and or CT scans. *Identifies every component of the developing skeleton *Provides detailed analysis of juvenile skeletal remains and the development of bone as a tissue *Summarizes key morphological stages in the development of every bone *Provides data on a variety of populations to enable the user to select the reference most applicable to their needs *Focuses on practicality, with direct, bullet style descriptions *Provides forms for documenting juvenile material *Provides diagrams to help with the recognition of commingled juvenile remains *Final chapter provides summary of developmental changes occurring at different life stages to act as an immediate 'ready reckoner' for the practitioner
Author: B. Miles Gilbert
Release Date: 1980
The aim of this well-presented study is to provide a tool with which archaeologists and students can identify and analyse the bones of mammals found on sites in North America. It also stresses the value and importance of such studies for our understanding of past environments, climates andpopulations. A discussion of different species (and how to tell them apart) is followed by a section of illustrations which compare types of bones.
Author: Elizabeth J. Reitz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2008-01-14
Genre: Social Science
This is an introductory text for students interested in identification and analysis of animal remains from archaeological sites. The emphasis is on animals whose remains inform us about the relationship between humans and their natural and social environments, especially site formation processes, subsistence strategies, the processes of domestication, and paleoenvironments. Examining examples from all over the world, from the Pleistocene period up to the present, this volume is organized in a way that is parallel to faunal study, beginning with background information, bias in a faunal assemblage, and basic zooarchaeological methods. This revised edition reflects developments in zooarchaeology during the past decade. It includes sections on enamel ultrastructure and incremental analysis, stable isotyopes and trace elements, ancient genetics and enzymes, environmental reconstruction, people as agents of environmental change, applications of zooarchaeology in animal conservation and heritage management, and a discussion of issues pertaining to the curation of archaeofaunal materials.
Author: Eline M. J. Schotsmans
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2017-04-17
A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science. The book combines essential theory with practical crime scene work, includes case studies, is applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, prehistory and anthropology, and combines points of view from both established practitioners and young researchers to ensure relevance.
Author: Simon Hillson
Release Date: 2016-06-16
Genre: Social Science
This guide is designed as an introduction to the basic methods for identifying mammal bones and teeth. It is intended to highlight for beginners the main points on which identifications can be made on the bulk of bones and teeth from a small range of common Old World mammals.
Children, Death and Burials assembles a panorama of studies with a focus on juvenile burials; the 16 papers have a wide geographic and temporal breadth and represent a range of methodological approaches. All have a similar objective in mind, however, namely to understand how children were treated in death by different cultures in the past; to gain insights concerning the roles of children of different ages in their respective societies and to find evidence of the nature of past adult–child relationships and interactions across the life course. The contextualisation and integration of the data collected, both in the field and in the laboratory, enables more nuanced understandings to be gained in relation to the experiences of the young in the past. A broad range of issues are addressed within the volume, including the inclusion/exclusion of children in particular burial environments and the impact of age in relation to the place of children in society. Child burials clearly embody identity and ‘the domestic child’, ‘the vulnerable child’, ‘the high status child’, ‘the cherished child’, ‘the potential child’, ‘the ritual child’ and the ‘political child’, and combinations thereof, are evident throughout the narratives. Investigation of the burial practices afforded to children is pivotal to enlightenment in relation to key facets of past life, including the emotional responses shown towards children during life and in death, as well as an understanding of their place within the social strata and ritual activities of their societies. An important new collection of papers by leading researchers in funerary archaeology, examining the particular treatment of juvenile burials in the past. In particular focuses on the expression of varying status and identity of children in the funerary archaeological record as a key to understanding the place of children in different societies.
Author: Diane L. France
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2017-02-17
Building on the success, and maintaining the format, of the best-selling Human and Nonhuman Bone Identification: A Color Atlas (ISBN: 978-1-4200-6286-1), Comparative Bone Identification: Human Subadult to Nonhuman presents new images of human bones representing many states of maturation from neonate to 20 years old. It also extends the scope of the former work by focusing on the smaller bones of fetuses and young humans and comparing them to bones of birds, reptiles, marine mammals, fish, and a frog that may be confused with those of a subadult human. The book begins with a section on general osteology and explains the major anatomical differences between humans and other animals. The second section compares human and nonhuman bones, categorized by type of bone, and includes most of the major bones in humans and nonhumans. The third section presents skeletons within species. Containing nearly 3,500 color photographs, the book provides examples of similar bones in nonhuman species that may be confused with the human bone in question. The bone images are also taken from different angles to enhance detailed understanding. A practical comparative guide to the differences among species for nearly all bones in the body, this book is a valuable resource for the laboratory or in the field. It uses a visual approach with annotations pointing out salient features of the most commonly discovered bones, giving clear examples for use by law enforcement, medicolegal death investigators, forensic anthropologists, students, and readers who wish to distinguish between human bones and those of the a variety of animal species.
Author: April M. Beisaw
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
Release Date: 2013-11-21
Genre: Social Science
Offering a field-tested analytic method for identifying faunal remains, along with helpful references, images, and examples of the most commonly encountered North American species, Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones: A Manual provides an important new reference for students, avocational archaeologists, and even naturalists and wildlife enthusiasts. Using the basic principles outlined here, the bones of any vertebrate animal, including humans, can be identified and their relevance to common research questions can be better understood. Because the interpretation of archaeological sites depends heavily on the analysis of surrounding materials—soils, artifacts, and floral and faunal remains—it is important that non-human remains be correctly distinguished from human bones, that distinctions between domesticated and wild or feral animals be made correctly, and that evidence of the reasons for faunal remains in the site be recognized. But the ability to identify and analyze animal bones is a skill that is not easy to learn from a traditional textbook. In Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones, veteran archaeologist and educator April Beisaw guides readers through the stages of identification and analysis with sample images and data, also illustrating how specialists make analytical decisions that allow for the identification of the smallest fragments of bone. Extensive additional illustrative material, from the author’s own collected assemblages and from those in the Archaeological Analytical Research Facility at Binghamton University in New York, are also available in the book’s online supplement. There, readers can view and interact with images to further understanding of the principles explained in the text.
Author: Umberto Albarella
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2017
Genre: Social Science
Animals have played a fundamental role in shaping human history and the study of their remains from archaeological sites--zooarchaeology--has gradually been emerging as a powerful discipline and crucible for forging an understanding of our past. The Oxford Handbook of Zooarchaeology offers a cutting-edge compendium of zooarchaeology the world over that transcends environmental, economic, and social approaches, seeking instead to provide a holistic view of the roles played by animals in past human cultures. Incisive chapters written by leading scholars in the field incorporate case studies from across five continents, from Iceland to New Zealand and from Japan to Egypt and Ecuador, providing a sense of the dynamism of the discipline, the many approaches and methods adopted by different schools and traditions, and an idea of the huge range of interactions that have occurred between people and animals throughout the world and its history. Adaptations of human-animal relationships in environments as varied as the Arctic, temperate forests, deserts, the tropics, and the sea are discussed, while studies of hunter-gatherers, farmers, herders, fishermen, and even traders and urban dwellers highlight the importance that animals have had in all forms of human societies. With an introduction that clearly contextualizes the current practice of zooarchaeology in relation to both its history and the challenges and opportunities that can be expected for the future, and a methodological glossary illuminating the way in which zooarchaeologists approach the study of their material, this Handbook will be invaluable not only for specialists in the field, but for anybody who has an interest in our past and the role that animals have played in forging it.
Author: Stanley J. Olsen
Publisher: Peabody Museum Press
Release Date: 1972
This comparative analysis aids the fieldworker in identifying fossil proboscidean bones from early man sites. It also describes the skulls, mandibles, and posteranial skeletons of forty families of birds frequently found in archaeological excavations in the United States.
Everything you need to know about the framework of the body - our bones! Bone is one of the most extraordinary materials in the natural world-flexible, strong, and available in a number of types and densities. Yet we can only absorb quite how amazing it is when we look at the range of different jobs it can do, from supporting a huge and heavy mammal like an elephant, to enabling a bat to fly. It can even teach us about the past! Scientists have gathered all the information they know about the dinosaurs and their dependents from their fossilized bones, extraordinary reminders of the way our world used to be. Skeletons covers everything you need to know about bones! Beautifully illustrated with the engravings of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, learn all about the skeleton and the variety of actions it preforms to enable an animal to survive. Then, go deeper and see how skeletons have evolved over time. They can even adapt to different climates to help animals survive! You'll also find complete directory of skeletons with its own box of key facts and statistics. It's scientific eye candy! - See more at: http://www.quartoknows.com/books/9781577151234/Skeletons.html?direct=1#sthash.kdmZSEZn.dpuf