Author: Reto M Hilty
Release Date: 2014-11-19
Under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law (now the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition). And Institutum Iurisprudentiae, Academia Sinica, a group of twenty scholars from around the world gathered to study the experiences made with regards to compulsory licensing. The results are demonstrated in this book. Different articles analyze how the international conventions on intellectual property may be interpreted and explore the related doctrinal groundwork surrounding compulsory patent licensing and beyond. It is shown how the compulsory licensing regime could be transformed into a truly workable mechanism facilitating the speedy use and dissemination of innovation and other subject matters of protection.
This book examines the impact and shortcomings of the TRIPS Agreement, which was signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. Over the last 20 years, the framework conditions have changed fundamentally. New technologies have emerged, markets have expanded beyond national borders, some developing states have become global players, the terms of international competition have changed, and the intellectual property system faces increasing friction with public policies. The contributions to this book inquire into whether the TRIPS Agreement should still be seen only as part of an international trade regulation, or whether it needs to be understood – or even reconceptualized – as a framework regulation for the international protection of intellectual property. The purpose, therefore, is not to define the terms of an outright revision of the TRIPS Agreement but rather to discuss the framework conditions for an interpretative evolution that could make the Agreement better suited to the expectations and needs of today’s global economy.
Author: Wei Zhuang
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2017-06-01
As the world confronts global warming, there is a growing consensus that the TRIPS Agreement could be a more effective instrument for mitigating climate change. In this innovative work, Wei Zhuang systematically examines the contextual elements that can be used in the interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement with a view to enhancing innovation and transfer of environmentally sound technologies. Zhuang proposes a balanced and pro-competitive interpretation that could be pursued by policy makers and negotiators. This comprehensive, multidisciplinary study will help academics and policymakers improve their understanding of the contemporary international legal regimes governing intellectual property rights and innovation and transfer of environmentally sound technologies. It also offers practical guidance for further developing a legal system capable of responding to the challenges posed by climate change.
Author: Locknie Hsu
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2016-02-12
The last two decades have seen great economic change in Asia and this has impacted upon the vexed question of access to affordable healthcare and medicines in many Asian states. In this book Locknie Hsu examines the issue of access to medicines in Asia from a fresh perspective which embraces trade and investment law, innovation, intellectual property law, competition policy and public health issues. Hsu explores the key evolving legal issues in these areas, including ASEAN integration, free trade agreement negotiations (such as those for the TPP), bilateral investment agreements and significant court decisions. The book goes on to present proposals for steps to be taken in addressing access to medicines in Asia and will be useful to academic researchers, regulators, law-makers and global organizations involved in the issues surrounding access to affordable healthcare and medicines.
Author: Kung-Chung Liu
Release Date: 2017-06-02
This book evaluates existing and explores new mechanisms for the adequate payment of copyright owners for the use of their works. The underlying assumption is that adequate rewards to creators and subsequent right holders will continue to be a goal of copyright law (particularly to incentivize further creation and investment). In the search for viable methods it first focuses on the reduction of transaction costs and the role of new technologies. It also discusses the further development and broader application of new mechanisms that might be necessary to enhance the adequacy and efficiency of payment systems, since the more onerous payment systems are, the more irrelevant copyright risks become due to lack of acceptance, and the less likely both are to fulfill their functions.
Author: Paul Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2009-01-07
Introduction Intellectual property rights foster innovation. But if, as it surely does, “intellectual property” means not just intellectual property rules—the law of patents, copyrights, trademarks, designs, trade secrets, and unfair competition—but also intellectual property institutions—the courts, police, regulatory agencies, and collecting soc- ties that administer these rules—what are the respective roles of intellectual property rules and institutions in fostering creativity? And, to what extent do forces outside intellectual property rules and institutions—economics, culture, politics, history—also contribute to innovation? Is it possible that these other factors so overwhelm the impact of intellectual property regimes that it is futile to expect adjustments in intellectual property rules and institutions to alter patterns of inno- tion and, ultimately, economic development? It was to address these questions in the most dynamic region of the world today, Asia, that we invited leading country experts to contribute studies that not only summarize the current condition of intellectual property regimes in countries ranging in economic size from Cambodia to Japan, and in population from Laos to China, but that also describe the historical sources of these laws and institutions; the realities of intellectual property enforcement in the marketplace; and the political, economic, educational, and scientific infrastructures that sustain and direct inve- ment in innovative activity. A.
Author: Mark-Oliver Mackenrodt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-07-25
Genre: Political Science
As part of its review of competition law that started in the late 1990s, the European Commission proposes to revise its interpretation and application of the Treaty’s prohibition of abuses of dominant positions. Also, it has instigated a debate about the promotion of private enforcement of EC competition law. On the former subject, the Commission published a Discussion Paper in 2005; on the latter, a Green Paper in 2005, followed by a White Paper in 2008. The chapters in this volume critically appraise the Commission’s proposals, including the most recent ones. The authors also highlight the repercussions of the proposed ‘more economic approach’ to abuses of dominant positions on private litigants’ opportunities to bring damages actions in national courts for such abuses.
Author: Ronald Leenes
Release Date: 2017-02-07
This book features peer reviewed contributions from across the disciplines on themes relating to protection of data and to privacy protection. The authors explore fundamental and legal questions, investigate case studies and consider concepts and tools such as privacy by design, the risks of surveillance and fostering trust. Readers may trace both technological and legal evolution as chapters examine current developments in ICT such as cloud computing and the Internet of Things. Written during the process of the fundamental revision of revision of EU data protection law (the 1995 Data Protection Directive), this volume is highly topical. Since the European Parliament has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation 2016/679), which will apply from 25 May 2018, there are many details to be sorted out. This volume identifies and exemplifies key, contemporary issues. From fundamental rights and offline alternatives, through transparency requirements to health data breaches, the reader is provided with a rich and detailed picture, including some daring approaches to privacy and data protection. The book will inform and inspire all stakeholders. Researchers with an interest in the philosophy of law and philosophy of technology, in computers and society, and in European and International law will all find something of value in this stimulating and engaging work.
Author: J. Michael Finger
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Release Date: 2004-01-29
How can we help poor people earn more from their knowledge rather than from their sweat and muscle alone? This book is about increasing the earnings of poor people in poor countries from their innovation, knowledge, and creative skills. Case studies look at the African music industry; traditional crafts and ways to prevent counterfeit crafts designs; the activities of fair trade organizations; biopiracy and the commercialization of ethnobotanical knowledge; the use of intellectual property laws and other tools to protect traditional knowledge. The contributors' motivation is sometimes to maintain the art and culture of poor people, but they recognize that except in a museum setting, no traditional skill can live on unless it has a viable market. Culture and commerce more often complement than conflict in the cases reviewed here. The book calls attention to the unwritten half of the World Trade Organization's Agreement on the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS). TRIPS is about knowledge that industrial countries own, and which poor people buy. This book is about knowledge that poor people in poor countries generate and have to sell. It will be of interest to students and scholars of international trade and law, and to anyone with an interest in ways developing countries can find markets for cultural, intellectual, and traditional knowledge.
The TPP was negotiated among 12 economically diverse countries, including some most highly developed and rich countries (i.e., the United States, Japan, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Singapore), some newly industrialized countries (i.e., Mexico and Malaysia), and some less-developed countries (i.e., Peru, Chile, and Vietnam). A new paradigm created in this context is that countries with vastly different economic developments can actually agree on a set of very high standards to regulate their economic activities, to liberalize their trade, and to protect intellectual property and foreign investment. The contents of the TPP also reflect its status of being a “new paradigm” as the “21st-Century Trade Agreement” and being a pioneer in rule making in many key regulatory areas. These include not only the improved and enhanced rules on traditional issues already covered by the WTO , such as goods, services, and IP rights, but also the carefully designed rules in areas that have never been addressed in the WTO or comprehensively covered in other FTAs , such as state-owned enterprises, electronic commerce, and labor and environmental issues. Although the United States has withdrawn from the TPP, the remaining countries are still putting efforts into establishing a TPP without the United States or a TPP with China. Economically speaking, the current 11 parties account for about 20 % of the global economy. If such agreement is put into force, there will be significant implications for the region, for the multilateral system, and even for other FTAs. The book addresses the potential of the TPP to change the ways trade and investments are conducted and argues for its potential to be the start of an international trade/economic law revolution. The book elaborates the relationship between the TPP and other existing trade agreements such as the WTO and other FTAs and explains how the TPP is to deal with traditional and new issues. Taken together, the authors argue that the implications of the TPP go beyond its current membership. It is hoped that the book will make an important contribution to the field of international economic law.
This book is about one of the most controversial dilemmas of contract law: whether or not the unexpected change of circumstances due to the effects of financial crises may under certain conditions be taken into account. Growing interconnectedness of global economies facilitates the spread of the effects of the financial crises. Financial crises cause severe difficulties for persons to fulfill their contractual obligations. During the financial crises, performance of contractual obligations may become excessively onerous or may cause an excessive loss for one of the contracting parties and consequently destroy the contractual equilibrium and legitimate the governmental interventions. Uncomfortable economic climate leads to one of the most controversial dilemmas of the contract law: whether the binding force of the contract is absolute or not. In other words, unstable economic circumstances impose the need to devote special attention to review and perhaps to narrow the binding nature of a contract. Principle of good faith and fair dealing motivate a variety of theoretical bases in order to overcome the legal consequences of financial crises. In this book, all these theoretical bases are analyzed with special focus on the available remedies, namely renegotiation, rescission or revision and the circumstances which enables the revocation of these remedies. The book collects the 19 national reports and the general report originally presented in the session regarding the Effects of Financial Crises on the Binding Force of Contracts: Renegotiation, Rescission or Revision during the XIXth congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law, held in Vienna, July 2014.
This publication provides an unparalleled comparative analysis of two "hot topics" in the field of antitrust and unfair competition law with regard to a number of key countries. The first part of the book examines the prohibition of abuse of a dominant position and globalization in relation to two broad questions: first, whether there is consistency between the approaches of different jurisdictions to the notion of abuse, and, second, whether there are too many restrictions on legal rights and business opportunities resulting from the prohibition of abuse of dominance. The international report drafted by Professor Pinar Akman reveals that there are as many similarities as differences between the approaches of the twenty-one jurisdictions studied and presented in this book. This is an invitation to read the excellent international report as well as the reports on specific jurisdictions in order to grasp the variety of arguments and approaches of this antitrust area, which may, on the surface, appear alike. The second part gathers contributions on the question of protection and disclosure of trade secrets and know-how from various jurisdictions. The need for adequate protection of trade secrets has increased due to digitalization and the ease with which large volumes of misappropriated information can be reproduced. The comprehensive international report, prepared by Henrik Bengtsson, brings together these reflections by comparing various national positions. The book also discusses the resolutions passed by the General Assembly of the International League of Competition Law (LIDC) following a debate on each of these topics, and includes proposed solutions and recommendations.
Author: Roland Norer
Release Date: 2015-12-17
The volume gives an overview on how legislators all over the world have come up with different legal solutions for governing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food security and provides a compact summary of the existing regulations in this field. In a comparative legal approach, a general report analyses and compares these various national and supranational legal systems. It closely follows the newest developments at the interface between genetic engineering law and food law. The emergence of a new technology usually leads to fundamental questions as to how the law should respond to it. The regulation of genetically modified organisms is a prime example, they have been discussed controversially ever since they were subject of legislation and regulation. In particular, this applies to the use of GMOs in food production. There is a variety of interesting legislations and a differentiated width of legal frameworks on international, supranational (EU) and national level to be found. The different regulations that thereby came to light are evidence of the various opinions and policies the societies and states have developed on this matter. It is this variety of regulations the volume examines, primarily on the basis of national reports that were handed in concerning the topic of genetic technology and food security at the occasion of the XIX International Congress of Comparative Law.
Author: Olga Cvejić Jančić
Release Date: 2015-11-17
This book deals with the implementation of the rights of the child as enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 21 countries from Europe, Asia, Australia, and the USA. It gives an overview of the legal status of children regarding their most salient rights, such as the implementation of the best interest principle, the right of the child to know about of his/her origin, the right to be heard, to give medical consent, the right of the child in the field of employment, religious education of children, prohibition of physical punishment, protection of the child through deprivation of parental rights and in the case of inter-country adoption. In the last 25 years since the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted, many States Parties to the Convention have made great efforts to pass legislation regulating the rights of the child, in their commitment to the improvement of the legal status of the child. However, is that enough for any child to live better, safer, and healthier? What are the practical effects of this international as well as many national instruments in the everyday life of children? Have there been any outcomes in terms of improvement of their status around the world, and improvement of the conditions under which they live, since the Convention entered into force? In tackling these questions, this work presents a comparative overview of the implementation of the Convention, and evaluates the results achieved.
Author: Brian F. Fitzgerald
Release Date: 2008-01-01
Copyright law, digital content and the Internet in the Asia-Pacific provides a unique insight into the key issues facing copyright law and digital content policy in a networked information world. It emanates from a landmark conference - The First International Forum on the Content Industry and Intellectual Property - organised by Queensland University of Technology (QUT), The ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (CCi) and East China University of Political Science and Law (ECUPL) in Shanghai in 2007. The book features chapters from a wide range of experts in their respective fields from across the Asia-Pacific region, including Australia, the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Indonesia and Singapore. Some of the areas examined include the new digital environment, digital content policy, the networked information economy, copyright law and new media. The book provides a timely and scholarly appraisal of the legal and policy considerations facing anyone trying to regulate, sponsor or utilise the vast array of new media and content platforms now available.