Computability Theory

Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781351991964
Release Date: 2017-09-06
Genre: Mathematics

Computability theory originated with the seminal work of Gödel, Church, Turing, Kleene and Post in the 1930s. This theory includes a wide spectrum of topics, such as the theory of reducibilities and their degree structures, computably enumerable sets and their automorphisms, and subrecursive hierarchy classifications. Recent work in computability theory has focused on Turing definability and promises to have far-reaching mathematical, scientific, and philosophical consequences. Written by a leading researcher, Computability Theory provides a concise, comprehensive, and authoritative introduction to contemporary computability theory, techniques, and results. The basic concepts and techniques of computability theory are placed in their historical, philosophical and logical context. This presentation is characterized by an unusual breadth of coverage and the inclusion of advanced topics not to be found elsewhere in the literature at this level. The book includes both the standard material for a first course in computability and more advanced looks at degree structures, forcing, priority methods, and determinacy. The final chapter explores a variety of computability applications to mathematics and science. Computability Theory is an invaluable text, reference, and guide to the direction of current research in the field. Nowhere else will you find the techniques and results of this beautiful and basic subject brought alive in such an approachable and lively way.

Quantifiers and Cognition Logical and Computational Perspectives

Author: Jakub Szymanik
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319287492
Release Date: 2016-02-19
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

This volume on the semantic complexity of natural language explores the question why some sentences are more difficult than others. While doing so, it lays the groundwork for extending semantic theory with computational and cognitive aspects by combining linguistics and logic with computations and cognition. Quantifier expressions occur whenever we describe the world and communicate about it. Generalized quantifier theory is therefore one of the basic tools of linguistics today, studying the possible meanings and the inferential power of quantifier expressions by logical means. The classic version was developed in the 1980s, at the interface of linguistics, mathematics and philosophy. Before this volume, advances in "classic" generalized quantifier theory mainly focused on logical questions and their applications to linguistics, this volume adds a computational component, the third pillar of language use and logical activity. This book is essential reading for researchers in linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, logic, AI, and computer science.

Theory and Applications of Models of Computation

Author: Manindra Agrawal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540792277
Release Date: 2008-04-08
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Models of Computation, TAMC 2008, held in Xi'an, China in April 2008. The 48 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited talks and 1 plenary lecture were carefully reviewed and selected from 192 submissions. The papers address current issues of all major areas in computer science, mathematics (especially logic) and the physical sciences - computation, algorithms, complexity and computability theory in particular. With this crossdisciplinary character the conference is given a special flavor and distinction.

Cylindric like Algebras and Algebraic Logic

Author: Hajnal Andreka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642350252
Release Date: 2014-01-27
Genre: Mathematics

Algebraic logic is a subject in the interface between logic, algebra and geometry, it has strong connections with category theory and combinatorics. Tarski’s quest for finding structure in logic leads to cylindric-like algebras as studied in this book, they are among the main players in Tarskian algebraic logic. Cylindric algebra theory can be viewed in many ways: as an algebraic form of definability theory, as a study of higher-dimensional relations, as an enrichment of Boolean Algebra theory, or, as logic in geometric form (“cylindric” in the name refers to geometric aspects). Cylindric-like algebras have a wide range of applications, in, e.g., natural language theory, data-base theory, stochastics, and even in relativity theory. The present volume, consisting of 18 survey papers, intends to give an overview of the main achievements and new research directions in the past 30 years, since the publication of the Henkin-Monk-Tarski monographs. It is dedicated to the memory of Leon Henkin.​

Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing SAT 2014

Author: Carsten Sinz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319092843
Release Date: 2014-07-02
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing, SAT 2014, held as part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, in Vienna, Austria, in July 2014. The 21 regular papers, 7 short papers and 4 tool papers presented together with 2 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 78 submissions. The papers have been organized in the following topical sections: maximum satisfiability; minimal unsatisfiability; complexity and reductions; proof complexity; parallel and incremental (Q)SAT; applications; structure; simplification and solving; and analysis.

Computation Physics and Beyond

Author: Michael J. Dinneen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642276545
Release Date: 2012-02-15
Genre: Computers

This Festschrift volume has been published in honor of Cristian Calude on the occasion of his 60th birthday and contains contributions from invited speakers and regular papers presented at the International Workshop on Theoretical Computer Science, WTCS 2012, held in Auckland, New Zealand, in February 2012. Cristian Calude has made a significant contribution to research in computer science theory. Along with early work by Chaitin, Kučera, Kurtz, Solovay, and Terwijn his papers published in the mid-1990s jointly with Khoussainov, Hertling, and Wang laid the foundation for the development of modern theory of algorithmic randomness. His work was essential for establishing the leading role of New Zealand in this area. The research interests of Cristian Calude are reflected in the topics covered by the 32 papers included in this book, namely: algorithmic information theory, algorithms, automata and formal languages, computing and natural sciences, computability and applications, logic and applications, philosophy of computation, physics and computation, and unconventional models of computation. They have been organized into four parts. The first part consists of papers discussing his life achievements. This is followed by papers in the three general areas of complexity, computability, and randomness; physics, philosophy (and logic), and computation; and algorithms, automata, and formal models (including unconventional computing).

Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamics

Author: Alexandru Baltag
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319060255
Release Date: 2014-08-27
Genre: Philosophy

This book illustrates the program of Logical-Informational Dynamics. Rational agents exploit the information available in the world in delicate ways, adopt a wide range of epistemic attitudes, and in that process, constantly change the world itself. Logical-Informational Dynamics is about logical systems putting such activities at center stage, focusing on the events by which we acquire information and change attitudes. Its contributions show many current logics of information and change at work, often in multi-agent settings where social behavior is essential, and often stressing Johan van Benthem's pioneering work in establishing this program. However, this is not a Festschrift, but a rich tapestry for a field with a wealth of strands of its own. The reader will see the state of the art in such topics as information update, belief change, preference, learning over time, and strategic interaction in games. Moreover, no tight boundary has been enforced, and some chapters add more general mathematical or philosophical foundations or links to current trends in computer science. The theme of this book lies at the interface of many disciplines. Logic is the main methodology, but the various chapters cross easily between mathematics, computer science, philosophy, linguistics, cognitive and social sciences, while also ranging from pure theory to empirical work. Accordingly, the authors of this book represent a wide variety of original thinkers from different research communities. And their interconnected themes challenge at the same time how we think of logic, philosophy and computation. Thus, very much in line with van Benthem's work over many decades, the volume shows how all these disciplines form a natural unity in the perspective of dynamic logicians (broadly conceived) exploring their new themes today. And at the same time, in doing so, it offers a broader conception of logic with a certain grandeur, moving its horizons beyond the traditional study of consequence relations.

Computability in Context

Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9781848162457
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Computers

Addresses various ways computability and theoretical computer science enable scientists and philosophers to deal with mathematical and real-world issues. This book covers problems related to logic, mathematics, physical processes, real computation and learning theory.

The Foundations of Computability Theory

Author: Borut Robič
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783662448083
Release Date: 2015-09-14
Genre: Computers

This book offers an original and informative view of the development of fundamental concepts of computability theory. The treatment is put into historical context, emphasizing the motivation for ideas as well as their logical and formal development. In Part I the author introduces computability theory, with chapters on the foundational crisis of mathematics in the early twentieth century, and formalism; in Part II he explains classical computability theory, with chapters on the quest for formalization, the Turing Machine, and early successes such as defining incomputable problems, c.e. (computably enumerable) sets, and developing methods for proving incomputability; in Part III he explains relative computability, with chapters on computation with external help, degrees of unsolvability, the Turing hierarchy of unsolvability, the class of degrees of unsolvability, c.e. degrees and the priority method, and the arithmetical hierarchy. This is a gentle introduction from the origins of computability theory up to current research, and it will be of value as a textbook and guide for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the domains of computability theory and theoretical computer science.

Theory and Applications of Models of Computation

Author: Jianer Chen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642020162
Release Date: 2009-04-28
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Models of Computation, TAMC 2009, held in Changsha, China in May 2009. The 39 full papers presented together with 7 invited papers as well as 3 plenary talks were selected from 86 submissions. The papers address the three main themes of the conference which were Computability, Complexity, and Algorithms. The conference aimed to bring together researchers with interests in theoretical computer science, algorithmic mathematics, and applications to the physical sciences.

Algorithmic Randomness and Complexity

Author: Rodney G. Downey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387684413
Release Date: 2010-10-29
Genre: Computers

Computability and complexity theory are two central areas of research in theoretical computer science. This book provides a systematic, technical development of "algorithmic randomness" and complexity for scientists from diverse fields.

Computable Foundations for Economics

Author: K. Vela Velupillai
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134253371
Release Date: 2012-07-26
Genre: Business & Economics

K. Vela Velupillai is probably the world's leading expert, and author of a number of key essays on, computable economics. His essays, brought together here for the first time have been revised and updated and set alongside significant new contributions.

Turing Computability

Author: Robert I. Soare
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642319334
Release Date: 2016-06-20
Genre: Computers

Turing's famous 1936 paper introduced a formal definition of a computing machine, a Turing machine. This model led to both the development of actual computers and to computability theory, the study of what machines can and cannot compute. This book presents classical computability theory from Turing and Post to current results and methods, and their use in studying the information content of algebraic structures, models, and their relation to Peano arithmetic. The author presents the subject as an art to be practiced, and an art in the aesthetic sense of inherent beauty which all mathematicians recognize in their subject. Part I gives a thorough development of the foundations of computability, from the definition of Turing machines up to finite injury priority arguments. Key topics include relative computability, and computably enumerable sets, those which can be effectively listed but not necessarily effectively decided, such as the theorems of Peano arithmetic. Part II includes the study of computably open and closed sets of reals and basis and nonbasis theorems for effectively closed sets. Part III covers minimal Turing degrees. Part IV is an introduction to games and their use in proving theorems. Finally, Part V offers a short history of computability theory. The author has honed the content over decades according to feedback from students, lecturers, and researchers around the world. Most chapters include exercises, and the material is carefully structured according to importance and difficulty. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and mathematics and researchers engaged with computability and mathematical logic.

Computability

Author: B. Jack Copeland
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262312684
Release Date: 2013-06-07
Genre: Computers

In the 1930s a series of seminal works published by Alan Turing, Kurt Gödel, Alonzo Church, and others established the theoretical basis for computability. This work, advancing precise characterizations of effective, algorithmic computability, was the culmination of intensive investigations into the foundations of mathematics. In the decades since, the theory of computability has moved to the center of discussions in philosophy, computer science, and cognitive science. In this volume, distinguished computer scientists, mathematicians, logicians, and philosophers consider the conceptual foundations of computability in light of our modern understanding. Some chapters focus on the pioneering work by Turing, Gödel, and Church, including the Church-Turing thesis and Gödel's response to Church's and Turing's proposals. Other chapters cover more recent technical developments, including computability over the reals, Gödel's influence on mathematical logic and on recursion theory and the impact of work by Turing and Emil Post on our theoretical understanding of online and interactive computing; and others relate computability and complexity to issues in the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of science, and the philosophy of mathematics. Contributors:Scott Aaronson, Dorit Aharonov, B. Jack Copeland, Martin Davis, Solomon Feferman, Saul Kripke, Carl J. Posy, Hilary Putnam, Oron Shagrir, Stewart Shapiro, Wilfried Sieg, Robert I. Soare, Umesh V. Vazirani