Computability Theory

Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781351991964
Release Date: 2017-09-06
Genre: Mathematics

Computability theory originated with the seminal work of Gödel, Church, Turing, Kleene and Post in the 1930s. This theory includes a wide spectrum of topics, such as the theory of reducibilities and their degree structures, computably enumerable sets and their automorphisms, and subrecursive hierarchy classifications. Recent work in computability theory has focused on Turing definability and promises to have far-reaching mathematical, scientific, and philosophical consequences. Written by a leading researcher, Computability Theory provides a concise, comprehensive, and authoritative introduction to contemporary computability theory, techniques, and results. The basic concepts and techniques of computability theory are placed in their historical, philosophical and logical context. This presentation is characterized by an unusual breadth of coverage and the inclusion of advanced topics not to be found elsewhere in the literature at this level. The book includes both the standard material for a first course in computability and more advanced looks at degree structures, forcing, priority methods, and determinacy. The final chapter explores a variety of computability applications to mathematics and science. Computability Theory is an invaluable text, reference, and guide to the direction of current research in the field. Nowhere else will you find the techniques and results of this beautiful and basic subject brought alive in such an approachable and lively way.

Quantifiers and Cognition Logical and Computational Perspectives

Author: Jakub Szymanik
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319287492
Release Date: 2016-02-19
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

This volume on the semantic complexity of natural language explores the question why some sentences are more difficult than others. While doing so, it lays the groundwork for extending semantic theory with computational and cognitive aspects by combining linguistics and logic with computations and cognition. Quantifier expressions occur whenever we describe the world and communicate about it. Generalized quantifier theory is therefore one of the basic tools of linguistics today, studying the possible meanings and the inferential power of quantifier expressions by logical means. The classic version was developed in the 1980s, at the interface of linguistics, mathematics and philosophy. Before this volume, advances in "classic" generalized quantifier theory mainly focused on logical questions and their applications to linguistics, this volume adds a computational component, the third pillar of language use and logical activity. This book is essential reading for researchers in linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, logic, AI, and computer science.

Computability Theory Second Edition

Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: Chapman and Hall/CRC
ISBN: 1439838437
Release Date: 2015-12-15
Genre: Mathematics

Designed for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students, this book provides a complete introduction to computability theory. This second edition includes new material on hyperarithmetical and Borel sets as well as more material on computability of structures, Pi-0-1 classes, and computability in science. It features an expanded treatment of complexity of computations and updated future directions in computability. In addition, the section on randomness is now a separate chapter. The author also discusses advanced topics in greater depth, including Post’s problem, forcing and category, applications of determinacy, and the computability of theories.

The Incomputable

Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319436692
Release Date: 2017-05-02
Genre: Computers

This book questions the relevance of computation to the physical universe. Our theories deliver computational descriptions, but the gaps and discontinuities in our grasp suggest a need for continued discourse between researchers from different disciplines, and this book is unique in its focus on the mathematical theory of incomputability and its relevance for the real world. The core of the book consists of thirteen chapters in five parts on extended models of computation; the search for natural examples of incomputable objects; mind, matter, and computation; the nature of information, complexity, and randomness; and the mathematics of emergence and morphogenesis. This book will be of interest to researchers in the areas of theoretical computer science, mathematical logic, and philosophy.

Theory and Applications of Models of Computation

Author: Manindra Agrawal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540792277
Release Date: 2008-04-08
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Models of Computation, TAMC 2008, held in Xi'an, China in April 2008. The 48 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited talks and 1 plenary lecture were carefully reviewed and selected from 192 submissions. The papers address current issues of all major areas in computer science, mathematics (especially logic) and the physical sciences - computation, algorithms, complexity and computability theory in particular. With this crossdisciplinary character the conference is given a special flavor and distinction.

Cylindric like Algebras and Algebraic Logic

Author: Hajnal Andreka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642350252
Release Date: 2014-01-27
Genre: Mathematics

Algebraic logic is a subject in the interface between logic, algebra and geometry, it has strong connections with category theory and combinatorics. Tarski’s quest for finding structure in logic leads to cylindric-like algebras as studied in this book, they are among the main players in Tarskian algebraic logic. Cylindric algebra theory can be viewed in many ways: as an algebraic form of definability theory, as a study of higher-dimensional relations, as an enrichment of Boolean Algebra theory, or, as logic in geometric form (“cylindric” in the name refers to geometric aspects). Cylindric-like algebras have a wide range of applications, in, e.g., natural language theory, data-base theory, stochastics, and even in relativity theory. The present volume, consisting of 18 survey papers, intends to give an overview of the main achievements and new research directions in the past 30 years, since the publication of the Henkin-Monk-Tarski monographs. It is dedicated to the memory of Leon Henkin.​

Classical Recursion Theory

Author: P. Odifreddi
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080886590
Release Date: 1992-02-04
Genre: Computers

1988 marked the first centenary of Recursion Theory, since Dedekind's 1888 paper on the nature of number. Now available in paperback, this book is both a comprehensive reference for the subject and a textbook starting from first principles. Among the subjects covered are: various equivalent approaches to effective computability and their relations with computers and programming languages; a discussion of Church's thesis; a modern solution to Post's problem; global properties of Turing degrees; and a complete algebraic characterization of many-one degrees. Included are a number of applications to logic (in particular Gödel's theorems) and to computer science, for which Recursion Theory provides the theoretical foundation.

Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing SAT 2014

Author: Carsten Sinz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319092843
Release Date: 2014-07-02
Genre: Computers

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing, SAT 2014, held as part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, in Vienna, Austria, in July 2014. The 21 regular papers, 7 short papers and 4 tool papers presented together with 2 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 78 submissions. The papers have been organized in the following topical sections: maximum satisfiability; minimal unsatisfiability; complexity and reductions; proof complexity; parallel and incremental (Q)SAT; applications; structure; simplification and solving; and analysis.

Combinatorial Set Theory

Author: Lorenz J. Halbeisen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319602318
Release Date: 2017-12-20
Genre: Mathematics

This book, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to modern set theory. Following an overview of basic notions in combinatorics and first-order logic, the author outlines the main topics of classical set theory in the second part, including Ramsey theory and the axiom of choice. The revised edition contains new permutation models and recent results in set theory without the axiom of choice. The third part explains the sophisticated technique of forcing in great detail, now including a separate chapter on Suslin’s problem. The technique is used to show that certain statements are neither provable nor disprovable from the axioms of set theory. In the final part, some topics of classical set theory are revisited and further developed in light of forcing, with new chapters on Sacks Forcing and Shelah’s astonishing construction of a model with finitely many Ramsey ultrafilters. Written for graduate students in axiomatic set theory, Combinatorial Set Theory will appeal to all researchers interested in the foundations of mathematics. With extensive reference lists and historical remarks at the end of each chapter, this book is suitable for self-study.

The Foundations of Computability Theory

Author: Borut Robič
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783662448083
Release Date: 2015-09-14
Genre: Computers

This book offers an original and informative view of the development of fundamental concepts of computability theory. The treatment is put into historical context, emphasizing the motivation for ideas as well as their logical and formal development. In Part I the author introduces computability theory, with chapters on the foundational crisis of mathematics in the early twentieth century, and formalism; in Part II he explains classical computability theory, with chapters on the quest for formalization, the Turing Machine, and early successes such as defining incomputable problems, c.e. (computably enumerable) sets, and developing methods for proving incomputability; in Part III he explains relative computability, with chapters on computation with external help, degrees of unsolvability, the Turing hierarchy of unsolvability, the class of degrees of unsolvability, c.e. degrees and the priority method, and the arithmetical hierarchy. This is a gentle introduction from the origins of computability theory up to current research, and it will be of value as a textbook and guide for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the domains of computability theory and theoretical computer science.

Computability in Context

Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9781848162457
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Computers

Addresses various ways computability and theoretical computer science enable scientists and philosophers to deal with mathematical and real-world issues. This book covers problems related to logic, mathematics, physical processes, real computation and learning theory.

Mathematical and Algorithmic Foundations of the Internet

Author: Fabrizio Luccio
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439831380
Release Date: 2011-07-06
Genre: Computers

To truly understand how the Internet and Web are organized and function requires knowledge of mathematics and computation theory. Mathematical and Algorithmic Foundations of the Internet introduces the concepts and methods upon which computer networks rely and explores their applications to the Internet and Web. The book offers a unique approach to mathematical and algorithmic concepts, demonstrating their universality by presenting ideas and examples from various fields, including literature, history, and art. Progressing from fundamental concepts to more specific topics and applications, the text covers computational complexity and randomness, networks and graphs, parallel and distributed computing, and search engines. While the mathematical treatment is rigorous, it is presented at a level that can be grasped by readers with an elementary mathematical background. The authors also present a lighter side to this complex subject by illustrating how many of the mathematical concepts have counterparts in everyday life. The book provides in-depth coverage of the mathematical prerequisites and assembles a complete presentation of how computer networks function. It is a useful resource for anyone interested in the inner functioning, design, and organization of the Internet.

Computability

Author: Richard L. Epstein
Publisher:
ISBN: 098155072X
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Mathematics

This classic presentation of the theory of computable functions includes discussions and readings about the crisis in the foundations of mathematics in the early 20th century, while presenting the basic ideas of whole number, function, proof, and real number.

Introduction to Mathematical Logic Fourth Edition

Author: Elliott Mendelson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0412808307
Release Date: 1997-06-01
Genre: Mathematics

The Fourth Edition of this long-established text retains all the key features of the previous editions, covering the basic topics of a solid first course in mathematical logic. This edition includes an extensive appendix on second-order logic, a section on set theory with urlements, and a section on the logic that results when we allow models with empty domains. The text contains numerous exercises and an appendix furnishes answers to many of them. Introduction to Mathematical Logic includes: propositional logic first-order logic first-order number theory and the incompleteness and undecidability theorems of Gödel, Rosser, Church, and Tarski axiomatic set theory theory of computability The study of mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, and computability theory provides an understanding of the fundamental assumptions and proof techniques that form basis of mathematics. Logic and computability theory have also become indispensable tools in theoretical computer science, including artificial intelligence. Introduction to Mathematical Logic covers these topics in a clear, reader-friendly style that will be valued by anyone working in computer science as well as lecturers and researchers in mathematics, philosophy, and related fields.

Higher Order Computability

Author: John Longley
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783662479926
Release Date: 2015-11-06
Genre: Computers

This book offers a self-contained exposition of the theory of computability in a higher-order context, where 'computable operations' may themselves be passed as arguments to other computable operations. The subject originated in the 1950s with the work of Kleene, Kreisel and others, and has since expanded in many different directions under the influence of workers from both mathematical logic and computer science. The ideas of higher-order computability have proved valuable both for elucidating the constructive content of logical systems, and for investigating the expressive power of various higher-order programming languages. In contrast to the well-known situation for first-order functions, it turns out that at higher types there are several different notions of computability competing for our attention, and each of these has given rise to its own strand of research. In this book, the authors offer an integrated treatment that draws together many of these strands within a unifying framework, revealing not only the range of possible computability concepts but the relationships between them. The book will serve as an ideal introduction to the field for beginning graduate students, as well as a reference for advanced researchers