Computing

Author: Paul E. Ceruzzi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262310390
Release Date: 2012-06-15
Genre: Computers

The history of computing could be told as the story of hardware and software, or the story of the Internet, or the story of "smart" hand-held devices, with subplots involving IBM, Microsoft, Apple, Facebook, and Twitter. In this concise and accessible account of the invention and development of digital technology, computer historian Paul Ceruzzi offers a broader and more useful perspective. He identifies four major threads that run throughout all of computing's technological development: digitization--the coding of information, computation, and control in binary form, ones and zeros; the convergence of multiple streams of techniques, devices, and machines, yielding more than the sum of their parts; the steady advance of electronic technology, as characterized famously by "Moore's Law"; and the human-machine interface. Ceruzzi guides us through computing history, telling how a Bell Labs mathematician coined the word "digital" in 1942 (to describe a high-speed method of calculating used in anti-aircraft devices), and recounting the development of the punch card (for use in the 1890 U.S. Census). He describes the ENIAC, built for scientific and military applications; the UNIVAC, the first general purpose computer; and ARPANET, the Internet's precursor. Ceruzzi's account traces the world-changing evolution of the computer from a room-size ensemble of machinery to a "minicomputer" to a desktop computer to a pocket-sized smart phone. He describes the development of the silicon chip, which could store ever-increasing amounts of data and enabled ever-decreasing device size. He visits that hotbed of innovation, Silicon Valley, and brings the story up to the present with the Internet, the World Wide Web, and social networking.

GPS

Author: Paul E. Ceruzzi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262535953
Release Date: 2018-11-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

A concise history of GPS, from its military origins to its commercial applications and ubiquity in everyday life. GPS is ubiquitous in everyday life. GPS mapping is standard equipment in many new cars and geolocation services are embedded in smart phones. GPS makes Uber and Lyft possible; driverless cars won't be able to drive without it. In this volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, Paul Ceruzzi offers a concise history of GPS, explaining how a once-obscure space technology became an invisible piece of our infrastructure, as essential to modern life as electric power or clean water. GPS relays precise time and positioning information from orbiting satellites to receivers on the ground, at sea, and in the air. It operates worldwide, and its basic signals are free, although private companies can commodify the data provided. Ceruzzi recounts the origins of GPS and its predecessor technologies, including early aircraft navigation systems and satellites. He describes the invention of GPS as a space technology in the post-Apollo, pre-Space Shuttle years and its first military and commercial uses. Ceruzzi explains how the convergence of three major technological developments—the microprocessor, the Internet, and cellular telephony—enabled the development and application of GPS technology. Recognizing the importance of satellite positioning systems in a shifting geopolitical landscape—and perhaps doubting U.S. assurances of perpetual GPS availability—other countries are now building or have already developed their own systems, and Ceruzzi reports on these efforts in the European Union, Russia, India, China, and Japan.

Spaceflight

Author: Michael J. Neufeld
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262536332
Release Date: 2018-10-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering

A concise history of spaceflight, from military rocketry through Sputnik, Apollo, robots in space, space culture, and human spaceflight today. Spaceflight is one of the greatest human achievements of the twentieth century. The Soviets launched Sputnik, the first satellite, in 1957; less than twelve years later, the American Apollo astronauts landed on the Moon. In this volume of the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, Michael Neufeld offers a concise history of spaceflight, mapping the full spectrum of activities that humans have developed in space. Neufeld explains that “the space program” should not be equated only with human spaceflight. Since the 1960s, unmanned military and commercial spacecraft have been orbiting near the Earth, and robotic deep-space explorers have sent back stunning images of faraway planets. Neufeld begins with the origins of space ideas and the discovery that rocketry could be used for spaceflight. He then discusses the Soviet-U.S. Cold War space race and reminds us that NASA resisted adding female astronauts even after the Soviets sent the first female cosmonaut into orbit. He analyzes the two rationales for the Apollo program: prestige and scientific discovery (this last something of an afterthought). He describes the internationalization and privatization of human spaceflight after the Cold War, the cultural influence of space science fiction, including Star Trek and Star Wars, space tourism for the ultra-rich, and the popular desire to go into space. Whether we become a multiplanet species, as some predict, or continue to call Earth home, this book offers a useful primer.

Information and Society

Author: Michael Buckland
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262533386
Release Date: 2017-03-03
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

A short, informal account of our ever-increasing dependence on a complex multiplicity of messages, records, documents, and data.

Information and the Modern Corporation

Author: James W Cortada
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262297943
Release Date: 2011-10-07
Genre: Business & Economics

While we have been preoccupied with the latest i-gadget from Apple and with Google's ongoing expansion, we may have missed something: the fundamental transformation of whole firms and industries into giant information-processing machines. Today, more than eighty percent of workers collect and analyze information (often in digital form) in the course of doing their jobs. This book offers a guide to the role of information in modern business, mapping the use of information within work processes and tracing flows of information across supply-chain management, product development, customer relations, and sales. The emphasis is on information itself, not on information technology. Information, overshadowed for a while by the glamour and novelty of IT, is the fundamental component of the modern corporation. In Information and the Modern Corporation, longtime IBM manager and consultant James Cortada clarifies the differences among data, facts, information, and knowledge and describes how the art of analytics has all but eliminated decision making based on gut feeling, replacing it with fact-based decisions. He describes the working style of "road warriors," whose offices are anywhere their laptops and cell phones are and whose deep knowledge of a given topic becomes their medium of exchange. Information is the core of the modern enterprise, and the use of information defines the activities of a firm. This essential guide shows managers and employees better ways to leverage information--by design and not by accident.

Cloud Computing

Author: Nayan B. Ruparelia
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262529099
Release Date: 2016-05-13
Genre: Computers

"This book provides a lucid overview of the implications of the cloud phenomenon and the opportunities and risks associated with it"--

A History of Modern Computing

Author: Paul E. Ceruzzi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262532034
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Computers

Ceruzzi pens a history of computing from the development of the first electronic digital computer to the Web and dot-com crash.

Machine Learning

Author: Ethem Alpaydin
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262529518
Release Date: 2016-10-07
Genre: Computers

A concise overview of machine learning -- computer programs that learn from data -- which underlies applications that include recommendation systems, face recognition, and driverless cars.

Intellectual Property Strategy

Author: John Palfrey
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262297998
Release Date: 2011-10-07
Genre: Law

Most managers leave intellectual property issues to the legal department, unaware that an organization's intellectual property can help accomplish a range of management goals, from accessing new markets to improving existing products to generating new revenue streams. In this book, intellectual property expert and Harvard Law School professor John Palfrey offers a short briefing on intellectual property strategy for corporate managers and nonprofit administrators. Palfrey argues for strategies that go beyond the traditional highly restrictive "sword and shield" approach, suggesting that flexibility and creativity are essential to a profitable long-term intellectual property strategy -- especially in an era of changing attitudes about media. Intellectual property, writes Palfrey, should be considered a key strategic asset class. Almost every organization has an intellectual property portfolio of some value and therefore the need for an intellectual property strategy. A brand, for example, is an important form of intellectual property, as is any information managed and produced by an organization. Palfrey identifies the essential areas of intellectual property -- patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret -- and describes strategic approaches to each in a variety of organizational contexts, based on four basic steps. The most innovative organizations employ multiple intellectual property approaches, depending on the situation, asking hard, context-specific questions. By doing so, they achieve both short- and long-term benefits while positioning themselves for success in the global information economy.

Robots

Author: John M. Jordan
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262529501
Release Date: 2016-10-14
Genre: Technology & Engineering

An accessible and engaging account of robots, covering the current state of the field, the fantasies of popular culture, and implications for life and work.

Neuroplasticity

Author: Moheb Costandi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262529334
Release Date: 2016-08-19
Genre: Science

The real story of how our brains and nervous systems change throughout our lifetimes -- with or without "brain training."

Machine Translation

Author: Thierry Poibeau
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262534215
Release Date: 2017-09-08
Genre: Computers

The trouble with translation -- A quick overview of the evolution of machine translation -- Before the advent of computers -- The beginnings of machine translation : the first rule-based systems -- The ALPAC report (1966) and its consequences -- Parallel corpora and sentence alignment -- Example-based machine translation -- Statistical machine translation and word alignment -- Segment-based machine translation -- Challenges and limitations of statistical machine translation -- Deep learning machine translation -- The evaluation of machine translation systems -- The machine translation industry, between professional and mass-market applications -- Conclusion : the future of machine translation

The Self Tracking

Author: Gina Neff
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262529129
Release Date: 2016-06-24
Genre: Computers

What happens when people turn their everyday experience into data: an introduction to the essential ideas and key challenges of self-tracking.

Auctions

Author: Timothy P. Hubbard
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262528535
Release Date: 2016-01-06
Genre: Business & Economics

How auctions work, in theory and practice, with clear explanations and real-world examples that range from government procurement to eBay.

Open Access

Author: Peter Suber
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262300988
Release Date: 2012-07-20
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispensable book on the subject for researchers, librarians, administrators, funders, publishers, and policy makers.