Constitutional Ethos

Author: Alexander Tsesis
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199359868
Release Date: 2017-02-27
Genre: Law

Judges, courts, and scholars in the United States agree that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, but there is much disagreement about its meaning. So what seems to be incontestable truth is riddled with disagreements about every day questions of decision making on matter such as whether people are entitled to government created programs, what rights are fundamental, the criteria for voting, the three branches of governments' several responsibilities, and even who should have the final say in defining the Constitution's meaning. Constitutional Ethos is a groundbreaking investigation into the fundamental principles of constitutional principle, meaning, and interpretation. It explores the core purposes of American representative democracy in light of historical sources, recent precedents, and contemporary debates. Alexander Tsesis argues that a central norm of U.S. law can be derived from the Declaration of Independence and Preamble. This book develops a theory of constitutional law structured on the public duty to protect individual rights for the general welfare. The maxim of constitutional governance synthesizes the protection of individual and public rights. The ideal is neither solely theoretical nor customary but tied to a firm foundation that the people then build upon by lobbying elected officials and petitioning appointed judges. Representative government has an interlinked obligation to the individual and the general welfare. This paradigm for responsible governance sets the baseline against which citizens can hold policy makers accountable to the structural and normative commitments of the Constitution. A pluralistic system must respect human dignity and govern for the betterment of the body politic. Those mandates set the terms for exercising legitimate power at the federal, state, and local levels to protect individual rights to achieve the common good of civil society. Tsesis demonstrates that ethos is binding on the conduct of all three branches of government and their officeholders. His argument challenges the more common U.S. perspective among academics and judges, who typically discount the existence of any objective constitutional value, regarding the document as a construct of social norms. To the contrary, Tsesis shows that the people established the terms of the nation's founding documents to protect universal, unalienable rights. The structure of government provides the mechanisms of those in a pluralistic state to set reasonable limitations for the betterment of society as a whole. Understanding the Constitution's special place in American legal culture is essential for resolving a host of contemporary issues; including, those involving marital, gender, and voting equalities. The state is a means of optimizing the well-being of individuals. Human productivity can best flourish in a society of equals, where talents can be brought to bear in the betterment of self and other members of the community. The Constitution does not create rights but protects those universal ideals of representative democracy first set out in the Declaration of Independence. It further grants authority to political institutions for the enforcement of policies and concrete laws for the betterment of society or some relevant segment of it. Many scholars with leanings in legal realism and process theory believe the authority of government is a social construct created by popular majorities; Tsesis convincingly demonstrates, to the contrary, that even those laws enacted by popular majorities are not authoritative unless they accord with a central maxim of constitutionalism, which is the protection of individual rights for the common good.

Aristoteles Politik

Author: Otfried Höffe
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783050056258
Release Date: 2011-12-05
Genre: Philosophy

Die "Politik" des Aristoteles ist der Gründungstext der politischen Philosophie: die erste systematische Abhandlung über den Staat, seine Verfassung und seine ökonomischen Grundlagen. Nach einer Analyse des Begriffs der Herrschaft entfaltet Aristoteles die These, dass der Mensch von Natur aus ein politisches Lebewesen sei. Die staatliche Gemeinschaft wird als eine autarke Einheit verstanden, die das gute Leben ihrer Bürger ermöglichen soll. In Auseinandersetzung mit anderen theoretischen Entwürfen und der Vielfalt bestehender staatlicher Ordnungen untersucht Aristoteles ein weites Themenspektrum, das von Bürgertugenden und Gesetzen über die Einrichtung, den Wandel und die Erhaltung von Verfassungen bis zum Entwurf eines Idealstaates reicht. Der kooperative Kommentar rekonstruiert in 12 Originalbeiträgen die Argumentation des vielschichtigen Textes, bettet die zentralen Fragen in den historischen und systematischen Zusammenhang ein und fordert dazu heraus, die Aristotelischen Lehrstücke kritisch weiterzudenken.

Die Verfassung der Freiheit

Author: Friedrich August von Hayek
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 3161486285
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Social Science

English summary: In the first part of what is probably his most significant work, Nobel Prize winner Friedrich A. von Hayek provides a comprehensive systematic description of the fundamental principles of a liberal social philosophy which has formed the basis for the development of European civilization in the last centuries. In the second part of the book, the author deals with the origin of the rule of law and its significance for safeguarding personal freedom. In the third part, Hayek shows, using relevant examples, how important principles of the rule of law have been violated with the emergence of the welfare state and how this could lead to the destruction of personal freedom. German description: Wenn alte Wahrheiten ihren Einfluss auf das Denken der Menschen behalten sollen, mussen sie von Zeit zu Zeit in der Sprache und den Begriffen der nachfolgenden Generationen neu formuliert werden. (Hayek). Dies unternimmt F. A. von Hayek in der Verfassung der Freiheit, die nunmehr in 4. Auflage als Band B 3 der deutschen Ausgabe des Hayekschen Werks ( Gesammelte Schriften ) erscheint. Dieses wohl bedeutendste Werk des Nobelpreistragers bietet im ersten Teil eine umfassende systematische Darstellung der wesentlichen Prinzipien einer freiheitlichen Sozialphilosophie - der Grundlage fur die Entwicklung der europaischen Zivilisation in den letzten Jahrhunderten. Der zweite Teil befasst sich mit der Entstehung der rechtsstaatlichen Grundsatze - der rule of law - und ihrer Bedeutung fur die Sicherung der personlichen Freiheit. Im dritten Teil zeigt Hayek, wie mit dem Aufkommen des Wohlfahrtsstaates wichtige rechtsstaatliche Prinzipien verletzt werden und damit die personliche Freiheit zerstort zu werden droht. Dies verdeutlicht er anhand aufschlussreicher Beispiele aus den Bereichen Gewerkschaften und Beschaftigung, soziale Sicherheit, Besteuerung und Umverteilung, Landwirtschaft und Naturschatze, Erziehung und Forschung.

Legal Philosophy

Author: Patricia Smith
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH
ISBN: STANFORD:36105063289008
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Social Science

Contents E. Barbarosch: Moral Scepticism and the Critical Positivistic Theory of Law G. Pavlakos: On the Normative Groundwork of Discourse-Ethics O. A. Payrow Shabani: Law and Legitimacy in Habermas' Discourse Ethics M. Elosegui: Intercultural Republicanism D. V. Poochigian: Liability as a Principle of General and Special Ethics H. Kaptein: Reconciliation of Retribution and Reparation T. Metz: Realism and the Censure Theory of Punishment S. Morimura: Libertarian Theories of Punishment R. Wiener: Duty of Disclosure in Business Su-Po Kao: On the Relevance of the Ideas of Legal Authority and Market Exchange. (Franz Steiner 2002)

The New American Democracy

Author: Morris P. Fiorina
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
ISBN: 0205298648
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Political Science

With an emphasis on elections and their importance in our political system, Morris Fiorina and Paul Peterson' s groundbreaking text offers a stimulating, analytical approach to American government that engages students as it gives them a unique understanding of their political system as it exists and functions today.

Die Macht der Geographie

Author: Tim Marshall
Publisher: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag
ISBN: 9783423428569
Release Date: 2015-11-20
Genre: History

Wie Geografie Geschichte macht Weltpolitik ist auch Geopolitik, denn alle Staatschefs unterliegen den Zwängen der Geographie. Berge und Ebenen, Wasser, Sand und Eis setzen ihrem Entscheidungsspielraum Grenzen. In 10 Kapiteln zeigt Tim Marshall knapp, anschaulich und pointiert, wie Geographie Geschichte macht und gemacht hat: in Russland, China, den USA, in Europa, Afrika, Lateinamerika, Indien und Pakistan, Japan und Korea, dem Nahen Osten, der Arktis und in Grönland: Regierungen kommen und gehen, der Hindukusch bleibt.

Piero Gobetti and the Politics of Liberal Revolution

Author: James Martin
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 0230602746
Release Date: 2008-11-15
Genre: Political Science

Piero Gobetti was an astonishing figure. A radical liberal and fierce critic of Italian politics in the years after World War I, he was fascinated by the workers' struggles in his native Turin and by Gramsci's vision of a factory-based democracy. Gobetti proposed liberalism as an emancipatory theory grounded in social conflicts. "Revolutionary liberalism," as he called it, guided his opposition to Fascism and, following his untimely death at twenty-five, inspired key figures in the Italian Resistance. Accessible but critical, this volume is the first English-language study of Gobetti's political ideas and offers a balanced assessment of his enduring significance.

Towards Good Governance

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: UOM:39015043190902
Release Date: 1999-01-01
Genre: India

Contributed articles and published articles from the special issue of Indian journal of public administration, vol. 44, no. 3..

The New American Democracy

Author: Paul E. Peterson
Publisher: Longman Publishing Group
ISBN: 0321430077
Release Date: 2006-12-01
Genre: Political Science

With an emphasis on elections and their importance in our political system, Morris Fiorina and Paul Peterson's groundbreaking text offers a stimulating, analytical approach to American government that engages students as it gives them a unique understanding of their political system as it exists and functions today. The accessibility of instant public opinion polls, the growing influence of Internet, the ubiquitous nature of the news media, and the increasingly important role of interest groups all of which Fiorina and Peterson use to demonstrate that America is moving toward a more popular democracy have blurred the lines between campaigning and governing. Politicians today are constantly engaged in the campaign process a "permanent campaign" this has profoundly affected how our government functions today. The fifth edition of this presitgious text has been brought completely up-to-date through the second George W. Bush administration and 2006 midterm elections, includes engaging debate-style readings throughout, and is now also available in a unique "Sandbox" format that allows instructors to seamlessly blend text chapters with policy material and/or selections from the "Great Questions in Politics" series.

ber Die Pflicht Zum Ungehorsam Gegen Den Staat

Author: Henry David Thoreau
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 1532958153
Release Date: 2016-04-27
Genre:

Henry David Thoreau: Über die Pflicht zum Ungehorsam gegen den Staat Edition Holzinger. Taschenbuch Berliner Ausgabe, 2016 Vollständiger, durchgesehener Neusatz bearbeitet und eingerichtet von Michael Holzinger Originaltitel: »The Resistance to Civil Government«. In der ersten Werkausgabe wurde daraus »Civil Disobedience« und später »On the Duty of Civil Disobedience«. Diese Übersetzung von David Adner steht unter einer Creative Commons Namensnennung Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland Lizenz. Herausgeber der Reihe: Michael Holzinger Reihengestaltung: Viktor Harvion Umschlaggestaltung unter Verwendung des Bildes: Benjamin D. Maxham, Daguerreotype of Henry David Thoreau, 1856. Gesetzt aus der Minion Pro, 11 pt.

Theological Bioethics

Author: Lisa Sowle Cahill
Publisher:
ISBN: UOM:39015062822104
Release Date: 2005-11-30
Genre: Medical

The field of bioethics was deeply influenced by religious thinkers as it emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s. Since that time, however, a seemingly neutral political liberalism has pervaded the public sphere, resulting in a deep suspicion of those bringing religious values to bear on questions of bioethics and public policy. As a theological ethicist and progressive Catholic, Lisa Sowle Cahill does not want to cede the "religious perspective" to fundamentalists and the pro-life movement, nor does she want to submit to the gospel of a political liberalism that champions individual autonomy as holy writ. In Theological Bioethics, Cahill calls for progressive religious thinkers and believers to join in the effort to reclaim the best of their traditions through jointly engaging political forces at both community and national levels. In Cahill's eyes, just access to health care must be the number one priority for this type of "participatory bioethics." She describes a new understanding of theological bioethics that must go beyond decrying injustice, beyond opposing social practices that commercialize human beings, beyond painting a vision of a more egalitarian future. Such a participatory bioethics, she argues, must also take account of and take part in a global social network of mobilization for change; it must seek out those in solidarity, those involved in a common calling to create a more just social, political, and economic system. During the past two decades Cahill has made profound contributions to theological ethics and bioethics. This is a magisterial and programmatic statement that will alter how the religiously inclined understand their role in the great bioethics debates of today and tomorrow that yearn for clear thinking and prophetic wisdom.

Die Verfassung der Allmende

Author: Elinor Ostrom
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 316146916X
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Political Science

English summary: The governance of natural resources used by many individuals in common is an issue of increasing concern to policy analysts. Both state control and privatization of resources have been advocated, but neither the state nor the market has been uniformly successful in solving common-pool resource problems. After critiquing the foundations of policy analysis as applied to natural resources, Elinor Ostrom here provides a unique body of empirical data to explore the conditions under which common-pool resource problems have been satisfactorily solved. Elinor Ostrom first describes three models most frequently used as the foundation for recommending state or market solutions. She then outlines theoretical and empirical alternatives to these models in order to illustrate the diversity of possible solutions. German description: In ihrem [...] Buch packt Elinor Ostrom eines der zahesten und umstrittensten Probleme der empirischen politischen Okonomie an: Lasst sich, und wenn ja wie, die Erschliessung von Allmenderessourcen so organisieren, dass sie weder ubernutzt werden noch allzu hohe Verwaltungskosten entstehen? Nach einer haufig unter Okonomen vertretenen Ansicht sind Ressourcen, die von vielen Individuen gemeinsam bewirtschaftet werden [...] erst ausbeutbar, wenn das Problem der Ubernutzung entweder durch Privatisierung oder durch eine externe Sanktionsinstanz gelost ist. Ostrom dagegen weist uberzeugend nach, dass andere Losungen existieren und sich stabile selbstverwaltete Institutionen schaffen lassen, sobald gewisse Probleme der Institutionenbereitstellung, glaubwurdigen Selbstverpflichtung und Regeluberwachung gelost sind. Ihre detaillierte Studie eines einzigartig breiten Spektrums von Fallbeispielen befasst sich unter anderem mit Hochgebirgsweiden in Japan und der Schweiz, Wasserprojekten auf den Philippinen und in Kalifornien [...] Gestutzt auf eine vergleichende Analyse der Ursachen erfolgreicher und gescheiterter Selbstverwaltung, beschreibt Ostrom etliche grundlegende Merkmale erfolgreicher Projekte der Bewirtschaftung von Allmenderessourcen und schliesst mit einer Aufforderung an andere Sozialwissenschaftler, ihr auf dem eingeschlagenen theoretischen Weg zu folgen. Douglass C. North im Geleitwort