Constitutional Ethos

Author: Alexander Tsesis
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199359868
Release Date: 2017-02-27
Genre: Law

Judges, courts, and scholars in the United States agree that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, but there is much disagreement about its meaning. So what seems to be incontestable truth is riddled with disagreements about every day questions of decision making on matter such as whether people are entitled to government created programs, what rights are fundamental, the criteria for voting, the three branches of governments' several responsibilities, and even who should have the final say in defining the Constitution's meaning. Constitutional Ethos is a groundbreaking investigation into the fundamental principles of constitutional principle, meaning, and interpretation. It explores the core purposes of American representative democracy in light of historical sources, recent precedents, and contemporary debates. Alexander Tsesis argues that a central norm of U.S. law can be derived from the Declaration of Independence and Preamble. This book develops a theory of constitutional law structured on the public duty to protect individual rights for the general welfare. The maxim of constitutional governance synthesizes the protection of individual and public rights. The ideal is neither solely theoretical nor customary but tied to a firm foundation that the people then build upon by lobbying elected officials and petitioning appointed judges. Representative government has an interlinked obligation to the individual and the general welfare. This paradigm for responsible governance sets the baseline against which citizens can hold policy makers accountable to the structural and normative commitments of the Constitution. A pluralistic system must respect human dignity and govern for the betterment of the body politic. Those mandates set the terms for exercising legitimate power at the federal, state, and local levels to protect individual rights to achieve the common good of civil society. Tsesis demonstrates that ethos is binding on the conduct of all three branches of government and their officeholders. His argument challenges the more common U.S. perspective among academics and judges, who typically discount the existence of any objective constitutional value, regarding the document as a construct of social norms. To the contrary, Tsesis shows that the people established the terms of the nation's founding documents to protect universal, unalienable rights. The structure of government provides the mechanisms of those in a pluralistic state to set reasonable limitations for the betterment of society as a whole. Understanding the Constitution's special place in American legal culture is essential for resolving a host of contemporary issues; including, those involving marital, gender, and voting equalities. The state is a means of optimizing the well-being of individuals. Human productivity can best flourish in a society of equals, where talents can be brought to bear in the betterment of self and other members of the community. The Constitution does not create rights but protects those universal ideals of representative democracy first set out in the Declaration of Independence. It further grants authority to political institutions for the enforcement of policies and concrete laws for the betterment of society or some relevant segment of it. Many scholars with leanings in legal realism and process theory believe the authority of government is a social construct created by popular majorities; Tsesis convincingly demonstrates, to the contrary, that even those laws enacted by popular majorities are not authoritative unless they accord with a central maxim of constitutionalism, which is the protection of individual rights for the common good.

Die Verfassung der Freiheit

Author: Friedrich August von Hayek
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 3161486285
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Social Science

English summary: In the first part of what is probably his most significant work, Nobel Prize winner Friedrich A. von Hayek provides a comprehensive systematic description of the fundamental principles of a liberal social philosophy which has formed the basis for the development of European civilization in the last centuries. In the second part of the book, the author deals with the origin of the rule of law and its significance for safeguarding personal freedom. In the third part, Hayek shows, using relevant examples, how important principles of the rule of law have been violated with the emergence of the welfare state and how this could lead to the destruction of personal freedom. German description: Wenn alte Wahrheiten ihren Einfluss auf das Denken der Menschen behalten sollen, mussen sie von Zeit zu Zeit in der Sprache und den Begriffen der nachfolgenden Generationen neu formuliert werden. (Hayek). Dies unternimmt F. A. von Hayek in der Verfassung der Freiheit, die nunmehr in 4. Auflage als Band B 3 der deutschen Ausgabe des Hayekschen Werks ( Gesammelte Schriften ) erscheint. Dieses wohl bedeutendste Werk des Nobelpreistragers bietet im ersten Teil eine umfassende systematische Darstellung der wesentlichen Prinzipien einer freiheitlichen Sozialphilosophie - der Grundlage fur die Entwicklung der europaischen Zivilisation in den letzten Jahrhunderten. Der zweite Teil befasst sich mit der Entstehung der rechtsstaatlichen Grundsatze - der rule of law - und ihrer Bedeutung fur die Sicherung der personlichen Freiheit. Im dritten Teil zeigt Hayek, wie mit dem Aufkommen des Wohlfahrtsstaates wichtige rechtsstaatliche Prinzipien verletzt werden und damit die personliche Freiheit zerstort zu werden droht. Dies verdeutlicht er anhand aufschlussreicher Beispiele aus den Bereichen Gewerkschaften und Beschaftigung, soziale Sicherheit, Besteuerung und Umverteilung, Landwirtschaft und Naturschatze, Erziehung und Forschung.

Legal Philosophy

Author: Patricia Smith
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH
ISBN: STANFORD:36105063289008
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Social Science

Contents E. Barbarosch: Moral Scepticism and the Critical Positivistic Theory of Law G. Pavlakos: On the Normative Groundwork of Discourse-Ethics O. A. Payrow Shabani: Law and Legitimacy in Habermas' Discourse Ethics M. Elosegui: Intercultural Republicanism D. V. Poochigian: Liability as a Principle of General and Special Ethics H. Kaptein: Reconciliation of Retribution and Reparation T. Metz: Realism and the Censure Theory of Punishment S. Morimura: Libertarian Theories of Punishment R. Wiener: Duty of Disclosure in Business Su-Po Kao: On the Relevance of the Ideas of Legal Authority and Market Exchange. (Franz Steiner 2002)

The New American Democracy

Author: Morris P. Fiorina
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
ISBN: 0205298648
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Political Science

With an emphasis on elections and their importance in our political system, Morris Fiorina and Paul Peterson' s groundbreaking text offers a stimulating, analytical approach to American government that engages students as it gives them a unique understanding of their political system as it exists and functions today.

Kant im Streit der Fakult ten

Author: Volker Gerhardt
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110193848
Release Date: 2005-01-01
Genre: Philosophy

[Kant in the Dispute between the Faculties] The last work published by Kant himself is a study of the relationship of philosophy to other academic disciplines: Streit der Fakultäten (Dispute between the Faculties), published in 1797. In this volume, representatives of the faculties addressed by Kant give their assessment of Kant's relevance for their disciplines. As the Dispute between the Faculties was and is of importance for the foundation of the University of Berlin, Kant's contribution to university reform is also considered.

Piero Gobetti and the Politics of Liberal Revolution

Author: James Martin
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 0230602746
Release Date: 2008-11-15
Genre: Political Science

Piero Gobetti was an astonishing figure. A radical liberal and fierce critic of Italian politics in the years after World War I, he was fascinated by the workers' struggles in his native Turin and by Gramsci's vision of a factory-based democracy. Gobetti proposed liberalism as an emancipatory theory grounded in social conflicts. "Revolutionary liberalism," as he called it, guided his opposition to Fascism and, following his untimely death at twenty-five, inspired key figures in the Italian Resistance. Accessible but critical, this volume is the first English-language study of Gobetti's political ideas and offers a balanced assessment of his enduring significance.

Das Kapital im 21 Jahrhundert

Author: Thomas Piketty
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 9783406671326
Release Date: 2014-10-10
Genre: Business & Economics

Wie entstehen die Akkumulation und die Distribution von Kapital? Welche Dynamiken sind dafür maßgeblich? Fragen der langfristigen Evolution von Ungleichheit, der Konzentration von Wohlstand in wenigen Händen und nach den Chancen für ökonomisches Wachstum bilden den Kern der Politischen Ökonomie. Aber befriedigende Antworten darauf gab es bislang kaum, weil aussagekräftige Daten und eine überzeugende Theorie fehlten. In Das Kapital im 21. Jahrhundert analysiert Thomas Piketty ein beeindruckendes Datenmaterial aus 20 Ländern, zurückgehend bis ins 18. Jahrhundert, um auf dieser Basis die entscheidenden ökonomischen und sozialen Abläufe freizulegen. Seine Ergebnisse stellen die Debatte auf eine neue Grundlage und definieren zugleich die Agenda für das künftige Nachdenken über Wohlstand und Ungleichheit. Piketty zeigt uns, dass das ökonomische Wachstum in der Moderne und die Verbreitung des Wissens es uns ermöglicht haben, den Ungleichheiten in jenem apokalyptischen Ausmaß zu entgehen, das Karl Marx prophezeit hatte. Aber wir haben die Strukturen von Kapital und Ungleichheit andererseits nicht so tiefgreifend modifiziert, wie es in den prosperierenden Jahrzehnten nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg den Anschein hatte. Der wichtigste Treiber der Ungleichheit – nämlich die Tendenz von Kapitalgewinnen, die Wachstumsrate zu übertreffen – droht heute extreme Ungleichheiten hervorzubringen, die am Ende auch den sozialen Frieden gefährden und unsere demokratischen Werte in Frage stellen. Doch ökonomische Trends sind keine Gottesurteile. Politisches Handeln hat gefährliche Ungleichheiten in der Vergangenheit korrigiert, so Piketty, und kann das auch wieder tun.

Theological Bioethics

Author: Lisa Sowle Cahill
Publisher:
ISBN: UOM:39015062822104
Release Date: 2005-11-30
Genre: Medical

The field of bioethics was deeply influenced by religious thinkers as it emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s. Since that time, however, a seemingly neutral political liberalism has pervaded the public sphere, resulting in a deep suspicion of those bringing religious values to bear on questions of bioethics and public policy. As a theological ethicist and progressive Catholic, Lisa Sowle Cahill does not want to cede the "religious perspective" to fundamentalists and the pro-life movement, nor does she want to submit to the gospel of a political liberalism that champions individual autonomy as holy writ. In Theological Bioethics, Cahill calls for progressive religious thinkers and believers to join in the effort to reclaim the best of their traditions through jointly engaging political forces at both community and national levels. In Cahill's eyes, just access to health care must be the number one priority for this type of "participatory bioethics." She describes a new understanding of theological bioethics that must go beyond decrying injustice, beyond opposing social practices that commercialize human beings, beyond painting a vision of a more egalitarian future. Such a participatory bioethics, she argues, must also take account of and take part in a global social network of mobilization for change; it must seek out those in solidarity, those involved in a common calling to create a more just social, political, and economic system. During the past two decades Cahill has made profound contributions to theological ethics and bioethics. This is a magisterial and programmatic statement that will alter how the religiously inclined understand their role in the great bioethics debates of today and tomorrow that yearn for clear thinking and prophetic wisdom.

Legislating Liberty

Author: Frank Brennan
Publisher:
ISBN: UVA:X006020372
Release Date: 1998
Genre: History

Based on his observations in Washington and written in the popular style of One Land, One Nation and Sharing the Country, Brennan opens the discourse on the appropriateness of a Bill of Rights for Australia.

Education Globalization and Social Change

Author: Hugh Lauder
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199272530
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Education

Education is seen as central to economic competitiveness, the reduction of poverty and inequality, and environmental sustainability. The editors have selected key writings that examine the social and economic limits- and possibilities of-education in addressing these fundamental problems. This new reader establishes the field of sociology of education with a particular focus on papers that analyse the nature and extent of globalization in education. A general introduction presents the keyconcepts in the sociology of education, and outlines the major theories and debates, especially in relation to globalization. Each section is accompanied by a part opener explaining and contextualizing the readings within a larger educational and sociological context.

ber Die Pflicht Zum Ungehorsam Gegen Den Staat

Author: Henry David Thoreau
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 1532958153
Release Date: 2016-04-27
Genre:

Henry David Thoreau: Über die Pflicht zum Ungehorsam gegen den Staat Edition Holzinger. Taschenbuch Berliner Ausgabe, 2016 Vollständiger, durchgesehener Neusatz bearbeitet und eingerichtet von Michael Holzinger Originaltitel: »The Resistance to Civil Government«. In der ersten Werkausgabe wurde daraus »Civil Disobedience« und später »On the Duty of Civil Disobedience«. Diese Übersetzung von David Adner steht unter einer Creative Commons Namensnennung Weitergabe unter gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland Lizenz. Herausgeber der Reihe: Michael Holzinger Reihengestaltung: Viktor Harvion Umschlaggestaltung unter Verwendung des Bildes: Benjamin D. Maxham, Daguerreotype of Henry David Thoreau, 1856. Gesetzt aus der Minion Pro, 11 pt.