Contact in the 16th Century

Author: Brad Loewen
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 9780776623610
Release Date: 2016-05-12
Genre: Social Science

From Labrador to Lake Ontario, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to French Acadia, and Huronia-Wendaki to Tadoussac, and from one chapter to the next, this scholarly collection of archaeological findings focuses on 16th century European goods found in Native contexts and within greater networks, forming a conceptual interplay of place and mobility. The four initial chapters are set around the Gulf of Saint Lawrence where Euro-Native contact was direct and the historical record is strongest. Contact networks radiated northward into Inuit settings where European iron nails, roofing tile fragments and ceramics are found. Glass beads are scarce on Inuit sites as well as on Basque sites on the Gulf’s north shore, but they are numerous in French Acadia. Ceramics on northern Basque sites are mostly from Spain. An historical review discusses the partnership between Spanish Basques and Saint Lawrence Iroquoians c.1540-1580. The four chapters set in the Saint Lawrence valley show Tadoussac as a fork in inland networks. Saint Lawrence Iroquoians obtained glass beads around Tadoussac before 1580. Algonquin from Lac Saint-Jean began trading at Tadoussac after that. They plied a northern route that linked to Huronia-Wendaki via the Ottawa Valley and the Frontenac Uplands. Finally, four chapters set around Lake Ontario focus on contact between this region and the Saint Lawrence valley. Huron-Wendat sites around the Kawartha Lakes show an influx of Saint Lawrence trade in the 16th century, followed by an immigration wave about 1580. Huron-Wendat sites near Toronto show an unabated inflow of Native materials from the Saint Lawrence valley; however, neutral sites west of Lake Ontario show Native and European materials arriving from the south. A review of glass bead evidence presented by various authors shows trends that cut across chapters and bring new impetus to the study of beads to discover 16th-century networks among French and Basque fishers, Inuit and Algonquian foragers and Iroquoian farmers. With contributions from Saraí Barreiro, Meghan Burchell, Claude Chapdelaine, Martin S. Cooper, Amanda Crompton, Vincent Delmas, Sergio Escribano-Ruiz, William Fox, Sarah Grant, François Guindon, Erik Langevin, Brad Loewen, Jean-François Moreau, Jean-Luc Pilon, Michel Plourde, Peter Ramsden, Lisa Rankin and Ronald F. Williamson.

Subsistence and Culture in the Western Canadian Arctic

Author: Matthew W. Betts
Publisher: Canadian Mus of Civilization
ISBN: UIUC:30112085398466
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Social Science

The Siglit, or Mackenzie Inuit, the ancestors of the modern Inuvialuit, were, at the time of Euroamerican contact, the most populous and complex Inuit society in the Canadian Arctic. Through innovative analysis of animal bones recovered from their ancient archaeological sites, this comprehensive study documents the complex relationships between the Mackenzie Inuit and their food animals, and tracks these connections over some 800 years, from their earliest occupations to the arrival of Europeans in the 19th century.Methodological in focus, this study examines the way in which archaeologists integrate animal remains into their analyses and proposes a systematic methodology for evaluating faunal data against other archaeological information. This volume chronicles the relationship between developing Siglit economic strategies and shifts in technology, settlement strategies, demography, and climate, exposing in the process the primary link between Siglit culture and their subsistence practices.Matthew Betts is Curator of Atlantic Provinces Archaeology at the Canadian Museum of Civilization. He received his PhD from the University of Toronto and has published on a broad range of topics including dating methods, historical archaeology, archaeological method and theory, and hunter-gatherer subsistence. His current research focuses on maritime hunter-gatherers and their complex economic and social relationships with the animals they exploit

Tu sais mon vieux Jean Pierre

Author: John Willis
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 9780776624587
Release Date: 2017-04-28
Genre: History

Tu sais, mon vieux Jean-Pierre is inspired by the work of archaeologist Jean-Pierre Chrestien (1949–2008), who worked hand-in-glove with a generation of researchers in helping to unearth unexpected and always interesting aspects of New France. Contributions focus first upon the door to New France in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland and Acadia. A second set of essays move further up the St. Lawrence and into the heartland of the continent. The final section examines aspects of Canadian culture: popular art, religion and communication. The essays share a curiosity for material culture, a careful regard for detail and nuance that forms the grain of New France studies, and sensitivity to the overall context that is part and parcel of how history proceeds on the local or regional scale. Happily we can now dispense with old-fashioned and facile generalizations about the allegedly absent bourgeoisie, the purportedly deficient commercial ethic of the habitants and the so-called underlying military character of the colony and get down the business of understanding real people and their possessions in context.

Painting the Past with a Broad Brush

Author: David L. Keenlyside
Publisher: Canadian Mus of Civilization
ISBN: 0660199122
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Art

"Painting the Past with a Broad Brush embodies the breadth of J.V. Wright's interests in archaeological questions pertaining to the many millennia of Aboriginal Peoples' history in Canada. These original papers are a tribute to Jim's impact on Canadian archaeology as a discipline, but most importantly, to the vital role that he played in the professional development of the authors and many students of Canadian archaeology."--Jacket.

Bad Year Economics

Author: Paul Halstead
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052161192X
Release Date: 2004-11-11
Genre: Business & Economics

Explores the role of risk and uncertainty in human economics within an interdisciplinary an cross-cultural framework.

Exploring Atlantic Transitions

Author: Peter Edward Pope
Publisher: Boydell & Brewer Ltd
ISBN: 9781843838593
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Social Science

Current approaches to the archaeological understanding of permanence and transience in the early modern period,

The Archaeology of Plural and Changing Identities

Author: Eleanor Casella
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306486954
Release Date: 2005-12-05
Genre: Social Science

As people move through life, they continually shift affiliation from one position to another, dependent on the wider contexts of their interactions. Different forms of material culture may be employed as affiliations shift, and the connotations of any given set of artifacts may change. In this volume the authors explore these overlapping spheres of social affiliation. Social actors belong to multiple identity groups at any moment in their life. It is possible to deploy one or many potential labels in describing the identities of such an actor. Two main axes exist upon which we can plot experiences of social belonging – the synchronic and the diachronic. Identities can be understood as multiple during one moment (or the extended moment of brief interaction), over the span of a lifetime, or over a specific historical trajectory. From the Introduction The international contributions each illuminate how the various identifiers of race, ethnicity, sexuality, age, class, gender, personhood, health, and/or religion are part of both material expressions of social affiliations, and transient experiences of identity. The Archaeology of Plural and Changing Identities: Beyond Identification will be of great interest to archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, curators and other social scientists interested in the mutability of identification through material remains.

This Fleeting World

Author: David Christian
Publisher: Berkshire Publishing
ISBN: 9781933782041
Release Date: 2008-01-01
Genre: History

Presents an overview of the history of the human race from its earliest beginnings as foragers to our current state as modern beings.

Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology

Author: Eric Jones
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: 9781607325109
Release Date: 2017-01-21
Genre: Social Science

Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology examines Northern Iroquoian archaeology through various lenses at multiple spatial levels, including individual households, village constructions, relationships between villages in a local region, and relationships between various Iroquoian nations and their territorial homelands. The volume includes scholars and scholarship from both sides of the US-Canadian border, presenting a contextualized analysis of settlement and landscape for a broad range of past Northern Iroquoian societies. The research in this volume represents a new wave of spatial research—exploring beyond settlement patterning to the process and the meaning behind spatial arrangement of past communities and people—and describes new approaches being used for better understanding of past Northern Iroquoian societies. Addressing topics ranging from household task-scapes and gender relations to bioarchaeology and social network analysis, Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology demonstrates the vitality of current archaeological research into ancestral Northern Iroquoian societies and its growing contribution to wider debates in North American archaeology. This cutting-edge research will be of interest to archaeologists globally, as well as academics and graduate students studying Northern Iroquoian societies and cultures, geography, and spatial analysis. Contributors: Kathleen M. S. Allen, Jennifer A. Birch, William Engelbrecht, Crystal Forrest, John P. Hart, Sandra Katz, Robert H. Pihl, Aleksandra Pradzynski, Erin C. Rodriguez, Dean R. Snow, Ronald F. Williamson, Rob Wojtowicz

A Compact History of Humankind

Author: Edmund Burke
Publisher:
ISBN: 193723701X
Release Date: 2013-08-01
Genre: History

This a companion reader for the website World History for Us All, a site with free online lesson plans. http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu This reader is edited for language accessible to grades 6–9 and contains Big Eras One–Seven.

Entangled

Author: Ian Hodder
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470672112
Release Date: 2012-05-08
Genre: History

A powerful and innovative argument that explores the complexity of the human relationship with material things, demonstrating how humans and societies are entrapped into the maintenance and sustaining of material worlds Argues that the interrelationship of humans and things is a defining characteristic of human history and culture Offers a nuanced argument that values the physical processes of things without succumbing to materialism Discusses historical and modern examples, using evolutionary theory to show how long-standing entanglements are irreversible and increase in scale and complexity over time Integrates aspects of a diverse array of contemporary theories in archaeology and related natural and biological sciences Provides a critical review of many of the key contemporary perspectives from materiality, material culture studies and phenomenology to evolutionary theory, behavioral archaeology, cognitive archaeology, human behavioral ecology, Actor Network Theory and complexity theory

Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers

Author: J.M. Steele
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401595285
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: History

Eclipses have long been seen as important celestial phenomena, whether as omens affecting the future of kingdoms, or as useful astronomical events to help in deriving essential parameters for theories of the motion of the moon and sun. This is the first book to collect together all presently known records of timed eclipse observations and predictions from antiquity to the time of the invention of the telescope. In addition to cataloguing and assessing the accuracy of the various records, which come from regions as diverse as Ancient Mesopotamia, China, and Europe, the sources in which they are found are described in detail. Related questions such as what type of clocks were used to time the observations, how the eclipse predictions were made, and how these prediction schemes were derived from the available observations are also considered. The results of this investigation have important consequences for how we understand the relationship between observation and theory in early science and the role of astronomy in early cultures, and will be of interest to historians of science, astronomers, and ancient and medieval historians.

Origins and Revolutions

Author: Clive Gamble
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139462495
Release Date: 2007-03-26
Genre: Social Science

In this study Clive Gamble presents and questions two of the most famous descriptions of change in prehistory. The first is the 'human revolution', when evidence for art, music, religion and language first appears. The second is the economic and social revolution of the Neolithic period. Gamble identifies the historical agendas behind 'origins research' and presents a bold alternative to these established frameworks, relating the study of change to the material basis of human identity. He examines, through artefact proxies, how changing identities can be understood using embodied material metaphors and in two major case-studies charts the prehistory of innovations, asking, did agriculture really change the social world? This is an important and challenging book that will be essential reading for every student and scholar of prehistory.

From Kostenki to Clovis

Author: Olga Soffer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781489911124
Release Date: 2013-06-29
Genre: Social Science

From the American Side I went to the USSR for the first time in 1982 to attend the 11th meeting of the International Union for Quaternary research (INQUA) held at the Moscow State University. At that time relations between our two countries were anything but congenial and many restrictions were placed on our viewing the archaeological and paleontological collections and labora tory facilities. This was not the ideal climate for the free exchange of ideas needed for meaningful research. However, it was obvious to us that the strained relations did not extend to scientific discussions between scholars. We left that meeting well aware that if the problems of prehistoric Old World-New World relationships were to be resolved, it would eventually require cooperative research efforts within the world community of archaeologists. At that time, the pre-Clovis problem in New World archaeology was foremost in the minds of many North American researchers: tool technology and assemblages were being studied as a possible means of establishing cultural relationships across the Bering Strait, Clovis sites and mammoth kills were being looked at with new ideas for interpretation, and New World researchers realized that to resolve these questions they had to become familiar with the archaeological record of northeast Asia. A chance meeting of the writer with Olga Soffer in 1983 led to serious discussions of the sites on the Russian or East European Plain.

Rewriting Marpole

Author: Terence N. Clark
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 9780776620831
Release Date: 2013-03-30
Genre: History

This book examines prehistoric culture change in the Gulf of Georgia region of the Northwest Coast of North America during the Locarno Beach (3500 – 1100 BP) and Marpole (2000 – 1100 BP) periods. The Marpole culture has traditionally been seen to possess all the traits associated with complex hunter-gatherers on the Northwest Coast (hereditary inequality, multi-family housing, storage-based economies, resource ownership, wealth accumulation, etc.) while the Locarno Beach culture has not. This research examined artifact and faunal assemblages as well as data for art and mortuary architecture from a total of 164 Gulf of Georgia archaeological site components. Geographic location and ethnographic language distribution were also compared to the archaeological data. Analysis was undertaken using Integrative Distance Analysis (IDA), a new statistical methodology developed in the course of this research. Results indicated that Marpole culture was not a regional phenomenon but rather was much more spatially and temporally discrete than previously known. Artifactual assemblages identified as Marpole were restricted to the areas of the Fraser River, northern Gulf Islands and portions of Vancouver Island, an area contiguous with both Mitchell’s (1971b) “Fraser River Fishermen” economic sub-area and the ethnographic territory of the Downriver and Island Halkomelem peoples. In contrast, the geographic area of Mitchell’s (1971b) “Straits Reef-net Fishermen”, the ethnographic territory of the Straits Salish, showed no sign of Marpole culture but rather a presence of Late Locarno Beach culture. The pattern found in artifacts was replicated in the distribution of art and mortuary architecture variation suggesting the cultural differences between Marpole and Late Locarno Beach cultures was real and not a statistical anomaly. The matching distribution of prehistoric cultural variability and the ethnographic pattern of language groups indicate a long standing and stable cultural dynamic within the Gulf of Georgia.