Contact in the 16th Century

Author: Brad Loewen
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 9780776623610
Release Date: 2016-05-12
Genre: Social Science

From Labrador to Lake Ontario, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to French Acadia, and Huronia-Wendaki to Tadoussac, and from one chapter to the next, this scholarly collection of archaeological findings focuses on 16th century European goods found in Native contexts and within greater networks, forming a conceptual interplay of place and mobility. The four initial chapters are set around the Gulf of Saint Lawrence where Euro-Native contact was direct and the historical record is strongest. Contact networks radiated northward into Inuit settings where European iron nails, roofing tile fragments and ceramics are found. Glass beads are scarce on Inuit sites as well as on Basque sites on the Gulf’s north shore, but they are numerous in French Acadia. Ceramics on northern Basque sites are mostly from Spain. An historical review discusses the partnership between Spanish Basques and Saint Lawrence Iroquoians c.1540-1580. The four chapters set in the Saint Lawrence valley show Tadoussac as a fork in inland networks. Saint Lawrence Iroquoians obtained glass beads around Tadoussac before 1580. Algonquin from Lac Saint-Jean began trading at Tadoussac after that. They plied a northern route that linked to Huronia-Wendaki via the Ottawa Valley and the Frontenac Uplands. Finally, four chapters set around Lake Ontario focus on contact between this region and the Saint Lawrence valley. Huron-Wendat sites around the Kawartha Lakes show an influx of Saint Lawrence trade in the 16th century, followed by an immigration wave about 1580. Huron-Wendat sites near Toronto show an unabated inflow of Native materials from the Saint Lawrence valley; however, neutral sites west of Lake Ontario show Native and European materials arriving from the south. A review of glass bead evidence presented by various authors shows trends that cut across chapters and bring new impetus to the study of beads to discover 16th-century networks among French and Basque fishers, Inuit and Algonquian foragers and Iroquoian farmers. With contributions from Saraí Barreiro, Meghan Burchell, Claude Chapdelaine, Martin S. Cooper, Amanda Crompton, Vincent Delmas, Sergio Escribano-Ruiz, William Fox, Sarah Grant, François Guindon, Erik Langevin, Brad Loewen, Jean-François Moreau, Jean-Luc Pilon, Michel Plourde, Peter Ramsden, Lisa Rankin and Ronald F. Williamson.

Tu sais mon vieux Jean Pierre

Author: John Willis
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 9780776624587
Release Date: 2017-04-28
Genre: History

Tu sais, mon vieux Jean-Pierre is inspired by the work of archaeologist Jean-Pierre Chrestien (1949–2008), who worked hand-in-glove with a generation of researchers in helping to unearth unexpected and always interesting aspects of New France. Contributions focus first upon the door to New France in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland and Acadia. A second set of essays move further up the St. Lawrence and into the heartland of the continent. The final section examines aspects of Canadian culture: popular art, religion and communication. The essays share a curiosity for material culture, a careful regard for detail and nuance that forms the grain of New France studies, and sensitivity to the overall context that is part and parcel of how history proceeds on the local or regional scale. Happily we can now dispense with old-fashioned and facile generalizations about the allegedly absent bourgeoisie, the purportedly deficient commercial ethic of the habitants and the so-called underlying military character of the colony and get down the business of understanding real people and their possessions in context.

Subsistence and Culture in the Western Canadian Arctic

Author: Matthew W. Betts
Publisher: Canadian Mus of Civilization
ISBN: UIUC:30112085398466
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Social Science

The Siglit, or Mackenzie Inuit, the ancestors of the modern Inuvialuit, were, at the time of Euroamerican contact, the most populous and complex Inuit society in the Canadian Arctic. Through innovative analysis of animal bones recovered from their ancient archaeological sites, this comprehensive study documents the complex relationships between the Mackenzie Inuit and their food animals, and tracks these connections over some 800 years, from their earliest occupations to the arrival of Europeans in the 19th century.Methodological in focus, this study examines the way in which archaeologists integrate animal remains into their analyses and proposes a systematic methodology for evaluating faunal data against other archaeological information. This volume chronicles the relationship between developing Siglit economic strategies and shifts in technology, settlement strategies, demography, and climate, exposing in the process the primary link between Siglit culture and their subsistence practices.Matthew Betts is Curator of Atlantic Provinces Archaeology at the Canadian Museum of Civilization. He received his PhD from the University of Toronto and has published on a broad range of topics including dating methods, historical archaeology, archaeological method and theory, and hunter-gatherer subsistence. His current research focuses on maritime hunter-gatherers and their complex economic and social relationships with the animals they exploit

Bad Year Economics

Author: Paul Halstead
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052161192X
Release Date: 2004-11-11
Genre: Business & Economics

Explores the role of risk and uncertainty in human economics within an interdisciplinary an cross-cultural framework.

Origins and Revolutions

Author: Clive Gamble
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139462495
Release Date: 2007-03-26
Genre: Social Science

In this study Clive Gamble presents and questions two of the most famous descriptions of change in prehistory. The first is the 'human revolution', when evidence for art, music, religion and language first appears. The second is the economic and social revolution of the Neolithic period. Gamble identifies the historical agendas behind 'origins research' and presents a bold alternative to these established frameworks, relating the study of change to the material basis of human identity. He examines, through artefact proxies, how changing identities can be understood using embodied material metaphors and in two major case-studies charts the prehistory of innovations, asking, did agriculture really change the social world? This is an important and challenging book that will be essential reading for every student and scholar of prehistory.

This Fleeting World

Author: David Christian
Publisher: Berkshire Publishing
ISBN: 9781933782041
Release Date: 2008-01-01
Genre: History

Presents an overview of the history of the human race from its earliest beginnings as foragers to our current state as modern beings.

Pre Columbian Foodways

Author: John Staller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441904719
Release Date: 2009-11-24
Genre: Social Science

The significance of food and feasting to Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures has been extensively studied by archaeologists, anthropologists and art historians. Foodways studies have been critical to our understanding of early agriculture, political economies, and the domestication and management of plants and animals. Scholars from diverse fields have explored the symbolic complexity of food and its preparation, as well as the social importance of feasting in contemporary and historical societies. This book unites these disciplinary perspectives — from the social and biological sciences to art history and epigraphy — creating a work comprehensive in scope, which reveals our increasing understanding of the various roles of foods and cuisines in Mesoamerican cultures. The volume is organized thematically into three sections. Part 1 gives an overview of food and feasting practices as well as ancient economies in Mesoamerica. Part 2 details ethnographic, epigraphic and isotopic evidence of these practices. Finally, Part 3 presents the metaphoric value of food in Mesoamerican symbolism, ritual, and mythology. The resulting volume provides a thorough, interdisciplinary resource for understanding, food, feasting, and cultural practices in Mesoamerica.

Rewriting Marpole

Author: Terence N. Clark
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 9780776620831
Release Date: 2013-03-30
Genre: History

This book examines prehistoric culture change in the Gulf of Georgia region of the Northwest Coast of North America during the Locarno Beach (3500 – 1100 BP) and Marpole (2000 – 1100 BP) periods. The Marpole culture has traditionally been seen to possess all the traits associated with complex hunter-gatherers on the Northwest Coast (hereditary inequality, multi-family housing, storage-based economies, resource ownership, wealth accumulation, etc.) while the Locarno Beach culture has not. This research examined artifact and faunal assemblages as well as data for art and mortuary architecture from a total of 164 Gulf of Georgia archaeological site components. Geographic location and ethnographic language distribution were also compared to the archaeological data. Analysis was undertaken using Integrative Distance Analysis (IDA), a new statistical methodology developed in the course of this research. Results indicated that Marpole culture was not a regional phenomenon but rather was much more spatially and temporally discrete than previously known. Artifactual assemblages identified as Marpole were restricted to the areas of the Fraser River, northern Gulf Islands and portions of Vancouver Island, an area contiguous with both Mitchell’s (1971b) “Fraser River Fishermen” economic sub-area and the ethnographic territory of the Downriver and Island Halkomelem peoples. In contrast, the geographic area of Mitchell’s (1971b) “Straits Reef-net Fishermen”, the ethnographic territory of the Straits Salish, showed no sign of Marpole culture but rather a presence of Late Locarno Beach culture. The pattern found in artifacts was replicated in the distribution of art and mortuary architecture variation suggesting the cultural differences between Marpole and Late Locarno Beach cultures was real and not a statistical anomaly. The matching distribution of prehistoric cultural variability and the ethnographic pattern of language groups indicate a long standing and stable cultural dynamic within the Gulf of Georgia.

Zooarchaeology in Practice

Author: Christina M. Giovas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319647630
Release Date: 2017-11-24
Genre: Social Science

Zooarchaeology in Practice unites depth of treatment with broad topical coverage to advance methodological discussion and development in archaeofaunal analysis. Through case studies, historical accounts, and technical reviews authored by leading figures in the field, the volume examines how zooarchaeological data and interpretation are shaped by its methods of practice and explores the impact of these effects at varying levels of investigation. Contributing authors draw on geographically and taxonomically diverse datasets, providing instructive approaches to problems in traditional and emerging areas of methodological concern. Readers, from specialists to students, will gain an extensive, sophisticated look at important disciplinary issues that are sure to provoke critical reflection on the nature and importance of sound methodology. With implications for how archaeologists reconstruct human behavior and paleoecology, and broader relevance to fields such as paleontology and conservation biology, Zooarchaeology in Practice makes an enduring contribution to the methodological advancement of the discipline.

Process and Meaning in Spatial Archaeology

Author: Eric Jones
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: 9781607325093
Release Date: 2017-01-21
Genre: History

"Examines Northern Iroquoian archaeology through various lenses at multiple spatial levels, including individual households, village constructions, relationships between villages in a local region, and relationships between various Iroquoian nations and their homelands. Scholarship from both sides of the U.S.-Canadian border, presents contextualized analysis of settlement and landscape"--Provided by publisher.

The Forgotten Songs of the Newfoundland Outports

Author: Anna Kearney Guigné
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 9780776623856
Release Date: 2016-12-12
Genre: Music

In 1951, musician Kenneth Peacock (1922–2000) secured a contract from the National Museum of Canada (today the Canadian Museum of History) to collect folksongs in Newfoundland. As the province had recently joined Confederation, the project was deemed a goodwill gesture, while at the same time adding to the Museum’s meager Anglophone archival collections. Between 1951 and 1961, over the course of six field visits, Peacock collected 766 songs and melodies from 118 singers in 38 communities, later publishing two-thirds of this material in a three-volume collection, Songs of the Newfoundland Outports (1965). As the publication consists of over 1000 pages, Outports is considered to be a bible for Newfoundland singers and a valuable resource for researchers. However, Peacock’s treatment of the material by way of tune-text collations, use of lines and stanzas from unpublished songs has always been somewhat controversial. Additionally, comparison of the field collection with Outports indicates that although Peacock acquired a range of material, his personal preferences requently guided his publishing agenda. To ensure that the songs closely correspond to what the singers presented to Peacock, the collection has been prepared by drawing on Peacock’s original music and textual notes and his original field recordings. The collection is far-ranging and eclectic in that it includes British and American broadsides, musical hall and vaudeville material alongside country and western songs, and local compositions. It also highlights the influence of popular media on the Newfoundland song tradition and contextualizes a number of locally composed songs. In this sense, it provides a key link between what Peacock actually recorded and the material he eventually published. As several of the songs have not previously appeared in the standard Newfoundland collections, The Forgotten Songs sheds new light on the extent of Peacock’s collecting. The collection includes 125 songs arranged under 113 titles along with extensive notes on the songs, and brief biographies of the 58 singers. Thanks to the Research Centre for the Study of Music Media and Place, a video of the launch event, held in St.John's, Newfoundland, is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ghj6E6-QiLI&t=21s.

Encyclopedia of Caribbean Archaeology

Author: Basil A. Reid
Publisher:
ISBN: 0813044200
Release Date: 2014
Genre: History

A sweeping overview of the scholarly information available on archaeology in the Caribbean, tackling the usual questions of colonization, adaptation, and evolution while embracing such newer aspects as geoinformatics and archaeometry.

Doctors

Author: Sherwin B. Nuland
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 9780307807892
Release Date: 2011-10-19
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

From the author of How We Die, the extraordinary story of the development of modern medicine, told through the lives of the physician-scientists who paved the way. How does medical science advance? Popular historians would have us believe that a few heroic individuals, possessing superhuman talents, lead an unselfish quest to better the human condition. But as renowned Yale surgeon and medical historian Sherwin B. Nuland shows in this brilliant collection of linked life portraits, the theory bears little resemblance to the truth. Through the centuries, the men and women who have shaped the world of medicine have been not only very human, but also very much the products of their own times and places. Presenting compelling studies of great medical innovators and pioneers, Doctors gives us a fascinating history of modern medicine. Ranging from the legendary Father of Medicine, Hippocrates, to Andreas Vesalius, whose Renaissance masterwork on anatomy offered invaluable new insight into the human body, to Helen Taussig, founder of pediatric cardiology and co-inventor of the original "blue baby" operation, here is a volume filled with the spirit of ideas and the thrill of discovery.

Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers

Author: J.M. Steele
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401595285
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: History

Eclipses have long been seen as important celestial phenomena, whether as omens affecting the future of kingdoms, or as useful astronomical events to help in deriving essential parameters for theories of the motion of the moon and sun. This is the first book to collect together all presently known records of timed eclipse observations and predictions from antiquity to the time of the invention of the telescope. In addition to cataloguing and assessing the accuracy of the various records, which come from regions as diverse as Ancient Mesopotamia, China, and Europe, the sources in which they are found are described in detail. Related questions such as what type of clocks were used to time the observations, how the eclipse predictions were made, and how these prediction schemes were derived from the available observations are also considered. The results of this investigation have important consequences for how we understand the relationship between observation and theory in early science and the role of astronomy in early cultures, and will be of interest to historians of science, astronomers, and ancient and medieval historians.

Encyclopedia of Prehistory

Author: Peter N. Peregrine
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461511939
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Social Science

The Encyclopedia of Prehistory represents also defined by a somewhat different set of an attempt to provide basic information sociocultural characteristics than are eth on all archaeologically known cultures, nological cultures. Major traditions are covering the entire globe and the entire defined based on common subsistence prehistory of humankind. It is designed as practices, sociopolitical organization, and a tool to assist in doing comparative material industries, but language, ideology, research on the peoples of the past. Most and kinship ties play little or no part in of the entries are written by the world's their definition because they are virtually foremost experts on the particular areas unrecoverable from archaeological con and time periods. texts. In contrast, language, ideology, and The Encyclopedia is organized accord kinship ties are central to defining ethno ing to major traditions. A major tradition logical cultures. is defined as a group of populations sharing There are three types of entries in the similar subsistence practices, technology, Encyclopedia: the major tradition entry, and forms of sociopolitical organization, the regional sub tradition entry, and the which are spatially contiguous over a rela site entry. Each contains different types of tively large area and which endure tempo information, and each is intended to be rally for a relatively long period. Minimal used in a different way.