Author: P. W. Singer
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Release Date: 2007-11-29
Genre: Political Science
Some have claimed that "War is too important to be left to the generals," but P. W. Singer asks "What about the business executives?" Breaking out of the guns-for-hire mold of traditional mercenaries, corporations now sell skills and services that until recently only state militaries possessed. Their products range from trained commando teams to strategic advice from generals. This new "Privatized Military Industry" encompasses hundreds of companies, thousands of employees, and billions of dollars in revenue. Whether as proxies or suppliers, such firms have participated in wars in Africa, Asia, the Balkans, and Latin America. More recently, they have become a key element in U.S. military operations. Private corporations working for profit now sway the course of national and international conflict, but the consequences have been little explored. In Corporate Warriors, Singer provides the first account of the military services industry and its broader implications. Corporate Warriors includes a description of how the business works, as well as portraits of each of the basic types of companies: military providers that offer troops for tactical operations; military consultants that supply expert advice and training; and military support companies that sell logistics, intelligence, and engineering. This updated edition of Singer's already classic account of the military services industry and its broader implications describes the continuing importance of that industry in the Iraq War. This conflict has amply borne out Singer's argument that the privatization of warfare allows startling new capabilities and efficiencies in the ways that war is carried out. At the same time, however, Singer finds that the introduction of the profit motive onto the battlefield raises troubling questions-for democracy, for ethics, for management, for human rights, and for national security.
This book assesses the use of ‘mercenaries’ by states, and their integration into the national armed forces as part of a new hybridisation trend of contemporary armies. Governments, especially in the West, are undertaking an unprecedented wave of demilitarisation and military budget cuts. Simultaneously, these same governments are increasingly opening their armies up to foreign nationals and outsourcing military operations to private companies. This book explores the impact of this hybridisation on the values, cohesion and effectiveness of the armed forces by comparing and contrasting the experiences of the French Foreign Legion, private military companies in Angola, and the merging of private contractors and American troops in Iraq. Examining the employment of foreign citizens and private security companies as military forces and tools of foreign policy, and their subsequent impact on the national armed forces, the book investigates whether the difficulties of coordinating soldiers of various nationalities and allegiances within public-private joint military operations undermines the legitimacy of the state. Furthermore, the author questions whether this trend for outsourcing security can realistically provide a long term and positive contribution to national security. This book will be of much interest to students of private military companies, strategic studies, international security and IR in general.
Author: Jeremy Scahill
Publisher: Antje Kunstmann
Release Date: 2013-02-15
Kaum jemand hatte von der Firma Blackwater gehört, als am 16. September 2007 im Irak 17 Zivilisten erschossen wurden – von einem Söldnertrupp. Schnell stellte sich heraus, dass sie zu einer Art Privatarmee gehörten, die im Irak und anderswo für die USA Krieg führt, unbemerkt von der Öffentlichkeit und immun gegen Strafverfolgung. Blackwater: die mächtigste militärische Dienstleistungsfirma der Welt. Ihr Gründer Erik Prince, Multimillionär und christlicher Fundamentalist, hat beste Kontakte zur Regierung. Und erkennt nach dem 11. September 2001, wie viel Geld sich mit dem »Outsourcing« militärischer Leistungen verdienen lässt: Bushs »Krieg gegen den Terror« ist die Steilvorlage für den kometenhaften Aufstieg der Firma. Blackwaters Elitesoldaten schützen US-Politiker und Geschäftsleute im Irak – gegen ein Gehalt, von dem GIs nur träumen können. Blackwater kann bei Bedarf Truppen und eine Flugzeugflotte zur Verfügung stellen, groß genug, Regierungen zu stürzen. Blackwaters Söldner bewachen Öl-Pipelines, seine »Sicherheitskräfte« patrouillierten nach Katrina in den Straßen von New Orleans. Doch erst jetzt fällt dem US-Kongress auf, dass die martialischen Rambos keinerlei parlamentarischer Kontrolle, keiner Gerichtsbarkeit unterliegen. Mit seiner glänzend recherchierten Geschichte der Firma Blackwater zeigt Jeremy Scahill überzeugend auf, welche Gefahren der Demokratie drohen, wenn die Regierung ihr Gewaltmonopol privatisiert.
Das Zeitalter der zwischenstaatlichen Kriege geht offenbar zu Ende. Aber der Krieg ist keineswegs verschwunden, er hat nur seine Erscheinungsform verändert. In den neuen Kriegen spielen nicht mehr die Staaten die Hauptrolle, sondern Warlords, Söldner und Terroristen. Die Gewalt richtet sich vor allem gegen die Zivilbevölkerung; Hochhäuser werden zu Schlachtfeldern, Fernsehbilder zu Waffen. Herfried Münkler macht die Folgen dieser Entwicklung deutlich. Er zeigt, wie mit dem Verschwinden von klassischen Schlachten und Frontlinien auch die Unterscheidung von Krieg und Frieden brüchig geworden ist, und erörtert, wie man den besonderen Gefahren begegnen kann, die von den neuen Kriegen ausgehen.
This book brings context and perspective to the security problems of today. Global security and stability is now challenged not only by states and nuclear war, but by insurgency, disease, environmental degradation and military privatisation. Yet the way we perceive politics can be dangerously stark and ahistorical. The authors show that, far from being a clean break, the "new" problems faced today might actually have "old" solutions. What can Locke tell us about terrorists? What does Bentham have to say about sanctions? What are the ethics of outsourcing war to private companies? By looking back to decades and even centuries of ethical analysis and political theory, this book provides fascinating insight into all these questions.
Author: Christopher S. Browning
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2013-10-24
Genre: Political Science
The subject of international security is never out of the headlines. The subjects of war and peace, military strategy, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and revisionist states remain central to the discussion, but burgeoning concerns such as climate change, migration, poverty, health, and international terrorism have complicated the field. So what really matters? The traditional prioritization of state security or the security needs of individuals, humanity, and the biosphere? And where do the problems lie? Are states themselves as much a part of the problem as the solution for people's security needs? With globalization, the international security environment has become more interdependent than ever before with the establishment of complex networks that make responding to and managing security challenges increasingly difficult, but increasingly necessary. This Very Short Introduction shows that international security is both vibrant and deeply contested, with stakeholders frequently in disagreement over questions of priority and approach. Christopher S. Browning outlines the nature of the key debates about contemporary international security challenges, and discusses the inherent difficulties that exist in tackling them. He also asks to what extent such debates are infused with questions of power, politics, justice, morality, and responsibility. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Author: John-Peter Pham
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release Date: 2006
This new book weaves a narrative of the history of Sierra Leone, from its foundation as a settlement for black slaves who fought for the British Crown during the American Revolution through the events of the civil war, with a discussion of more general geopolitical lessons to be learned from the recent conflict, its origins, and settlement. In addition, the book contains six appendices that render the present work -- the first comprehensive history of Sierra Leone since the classic studies published more than a generation ago by Christopher Fyfe and John Peterson -- an invaluable reference on conflict resolution in general as well as the West African country in particular, including a chronology of select events in the history of Sierra Leone and the texts of the peace agreements and other post-conflict documents.
The outsourcing of military and security services is the object of intense legal debate. States employ private military and security companies (PMSCs) to perform functions previously exercised by regular armed forces, and increasingly international organisations, NGOs and business corporations do the same to provide security, particularly in crisis situations. Much of the public attention on PMSCs has been in response to incidents in which PMSC employees have been accused of violating international humanitarian law. Therefore initiatives have been launched to introduce uniform international standards amidst what is currently very uneven national regulation. This book analyses and discusses the interplay between international, European, and domestic regulatory measures in the field of PMSCs. It presents a comprehensive assessment of the existing domestic legislation in EU Member States and relevant Third States, and identifies implications for future international regulation. The book also addresses the crucial questions whether and how the EU can potentially play a more active future role in the regulation of PMSCs to ensure compliance with human rights and international humanitarian law.
Author: David H. Bayley
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Law enforcement
Our thesis is that policing in the mid-1980s was perceived to be in crisis and there was a strong sense that fundamental changes were needed in the way it was delivered. In contrast, police are considered to be performing well 20 years later by both practitioners and outside observers. Crime has been falling for almost 18 years and any new challenges, including terrorism, appear to be manageable without the invention of new strategies for the delivery of police services. Past experience contains the lessons needed for the future. In our view, this assessment may be mistaken, not because existing policies are defective in controlling crime but because the institutions that provide public safety are changing in profound ways that are not being recognized.
Author: Julia Buxton
Publisher: Black Point, N.S. : Fernwood Publishing Company
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Drug abuse
This scholarly examination of the worldwide web of narcotics today provides students, social workers, health providers, law enforcement officers and policy makers with an up-to-date, overall exploration of the world of drugs. Vast resources are pumped into the 'war on drugs'. But in practice, prohibition has failed. Narcotics use continues to rise, while technology and globalisation have made a whole new range of drugs available to a vast consumer market. Where wealth and demand exist, supply continues to follow. Prohibition has failed to stem consumption and production, criminalised social groups, impeded research into alternative medicine and disease, promoted violence and gang warfare, and impacted negatively on the environment. The alternative is a humane policy framework that recognizes the incentives to produce, traffic and consume narcotics.