Author: Henry M. Levin
Release Date: 2001
Genre: Business & Economics
This Second Edition of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis continues to provide the most current, step-by-step guide to planning and implementing a cost analysis study. Henry M. Levin and Patrick J. McEwan use detailed and varied examples from studies and articles, ranging from education to public health, to introduce the principles and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis. The authors take account of both the costs and the effects of selecting alternatives, and suggest methods of minimizing the costs of research. New to this edition: expanded coverage of cost effectiveness from types of technique to use, to how to interpret the data; the latest information on cost benefits analysis and how to relate it to outcome measures; in-depth chapter-end exercises to enable readers to sharpen their ability to evaluate policy options and program effectiveness; feedback appendix for readers to evaluate their responses to exercises; comprehensive bibliography of methodological sources on cost analysis and educational settings grouped by category. This thorough volume primes the reader to deal with any evaluation situation by studying cost-effective analysis in relation to cost-benefit analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-feasibility analysis.
Author: Henry M. Levin
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Release Date: 2017-06-15
The past decade has seen increased attention to cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost analysis in education as administrators are being asked to accomplish more with the same or even fewer resources, philanthropists are keen to calculate their “return on investment” in social programs, and the general public is increasingly scrutinizing how resources are allocated to schools and colleges. Economic Evaluation in Education: Cost-Effectiveness and Benefit-Cost Analysis (titled Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Methods and Applications in its previous editions) is the only full-length book to provide readers with the step-by-step methods they need to plan and implement a benefit-cost analysis in education. Authors Henry M. Levin, Patrick J. McEwan, Clive Belfield, Alyshia Brooks Bowden, and Robert Shand examine a range of issues, including how to identify, measure, and distribute costs; how to measure effectiveness, utility, and benefits; and how to incorporate cost evaluations into the decision-making process. The updates to the Third Edition reflect the considerable methodological development in the evaluation literature, and the greater empiricism practiced by education researchers, to help readers learn to apply more advanced methods to their own analyses.
Author: Roger Hussey
Publisher: Business Expert Press
Release Date: 2018-01-15
Genre: Business & Economics
Increasing business competition is compelling managers not only to develop realistic and achievable strategies but also to analyze goals in financial terms and to evaluate performance. But where do you, as a manager, learn about the key methods and techniques of strategic cost analysis? This text explains in simple language the methods and techniques of cost analysis that can be applied strategically at any level in an organization—be it manufacturing, service, or the nonprofit sector. Since the interaction of the organization’s activities, the influences of the external world, and your responsibilities as a manager need to be captured in financial terms to help plan, control, and make decisions, this book is what you’ll require in today’s world.
Author: Emma McIntosh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2010-06-24
This book provides a comprehensive set of instructions and examples of how to perform a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of a health intervention, with a particular focus on the use of stated preference survey methods to identify consumer preference data and the use of recent developments in cost-effectiveness analysis within a CBA framework.
Author: Alan Werner
Publisher: The Urban Insitute
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Political Science
The 1990s' historic welfare reform legislation shifted U.S. social policy institutions from a bureaucratic, centralized mode for income transfer, to a "professional" mode aimed at complex behavioral change. The evaluation community has responded with a shift from traditional impact analyses to implementation studies that get to the heart of this more flexible structure. A Guide to Implementation Research, by Alan Werner, is the first volume to offer comprehensive, practical advice on conducting implementation studies in the context of program evaluation. The first chapter presents an introduction to implementation research and an overview of how to organize and conduct an implementation study. Chapter Two covers the variety of data needs and data collection techniques encountered in Implementation Research. Chapter Three describes how to organize the data to document program implementation and results. Chapter Four covers approaches to assess and explain program! implementation. Each chapter contains multiple examples from the research literature as well as the work of professional evaluators. For students and practitioners of evaluation research, this book is a complete, concise, and essential guide.
Health economics is concerned with the study of the cost-effectiveness of health care interventions. This book provides an overview of Bayesian methods for the analysis of health economic data. After an introduction to the basic economic concepts and methods of evaluation, it presents Bayesian statistics using accessible mathematics. The next chapters describe the theory and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis from a statistical viewpoint, and Bayesian computation, notably MCMC. The final chapter presents three detailed case studies covering cost-effectiveness analyses using individual data from clinical trials, evidence synthesis and hierarchical models and Markov models. The text uses WinBUGS and JAGS with datasets and code available online.
The book provides a description of the process of health economic evaluation and modelling for cost-effectiveness analysis, particularly from the perspective of a Bayesian statistical approach. Some relevant theory and introductory concepts are presented using practical examples and two running case studies. The book also describes in detail how to perform health economic evaluations using the R package BCEA (Bayesian Cost-Effectiveness Analysis). BCEA can be used to post-process the results of a Bayesian cost-effectiveness model and perform advanced analyses producing standardised and highly customisable outputs. It presents all the features of the package, including its many functions and their practical application, as well as its user-friendly web interface. The book is a valuable resource for statisticians and practitioners working in the field of health economics wanting to simplify and standardise their workflow, for example in the preparation of dossiers in support of marketing authorisation, or academic and scientific publications.
Author: Henry M. Levin
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Release Date: 1983-11-01
Genre: Social Science
In times of economic recession, cost-effectiveness and business evaluation assume a very important role in resource planning. Using the example of education, Levin introduces to administrators and evaluators alike the principles and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis -- to take account of both the costs and the effects of selecting alternatives, and suggests methods of minimizing the costs of research. Cost-effective analysis is studied in relation to cost-benefit analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-feasibility analysis, in the hope that the work might prime the reader to deal with any evaluation situation.
Author: Vikram Patel
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Release Date: 2016-03-10
Mental, neurological, and substance use disorders are common, highly disabling, and associated with significant premature mortality. The impact of these disorders on the social and economic well-being of individuals, families, and societies is large, growing, and underestimated. Despite this burden, these disorders have been systematically neglected, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, with pitifully small contributions to scaling up cost-effective prevention and treatment strategies. Systematically compiling the substantial existing knowledge to address this inequity is the central goal of this volume. This evidence-base can help policy makers in resource-constrained settings as they prioritize programs and interventions to address these disorders.
Author: MIT Critical Data
Release Date: 2016-09-09
This book trains the next generation of scientists representing different disciplines to leverage the data generated during routine patient care. It formulates a more complete lexicon of evidence-based recommendations and support shared, ethical decision making by doctors with their patients. Diagnostic and therapeutic technologies continue to evolve rapidly, and both individual practitioners and clinical teams face increasingly complex ethical decisions. Unfortunately, the current state of medical knowledge does not provide the guidance to make the majority of clinical decisions on the basis of evidence. The present research infrastructure is inefficient and frequently produces unreliable results that cannot be replicated. Even randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the traditional gold standards of the research reliability hierarchy, are not without limitations. They can be costly, labor intensive, and slow, and can return results that are seldom generalizable to every patient population. Furthermore, many pertinent but unresolved clinical and medical systems issues do not seem to have attracted the interest of the research enterprise, which has come to focus instead on cellular and molecular investigations and single-agent (e.g., a drug or device) effects. For clinicians, the end result is a bit of a “data desert” when it comes to making decisions. The new research infrastructure proposed in this book will help the medical profession to make ethically sound and well informed decisions for their patients.
Economic evaluation has become an essential component of clinical trial design to show that new treatments and technologies offer value to payers in various healthcare systems. Although many books exist that address the theoretical or practical aspects of cost-effectiveness analysis, this book differentiates itself from the competition by detailing how to apply health economic evaluation techniques in a clinical trial context, from both academic and pharmaceutical/commercial perspectives. It also includes a special chapter for clinical trials in Cancer. Design & Analysis of Clinical Trials for Economic Evaluation & Reimbursement is not just about performing cost-effectiveness analyses. It also emphasizes the strategic importance of economic evaluation and offers guidance and advice on the complex factors at play before, during, and after an economic evaluation. Filled with detailed examples, the book bridges the gap between applications of economic evaluation in industry (mainly pharmaceutical) and what students may learn in university courses. It provides readers with access to SAS and STATA code. In addition, Windows-based software for sample size and value of information analysis is available free of charge—making it a valuable resource for students considering a career in this field or for those who simply wish to know more about applying economic evaluation techniques. The book includes coverage of trial design, case report form design, quality of life measures, sample sizes, submissions to regulatory authorities for reimbursement, Markov models, cohort models, and decision trees. Examples and case studies are provided at the end of each chapter. Presenting first-hand insights into how economic evaluations are performed from a drug development perspective, the book supplies readers with the foundation required to succeed in an environment where clinical trials and cost-effectiveness of new treatments are central. It also includes thought-provoking exercises for use in classroom and seminar discussions.
Cost-Effective Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting:Materials, Technologies, Optimization and Case Studies provides essential knowledge for civil engineers, architects, and other professionals working in the field of cost-effective energy efficient building retrofitting. The building sector is responsible for high energy consumption and its global demand is expected to grow as each day there are approximately 200,000 new inhabitants on planet Earth. The majority of electric energy will continue to be generated from the combustion of fossil fuels releasing not only carbon dioxide, but also methane and nitrous oxide. Energy efficiency measures are therefore crucial to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of the building sector. Energy efficient building retrofitting needs to not only be technically feasible, but also economically viable. New building materials and advanced technologies already exist, but the knowledge to integrate all active components is still scarce and far from being widespread among building industry stakeholders. Emphasizes cost-effective methods for the refurbishment of existing buildings, presenting state-of-the-art technologies Includes detailed case studies that explain various methods and Net Zero Energy Explains optimal analysis and prioritization of cost effective strategies
This is the first comprehensive book on Military Cost-Benefit Analysis and provides novel approaches to structuring cost-benefit and affordability analysis amidst an uncertain defense environment and cloudy fiscal prospects. Lifting the veil on military Cost-Benefit Analysis, this volume offers several new practical tools designed to guide defense investments (and divestments), combined with a selection of real-world applications. The widespread employment of Cost-Benefit Analysis offers a unique opportunity to transform legacy defense forces into efficient, effective, and accountable 21st century organizations. A synthesis of economics, statistics and decision theory, CBA is currently used in a wide range of defense applications in countries around the world: i) to shape national security strategy, ii) to set acquisition policy, and iii) to inform critical investments in people, equipment, infrastructure, services and supplies. As sovereign debt challenges squeeze national budgets, and emerging threats disrupt traditional notions of security, this volume offers valuable tools to navigate the political landscape, meet calls for fiscal accountability, and boost the effectiveness of defense investments to help guarantee future peace and stability. A valuable resource for scholars, practitioners, novices and experts, this book offers a comprehensive overview of Military Cost-Benefit Analysis and will appeal to anyone interested or involved in improving national security, and will also be of general interest to those responsible for major government programs, projects or policies.
Author: A. R. Habayeb
Release Date: 2013-10-22
Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.