Criminal Lives

Author: Barry S. Godfrey
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: UOM:39015069316316
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Law

This text examines the history of crime and uses historical data to analyse modern criminological debates. Drawing on criminology, history, and social policy, the book addresses important issues about offenders' persistence in crime, and questions the current theoretical framework used to explain offending patterns.

Young Criminal Lives Life Courses and Life Chances from 1850

Author: Barry Godfrey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780191092749
Release Date: 2017-10-26
Genre: Law

Young Criminal Lives is the first cradle-to-grave study of the experiences of some of the thousands of delinquent, difficult and destitute children passing through the early English juvenile reformatory system. The book breaks new ground in crime research, speaking to pressing present-day concerns around child poverty and youth justice, and resonating with a powerful public fascination for family history. Using innovative digital methods to unlock the Victorian life course, the authors have reconstructed the lives, families and neighbourhoods of 500 children living within, or at the margins of, the early English juvenile reformatory system. Four hundred of them were sent to reformatory and industrial schools in the north west of England from courts around the UK over a fifty-year period from the 1860s onwards. Young Criminal Lives is based on one of the most comprehensive sets of official and personal data ever assembled for a historical study of this kind. For the first time, these children can be followed on their journey in and out of reform and then though their adulthood and old age. The book centres on institutions celebrated in this period for their pioneering new approaches to child welfare and others that were investigated for cruelty and scandal. Both were typical of the new kind of state-certified provision offered, from the 1850s on, to children who had committed criminal acts, or who were considered 'vulnerable' to predation, poverty and the 'inheritance' of criminal dispositions. The notion that interventions can and must be evaluated in order to determine 'what works' now dominates public policy. But how did Victorian and Edwardian policy-makers and practitioners deal with this question? By what criteria, and on the basis of what kinds of evidence, did they judge their own successes and failures? Young Criminal Lives ends with a critical review of the historical rise of evidence-based policy-making within criminal justice. It will appeal to scholars and students of crime and penal policy, criminologists, sociologists, and social policy researchers and practitioners in youth justice and child protection.

Crime and Society in England 1750 1900

Author: Clive Emsley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781351384841
Release Date: 2018-01-12
Genre: History

Ranging from the middle of the eighteenth through to the end of the nineteenth century, Crime and Society in England, 1750–1900 explores the developments in policing, the courts and the penal system as England became increasingly industrialised and urbanised. Through a consideration of the difficulty of defining crime, the book presents criminal behaviour as being intrinsically tied to historical context and uses this theory as the basis for its examination of crime within English society during this period. In this fifth edition Professor Emsley explores the most recent research, including the increased focus on ethnicity, gender and cultural representations of crime, allowing students to gain a broader view of modern English society. Divided thematically, the book’s coverage includes: the varying perceptions of crime across different social groups crime in the workplace the concepts of a ‘criminal class’ and ‘professional criminals’ the developments in the courts, the police and the prosecution of criminals. Thoroughly updated to address key questions surrounding crime and society in this period, and fully equipped with illustrations, tables and charts to further highlight important aspects, Crime and Society in England, 1750–1900 is the ideal introduction for students of modern crime.

Escape Routes Contemporary Perspectives on Life after Punishment

Author: Stephen Farrall
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136859588
Release Date: 2010-12-15
Genre: Law

Escape Routes: Contemporary Perspectives on Life After Punishment addresses the reasons why people stop offending, and the processes by which they are rehabilitated or resettled back into the community. Engaging with, and building upon, renewed criminological interest in this area, Escape Routes nevertheless broadens and enlivens the current debate. First, its scope goes beyond a narrowly-defined notion of crime and includes, for example, essays on religious redemption, the lives of ex-war criminals, and the relationship between ethnicity and desistance from crime. Second, contributors to this volume draw upon a number of areas of contemporary research, including urban studies, philosophy, history, religious studies, and ethics, as well as criminology. Examining new theoretical work in the study of desistance and exploring the experiences of a number of groups whose experiences of life after punishment do not usually attract much attention, Escape Routes provides new insights about the processes associated with reform, resettlement and forgiveness. Intended to drive our understanding of life after punishment forward, its rich array of theoretical and substantive papers will be of considerable interest to criminologists, lawyers, and sociologists.

Serious Offenders

Author: Barry S. Godfrey
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199594665
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Law

Serious Offenders examines the criminal careers of persistent offenders in northwest England between the 1840s and 1940s. It explores the triggers that propelled minor offenders towards serious persistent offending and draws on the lessons to be learnt about the regulation and surveillance of serious offenders.

Administrating Victimization

Author: M. Duggan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781137409270
Release Date: 2014-06-20
Genre: Social Science

This study addresses the management of victims and victim policy under the Coalition government, in light of an increasing move towards neoliberal and punitive law and order agendas. With a focus on victims of anti-social behaviour and hate crime, Duggan and Heap explore the changing role of the victim in contemporary criminal justice discourses.

Life After Life Imprisonment

Author: Catherine Appleton
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199582716
Release Date: 2010-07-08
Genre: Law

One of the most contentious and sensitive topics in criminal justice, Life after Life Imprisonment looks at the release and resettlement of life-sentenced offenders in England and Wales - where there are very few prisoners in the system for whom 'life' means life. By providing an in-depth analysis of the post-prison experiences of 138 discretionary life-sentenced offenders, all of whom were released during the mid-1990s, this book looks at the reality facing Lifers as they are released at some time during their sentences, usually on very long licences, to be closely monitored and supervised by probation officers. Using accessible and comprehensive data, it examines key legal developments within the criminal justice system for discretionary life-sentenced offenders, explores the frontline experiences of the probation officers charged with supervising life-sentenced offenders, and analyses the 'stories' or life narratives of a group of individuals who have committed some of the most serious crimes. It also examines the process of recall for life-sentenced prisoners and explores key factors associated with failure in the community. Of interest to legal scholars and criminologists, as well as practitioners in the field, Catherine Appleton's book offers a major insight into how societies respond to serious crime and identifies important elements of successful reintegration for released life-sentenced offenders.

Black police associations

Author: Simon Holdaway
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: STANFORD:36105133006036
Release Date: 2010-01-01
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Black Police Associations is based on Professor Holdaway's two-year ESRC funded project Black Police Associations (BPAs) in the UK. This project built upon the theoretical and evidential foundations of his previous work to analyze the new phenomenon of Black Police Associations established in the majority of constabularies in England and Wales. The author takes a sociological and theoretical approach to the subject, in contrast to current criminology which is more evaluative and policy oriented. The analysis is underpinned with the notion that race and ethnicity are socially constructed: the book describes and analyzes how race and ethnicity are constructed and sustained within constabularies and how they have changed during the last two decades, providing students, researchers and academics with a sociological perspective on understanding race within criminal justice institutions. Black Police Associations covers the history of BPAs; the construction and consequences of the notion of 'black' as a political emblem within constabularies; the work and influence of BPAs (nationally and within constabularies); post-McPherson policing; new forms of racism within constabularies; ethnic identities amongst ethnic minority police officers and BPAs, and the occupational culture. By analyzing the work of BPAs within constabularies, the author posits a number of implications for change within the management of constabularies.

Explaining Criminal Careers

Author: John F. MacLeod
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199697243
Release Date: 2012-08-23
Genre: Law

A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via www.oup.com/uk as well as the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.

Handbook of Victims and Victimology

Author: Sandra Walklate
Publisher: Willan Pub
ISBN: PSU:000063113570
Release Date: 2007-10-01
Genre: Psychology

The study of criminal victimisation has developed to the stage where by victimology is now regarded as a central component to the study of crime and criminology. This focus of concern has been matched by the growth and development of support services for the victim of crime alongside increasing political concern with similar issues. The central purpose of this book is to bring together leading scholars to produce an authoritative handbook on victims and victimology that gives due consideration to these developments. It will be concerned to reflect contemporary academic, policy, and political debates on the nature, extent and impact of criminal victimisation and policy responses to it. This book provides a overview of the importance of the role of the victim in the criminal justice system, with an analysis of the different theoretical perspectives within victimology. explores the relationship between victimisation and feminism with particular focus on domestic and sexual violence. analyses criminal justice policy and service delivery in relation to victims of crime, looking at developments within the UK and international perspectives. This handbook will be fundamental reading for students and academics studying victims and victimology and an essential reference tool for those working within the victim support environment.

The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Research Methods

Author: David Gadd
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781473971707
Release Date: 2011-10-19
Genre: Social Science

Conducting research into crime and criminal justice carries unique challenges. This Handbook focuses on the application of 'methods' to address the core substantive questions that currently motivate contemporary criminological research. It maps a canon of methods that are more elaborated than in most other fields of social science, and the intellectual terrain of research problems with which criminologists are routinely confronted. Drawing on exemplary studies, chapters in each section illustrate the techniques (qualitative and quantitative) that are commonly applied in empirical studies, as well as the logic of criminological enquiry. Organized into five sections, each prefaced by an editorial introduction, the Handbook covers: • Crime and Criminals • Contextualizing Crimes in Space and Time: Networks, Communities and Culture • Perceptual Dimensions of Crime • Criminal Justice Systems: Organizations and Institutions • Preventing Crime and Improving Justice Edited by leaders in the field of criminological research, and with contributions from internationally renowned experts, The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Research Methods is set to become the definitive resource for postgraduates, researchers and academics in criminology, criminal justice, policing, law, and sociology. David Gadd is Professor of Criminology at Manchester University School of Law where he is also Director of the Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Susanne Karstedt has a Chair in Criminology and Criminological Justice at the University of Leeds. Steven F. Messner is Distinguished Teaching Professor of Sociology, University at Albany, State University of New York.

Justice Mercy and Caprice

Author: Ian O'Donnell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198798477
Release Date: 2018-01-09
Genre: Law

Justice, Mercy, and Caprice is a work of criminal justice history that speaks to the gradual emergence of a more humane Irish state. It is a close examination of the decision to grant clemency to men and women sentenced to death between the end of the civil war in 1923 and the abolition ofcapital punishment in 1990.Frequently, the decision to deflect the law from its course was an attempt to introduce a measure of justice to a system where the mandatory death sentence for murder caused predictable unfairness and undue harshness. In some instances the decision to spare a life sprang from merciful motivations.In others it was capricious, depending on factors that should have had no place in the government's decision-making calculus. The custodial careers of those whose lives were spared repay scrutiny. Women tended to serve relatively short periods in prison but were often transferred to a religiousinstitution where their confinement continued, occasionally for life. Men, by contrast, served longer in prison but were discharged directly to the community. Political offenders were either executed hastily or, when the threat of capital punishment had passed, incarcerated for extravagant periods. This book addresses issues that are of continuing relevance for countries that employ capital punishment. It will appeal to scholars with an interest in criminal justice history, executive discretion, and death penalty studies, as well as being a useful resource for students of penology.

When Children Kill Children

Author: David A. Green
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191629761
Release Date: 2012-01-19
Genre: Law

This title examines the role of political culture and penal populism in the response to the emotive subject of child-on-child homicide. Green explores the reasons underlying the vastly differing responses of the English and Norwegian criminal justice systems to the cases of James Bulger and Silje Redergard respectively. Whereas James Bulger's killers were subject to extreme press and public hostility, and held in secure detention for nine months before being tried in an adversarial court, and served eight years in custody, a Redergard's killers were shielded from public antagonism and carefully reintegrated into the local community. This book argues that English adversarial political culture creates far more incentives to politicize high-profile crimes than Norwegian consensus political culture. Drawing on a wealth of empirical research, Green suggests that the tendency for politicians to justify punitive responses to crime by invoking harsh political attitudes is based upon a flawed understanding of public opinion. In a compelling study, Green proposes a more deliberative response to crime is possible by making English culture less adversarial and by making informed public judgment more assessable.

Criminal Careers in Transition

Author: Stephen Farrall
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199682151
Release Date: 2014-07-17
Genre: Law

"Follows the completion of a fifth sweep of interviews with members of a cohort of former probationers interviewed since the late-1990s. The research undertaken since the inception of the project in 1996 has focused on developing a long-term evidence base, rather than a rapid assessment, examining whether (and how) probation supervision assists desistance from crime. Building on interviews from previous sweeps, the authors continue their exploration into the needs identified by probation officers and probationers, the extent to which these have been successfully met over the medium to long-term, and whether this suggests that probation helps probationers to desist."--Provided by publisher

Hate Crime and Restorative Justice

Author: Mark Austin Walters
Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)
ISBN: 0199684499
Release Date: 2014-04-17
Genre: Law

The product of an 18 month empirical study which examined the use of restorative justice for hate crime in the United Kingdom, this book draws together theory and practice in order to examine the causes and consequences of hate crime victimisation. Hate Crime and Restorative Justice: Exploring Causes, Repairing Harms also identifies the key process variables within restorative practice that can help to repair the harms of hatred. In doing so, it challenges commonly held conceptions of both 'hate crime' and 'restorative justice' through its use of qualitative research of restorative interventions across the UK. The study's findings provide original data on the contextual variables that are intrinsic to both the cause and effect of hate-motivated offences, revealing complex socio-cultural and socio-economic factors that are fundamental, both to our understanding of hate crime and to how such incidents can be best resolved. Through meticulous analysis and discussion, the book also provides new information on how restorative processes can be used to repair the harms of hate and challenge the prejudices which give rise to hate-motivated conflicts. The issue of group identity and cultural 'difference' amongst participants of restorative justice is explored and examined through the use of detailed case studies, allowing assessment of whether dialogical barriers to reconciliation can limit the success of restorative processes. In particular, the notion of 'community', a fundamental concept of restorative justice theory and practice, is reconceptualised by exploring both its healing and harming features. Utilising data from the first study of its kind, Hate Crime and Restorative Justice draws together theoretical assumptions about restorative philosophy and empirical evidence of its use for hate crime to offer a more holistic understanding of how restorative justice can help repair the harms caused by processes of hate, while simultaneously challenging the identity-based prejudices that continue to pervade our multicultural communities.