Author: Norbert Wiener
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 1965
"This book represents the outcome, after more than a decade, of a program of work undertaken jointly with Dr. Arturo Rosenblueth. The author and Rosenbleuth, as well as other scientists, became aware of the essential unity of the set of problems centering about communication, control, and statistical mechanics, whether in the machine or in living tissue. They were also hampered by the lack of unity of the literature concerning these problems, and by the absence of any common terminology. They decided to call the entire field of control and communication theory, whether in the machine or in the animal, by the name cybernetics. This book focuses on cybernetics, from its earlier history with computing machines to its more modern uses. This second edition includes both the first edition from 1846 and supplementary chapters from 1961"--Introduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
This scarce antiquarian book is a facsimile reprint of the original. Due to its age, it may contain imperfections such as marks, notations, marginalia and flawed pages. Because we believe this work is culturally important, we have made it available as part of our commitment for protecting, preserving, and promoting the world's literature in affordable, high quality, modern editions that are true to the original work.
2013 Reprint of 1961 Second Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Acclaimed one of the "seminal books... comparable in ultimate importance to... Galileo or Malthus or Rousseau or Mill," "Cybernetics" was judged by twenty-seven historians, economists, educators, and philosophers to be one of those books published during the "past four decades," which may have a substantial impact on public thought and action in the years ahead." -- Saturday Review. Cybernetics was defined in the mid 20th century by Norbert Wiener as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine." Fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics), perceptual control theory, sociology, psychology (especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology), philosophy, architecture, and organizational theory. Contents: Part one: original edition - Newtonian and Bergsonian time - Groups and statistical mechanics - Time series, information, and communication - Feedback and oscillation - Computing machines and nervous system - Gestalt and universals - Cybernetics and psychopathology - Information, language, and society - Part two: supplement chapters - On learning and self - reproducing machines - Brain waves and self - organizing systems.
Author: Elizabeth Mathews Losh
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2009
Government media-making, from official websites to whistleblowers' e-mail, and its sometimes unintended consequences. Today government agencies not only have official Web sites but also sponsor moderated chats, blogs, digital video clips, online tutorials, videogames, and virtual tours of national landmarks. Sophisticated online marketing campaigns target citizens with messages from the government--even as officials make news with digital gaffes involving embarrassing e-mails, instant messages, and videos. In Virtualpolitik, Elizabeth Losh closely examines the government's digital rhetoric in such cases and its dual role as mediamaker and regulator. Looking beyond the usual focus on interfaces, operations, and procedures, Losh analyzes the ideologies revealed in government's digital discourse, its anxieties about new online practices, and what happens when officially sanctioned material is parodied, remixed, or recontextualized by users. Losh reports on a video game that panicked the House Intelligence Committee, pedagogic and therapeutic digital products aimed at American soldiers, government Web sites in the weeks and months following 9/11, PowerPoint presentations by government officials and gadflies, e-mail as a channel for whistleblowing, digital satire of surveillance practices, national digital libraries, and computer-based training for health professionals. Losh concludes that the government's "virtualpolitik"--its digital realpolitik aimed at preserving its own power--is focused on regulation, casting as criminal such common online activities as file sharing, video-game play, and social networking. This policy approach, she warns, indefinitely postpones building effective institutions for electronic governance, ignores constituents' need to shape electronic identities to suit their personal politics, and misses an opportunity to learn how citizens can have meaningful interaction with the virtual manifestations of the state.
Author: Thomas Rid
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Release Date: 2016-06-28
Genre: Technology & Engineering
"Dazzling.” —Financial Times As lives offline and online merge even more, it is easy to forget how we got here. Rise of the Machines reclaims the spectacular story of cybernetics, one of the twentieth century’s pivotal ideas. Springing from the mind of mathematician Norbert Wiener amid the devastation of World War II, the cybernetic vision underpinned a host of seductive myths about the future of machines. Cybernetics triggered blissful cults and military gizmos, the Whole Earth Catalog and the air force’s foray into virtual space, as well as crypto-anarchists fighting for internet freedom. In Rise of the Machines, Thomas Rid draws on unpublished sources—including interviews with hippies, anarchists, sleuths, and spies—to offer an unparalleled perspective into our anxious embrace of technology.
Advances in hardware, software, and audiovisual rendering technologies of recent years have unleashed a wealth of new capabilities and possibilities for multimedia applications, creating a need for a comprehensive, up-to-date reference. The Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking provides hundreds of contributions from over 200 distinguished international experts, covering the most important issues, concepts, trends, and technologies in multimedia technology. This must-have reference contains over 1,300 terms, definitions, and concepts, providing the deepest level of understanding of the field of multimedia technology and networking for academicians, researchers, and professionals worldwide.
Author: G. Duncan Mitchell
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Release Date: 1979
Genre: Social Science
Designed especially to meet the needs of beginners in all the social sciences, A New Dictionary of the Social Sciences follows its highly successful distinguished predecessor, A Dictionary of Sociology, first published in 1968. Many of the entries have been revised and updated to keep abreast of the recent proliferation in the vocabulary of the social sciences. The entries include social psychological terms, terms in social and cultural anthropology, terms common to political science, social administration and social work. In the choice of words a generous definition of social science was employed, making the dictionary a very useful reference source for all beginners in the social sciences. Some terms are explained quite briefly while others are given lengthy treatment, according to the further assumptions that some sociological terms can imply. Thus long entries are given on words such as authority, consensus, phenomenology, role, social stratification, structuralism, whereas short and succinct entries suffice for words such as agnate, eidos, or mores. A number of short biographical sketches are also included. The contributors are all scholars working in universities, predominantly in the United Kingdom and the United States. More than a glossary, A New Dictionary of the Social Sciences helps the student understand some of the theoretical considerations underlying the use of sociological terms, as well as something of their history, and therefore resembles an encyclopedia in its scope and depth of information.
Author: Carl Mitcham
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Until recently, the philosophy and history of science proceeded in a separate way from the philosophy and history of technology, and indeed with respect to both science and technology, philosophical and historical inquiries were also following their separate ways. Now we see in the past quarter-century how the philosophy of science has been profoundly in fluenced by historical studies of the sciences, and no longer concerned so single-mindedly with the analysis of theory and explanation, with the re lation between hypotheses and experimental observation. Now also we see the traditional historical studies of technology supplemented by phi losophical questions, and no longer so plainly focussed upon contexts of application, on invention and practical engineering, and on the mutually stimulating relations between technology and society. Further, alas, the neat division of intellectual labor, those clearly drawn distinctions be tween science and technology, between the theoretical and the applied, between discovery and justification, between internalist and externalist approaches . . . all, all have become muddled! Partly, this is due to internal revolutions within the philosophy and his tory of science (the first result being recognition of their mutual rele vance). Partly, however, this state of 'muddle' is due to external factors: science, at the least in the last half-century, has become so intimately connected with technology, and technological developments have cre ated so many new fields of scientific (and philosophical) inquiry that any critical reflection on scientific and technological endeavors must hence forth take their interaction into account.
Author: Arthur Kroker
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Release Date: 2013-12-11
Genre: Social Science
Since its initial publication, Critical Digital Studies has proven an indispensable guide to understanding digitally mediated culture. Bringing together the leading scholars in this growing field, internationally renowned scholars Arthur and Marilouise Kroker present an innovative and interdisciplinary survey of the relationship between humanity and technology. The reader offers a study of our digital future, a means of understanding the world with new analytic tools and means of communication that are defining the twenty-first century. The second edition includes new essays on the impact of social networking technologies and new media. A new section – “New Digital Media” – presents important, new articles on topics including hacktivism in the age of digital power and the relationship between gaming and capitalism. The extraordinary range and depth of the first edition has been maintained in this new edition. Critical Digital Studies will continue to provide the leading edge to readers wanting to understand the complex intersection of digital culture and human knowledge.
Author: Bart Landheer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
The idea of the present study is basically a simple one. It attempts to reconcile the concept of social evolution with that of the structural unity of Man, an idea that is becoming increasingly dominant in the exact as well as in the social sciences. The idea of structure as it emerges from the social field is applied to the human mind as the ultimate cause of society. While pragmatism interpreted the mind as reacting as a whole, the concept of structure places the relation of Man versus his Environment in a different light, and attempts to determine the possible limits of social development. These problems are analyzed in a number of introductory chapters while the basic approach is illustrated by an analysis of some aspects of the growth of Western civilization. Some fictitious "case-studies" have been added in order to leave room for an imaginative interpretation which sometimes can bring out points which are more difficult to explain in "objective" language.
Author: Mark Goble
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2010-11-02
Genre: Performing Arts
Considering texts by Henry James, Gertrude Stein, James Weldon Johnson, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, James Agee, and William Carlos Williams, alongside film, painting, music, and popular culture, Mark Goble explores the development of American modernism as it was shaped by its response to technology and an attempt to change how literature itself could communicate. Goble's original readings reinterpret the aesthetics of modernism in the early twentieth century, when new modes of communication made the experience of technology an occasion for profound experimentation and reflection. He follows the assimilation of such "old" media technologies as the telegraph, telephone, and phonograph and their role in inspiring fantasies of connection, which informed a commitment to the materiality of artistic mediums. Describing how relationships made possible by technology became more powerfully experienced with technology, Goble explores a modernist fetish for media that shows no signs of abating. The "mediated life" puts technology into communication with a series of shifts in how Americans conceive the mechanics and meanings of their connections to one another, and therefore to the world and to their own modernity.
Author: Noah Wardrip-Fruin
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Social Science
A sourcebook of historical written texts, video documentation, and working programs that form the foundation of new media. This reader collects the texts, videos, and computer programs--many of them now almost impossible to find--that chronicle the history and form the foundation of the still-emerging field of new media. General introductions by Janet Murray and Lev Manovich, along with short introductions to each of the texts, place the works in their historical context and explain their significance. The texts were originally published between World War II--when digital computing, cybernetic feedback, and early notions of hypertext and the Internet first appeared--and the emergence of the World Wide Web--when they entered the mainstream of public life. The texts are by computer scientists, artists, architects, literary writers, interface designers, cultural critics, and individuals working across disciplines. The contributors include (chronologically) Jorge Luis Borges, Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing, Ivan Sutherland, William S. Burroughs, Ted Nelson, Italo Calvino, Marshall McLuhan, Jean Baudrillard, Nicholas Negroponte, Alan Kay, Bill Viola, Sherry Turkle, Richard Stallman, Brenda Laurel, Langdon Winner, Robert Coover, and Tim Berners-Lee. The CD accompanying the book contains examples of early games, digital art, independent literary efforts, software created at universities, and home-computer commercial software. Also on the CD is digitized video, documenting new media programs and artwork for which no operational version exists. One example is a video record of Douglas Engelbart's first presentation of the mouse, word processor, hyperlink, computer-supported cooperative work, video conferencing, and the dividing up of the screen we now call non-overlapping windows; another is documentation of Lynn Hershman's Lorna, the first interactive video art installation.