Release Date: 2007-01-01
Based on a new critical edition of Aristotle's "De Memoria" and two interpretive essays, this book challenges current views on Aristotle's theories of memory and recollection, and argues that these are based on misinterpretations of the text and Aristotle's philosophical goals.
On Memory and Reminiscence is a work by Aristotle.Aristotle 384-322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). His writings cover many subjects - including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government - and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great starting from 343 BC. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "Aristotle was the first genuine scientist in history ... [and] every scientist is in his debt."Teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books. The fact that Aristotle was a pupil of Plato contributed to his former views of Platonism, but, following Plato's death, Aristotle immersed himself in empirical studies and shifted from Platonism to empiricism. He believed all peoples' concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotle's views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works.Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended into the Renaissance and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were not confirmed or refuted until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic.In metaphysics, Aristotelianism profoundly influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophical and theological thought during the Middle Ages and continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as "The First Teacher".His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues - Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold" - it is thought that only around a third of his original output has survived.
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Release Date: 2004-01-01
Diese Schrift des Aristoteles wird häufig und zu recht als Fundgrube für zentrale Aspekte seiner Seelenlehre gesehen - Fragen des Leib-Seele-Verhältnisses, der Abstraktion, des sog. Gemeinsinns, der Intentionalität etc. Das Werk verdient es jedoch, auch für sich gelesen zu werden. De memoria et reminis-centia ist zunächst eine kurze Untersuchung, die sich an De anima anschließt. Als Untersuchung besitzt die Schrift eine gewisse Struktur, und verfolgt bestimmte Ziele, nämlich die Definition seiner Gegenstände. Gedächtnis und Erinnerung, die zu Gedächtnis führen kann, sind nach Aristoteles keine eigenen Vermögen. Sie werden durch Weiterentwicklung von in De anima bereits dargestellten Vermögen erklärt. Als Beitrag zur Aristotelischen Psychologie ist De memoria et reminiscentia Physik - nicht Erkenntnistheorie, sofern diese über die Erklärung von Erkenntnis hinausgeht. Hierin unterscheidet sich die Untersuchung grundlegend von den klassischen philosophischen Auseinandersetzungen mit Gedächtnisphänomenen von der Neuzeit bis heute. In gewisser Weise könnte sie daher eher als Beitrag zu empirischer Gedächtnisforschung zu verstehen sein. Aber diese Erwartung wird enttäuscht, nicht nur weil Aristoteles keine Experimente durchführt, sondern weil seine Erörterung doch viel mit der Erklärung von Wahrnehmung und Wissenschaft gemeinsam hat. Wie es hier anvisiert ist, umfaßt Gedächtnis nicht sämtliche Speicherphänomene (in etwa das Aufbewahren von Erkanntem), die Aristoteles' Psychologie zuläßt. Vielmehr baut seine Theorie auf einem dieser Vermögen auf, nämlich der Vorstellung. In erster Linie geht er vom persönlichen Gedächtnis aus, also Erinnerung an erkannte Episoden im eigenen Leben, um dann doch Erinnerung an allgemeine Inhalte in diesem Rahmen erklären zu können.
Author: Saint Thomas Aquinas
Publisher: Aeterna Press
As the Philosopher says in the seventh book On the Histories of Animals nature proceeds little by little from the inanimate to the animate, so that the genus of inanimate things is found prior to the genus of plants. When the genus of plants is compared to other bodies, it seems to be animate, but compared to the genus of animals, inanimate. (Nature) similarly proceeds from plants to animals in a certain continuous order; for certain immobile animals, which cling to the earth, appear to differ little from plants. Likewise in the progression from animals to man, there are found certain animals in which some likeness of reason appears. Although prudence is a virtue proper to man (for prudence is right reason concerned with things to be done, as is said in the seventh book of the Ethics), yet some animals are found to participate in a kind of prudence.
Apart from using our eyes to see and our ears to hear, we regularly and effortlessly perform a number of complex perceptual operations that cannot be explained in terms of the five senses taken individually. Such operations include, for example, perceiving that the same object is white and sweet, noticing the difference between white and sweet, or knowing that one's senses are active. Observing that lower animals must be able to perform such operations, and being unprepared to ascribe any share in rationality to them, Aristotle explained such operations with reference to a higher-order perceptual capacity which unites and monitors the five senses. This capacity is known as the 'common sense' or sensus communis. Unfortunately, Aristotle provides only scattered and opaque references to this capacity. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that the exact nature and functions of this capacity have been a matter of perennial controversy. Pavel Gregoric offers an extensive and compelling treatment of the Aristotelian conception of the common sense, which has become part and parcel of Western psychological theories from antiquity through to the Middle Ages, and well into the early modern period. Aristotle on the Common Sense begins with an introduction to Aristotle's theory of perception and sets up a conceptual framework for the interpretation of textual evidence. In addition to analysing those passages which make explicit mention of the common sense, and drawing out the implications for Aristotle's terminology, Gregoric provides a detailed examination of each function of this Aristotelian faculty.