Decision Making in Health and Medicine

Author: M. G. Myriam Hunink
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781316062319
Release Date: 2014-10-16
Genre: Medical

Decision making in health care involves consideration of a complex set of diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic uncertainties. Medical therapies have side effects, surgical interventions may lead to complications, and diagnostic tests can produce misleading results. Furthermore, patient values and service costs must be considered. Decisions in clinical and health policy require careful weighing of risks and benefits and are commonly a trade-off of competing objectives: maximizing quality of life vs maximizing life expectancy vs minimizing the resources required. This text takes a proactive, systematic and rational approach to medical decision making. It covers decision trees, Bayesian revision, receiver operating characteristic curves, and cost-effectiveness analysis, as well as advanced topics such as Markov models, microsimulation, probabilistic sensitivity analysis and value of information analysis. It provides an essential resource for trainees and researchers involved in medical decision modelling, evidence-based medicine, clinical epidemiology, comparative effectiveness, public health, health economics, and health technology assessment.

Cost Effectiveness in Health and Medicine

Author: Marthe R. Gold
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199880423
Release Date: 1996-07-18
Genre: Medical

A unique, in-depth discussion of the uses and conduct of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) as decision-making aids in the health and medical fields, this volume is the product of over two years of comprehensive research and deliberation by a multi-disciplinary panel of economists, ethicists, psychometricians, and clinicians. Exploring cost-effectiveness in the context of societal decision-making for resource allocation purposes, this volume proposes that analysts include a "reference-case" analysis in all CEAs designed to inform resource allocation and puts forth the most explicit set of guidelines (together with their rationale) ever defined on the conduct of CEAs. Important theoretical and practical issues encountered in measuring costs and effectiveness, evaluating outcomes, discounting, and dealing with uncertainty are examined in separate chapters. Additional chapters on framing and reporting of CEAs elucidate the purpose of the analysis and the effective communication of its findings. Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine differs from the available literature in several key aspects. Most importantly, it represents a consensus on standard methods--a feature integral to a CEA, whose principal goal is to permit comparisons of the costs and health outcomes of alternative ways of improving health. The detailed level at which the discussion is offered is another major distinction of this book, since guidelines in journal literature and in CEA-related books tend to be rather general--to the extent that the analyst is left with little guidance on specific matters. The focused overview of the theoretical background underlying areas of controversy and of methodological alternatives, and, finally, the accessible writing style make this volume a top choice on the reading lists of analysts in medicine and public health who wish to improve practice and comparability of CEAs. The book will also appeal to decision-makers in government, managed care, and industry who wish to consider the uses and limitations of CEAs.

Rational Diagnosis and Treatment

Author: Peter Gøtzsche
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470723688
Release Date: 2008-03-11
Genre: Medical

Now in its fourth edition, Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making is a unique book to look at evidence-based medicine and the difficulty of applying evidence from group studies to individual patients. The book analyses the successive stages of the decision process and deals with topics such as the examination of the patient, the reliability of clinical data, the logic of diagnosis, the fallacies of uncontrolled therapeutic experience and the need for randomised clinical trials and meta-analyses. It is the main theme of the book that, whenever possible, clinical decisions must be based on the evidence from clinical research, but the authors also explain the pitfalls of such research and the problems involved in applying evidence from groups of patients to the individual patient. For this new edition, the sections on placebo and meta-analysis and on alternative medicine have been thoroughly updated, and there is more focus on insufficient reporting of harms of interventions. The sections on different research designs describe advantages and limitations, and the increased medicalisation and the effects of cancer screening on health people are noted. A section on academic freedom when clinicians collaborate with industry and ghost authors is added. This essential reference work integrates the science and statistical approach of evidence-based medicine with the art and humanism of medical practice; distinguishing between data, sets of data, knowledge and wisdom, and their application. Such an intellectually challenging book is ideal for both medical students and doctors who require theoretical and practical clinical skills to help ensure that they apply theory in practice.

Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making

Author: Derek J. Koehler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470752913
Release Date: 2008-04-15
Genre: Psychology

The Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making is a state-of-the art overview of current topics and research in the study of how people make evaluations, draw inferences, and make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and conflict. Contains contributions by experts from various disciplines that reflect current trends and controversies on judgment and decision making. Provides a glimpse at the many approaches that have been taken in the study of judgment and decision making and portrays the major findings in the field. Presents examinations of the broader roles of social, emotional, and cultural influences on decision making. Explores applications of judgment and decision making research to important problems in a variety of professional contexts, including finance, accounting, medicine, public policy, and the law.

The Learning Healthcare System

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309133939
Release Date: 2007-06-01
Genre: Medical

As our nation enters a new era of medical science that offers the real prospect of personalized health care, we will be confronted by an increasingly complex array of health care options and decisions. The Learning Healthcare System considers how health care is structured to develop and to apply evidence--from health profession training and infrastructure development to advances in research methodology, patient engagement, payment schemes, and measurement--and highlights opportunities for the creation of a sustainable learning health care system that gets the right care to people when they need it and then captures the results for improvement. This book will be of primary interest to hospital and insurance industry administrators, health care providers, those who train and educate health workers, researchers, and policymakers. The Learning Healthcare System is the first in a series that will focus on issues important to improving the development and application of evidence in health care decision making. The Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine serves as a neutral venue for cooperative work among key stakeholders on several dimensions: to help transform the availability and use of the best evidence for the collaborative health care choices of each patient and provider; to drive the process of discovery as a natural outgrowth of patient care; and, ultimately, to ensure innovation, quality, safety, and value in health care.

Textbook of Family Medicine E Book

Author: Robert E. Rakel
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 9781437721904
Release Date: 2007-05
Genre: Family medicine

This text has been admired for as long as Family Medicine has been a recognized specialty. Edited by the legendary Robert E. Rakel, MD, this superb 7th edition continues to break new ground. Includes materials to help hone your clinical skills and prepare for the ABFP boards and SPEX exams. Highlights especially important points of diagnosis and therapy in the "case" section of book. Provides "Best Evidence Recommendations" boxes to promote greater reliability of information. Offers a free CD-rom containing video clips of diabetes testing, stress test and all the illustrations from the book! Contains new chapters on complementary and alternative medicine. Takes a fresh new approach to evidence based medicine in clinical practice. Uses a visually appealing, functional 4-color design and a full-color insert.

Ensuring Value for Money in Health Care

Author: Corinna Sorenson
Publisher: WHO Regional Office Europe
ISBN: 9789289071833
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Business & Economics

This report addresses the concepts and controversy surrounding health technology assessment in Europe, with a particular focus on selected Member States including Sweden, the Netherlands, Finland, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. It is intended to identify and address current considerations regarding HTA methodological and process issues related to the prioritization and financing of modern health care. In particular, it describes the processes and challenges for identifying and prioritizing assessments; assesses and compares current assessment methods and procedures; and highlights the barriers to effective implementation. The report also ascertains the roles and terms of engagement of key stakeholders, and captures the opportunities and challenges for the use of HTA guidance in general priority-setting, decision-making and health-care provision.

Evidence Synthesis for Decision Making in Healthcare

Author: Nicky J. Welton
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118305409
Release Date: 2012-04-12
Genre: Mathematics

In the evaluation of healthcare, rigorous methods of quantitative assessment are necessary to establish interventions that are both effective and cost-effective. Usually a single study will not fully address these issues and it is desirable to synthesize evidence from multiple sources. This book aims to provide a practical guide to evidence synthesis for the purpose of decision making, starting with a simple single parameter model, where all studies estimate the same quantity (pairwise meta-analysis) and progressing to more complex multi-parameter structures (including meta-regression, mixed treatment comparisons, Markov models of disease progression, and epidemiology models). A comprehensive, coherent framework is adopted and estimated using Bayesian methods. Key features: A coherent approach to evidence synthesis from multiple sources. Focus is given to Bayesian methods for evidence synthesis that can be integrated within cost-effectiveness analyses in a probabilistic framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. Provides methods to statistically combine evidence from a range of evidence structures. Emphasizes the importance of model critique and checking for evidence consistency. Presents numerous worked examples, exercises and solutions drawn from a variety of medical disciplines throughout the book. WinBUGS code is provided for all examples. Evidence Synthesis for Decision Making in Healthcare is intended for health economists, decision modelers, statisticians and others involved in evidence synthesis, health technology assessment, and economic evaluation of health technologies.

PG Textbook of Pediatrics

Author: Piyush Gupta
Publisher: JP Medical Ltd
ISBN: 9789351527251
Release Date: 2015-08-31
Genre: Medical

Postgraduate Textbook of Pediatrics is a comprehensive guide to paediatrics. The textbook is comprised of three volumes, split into ten parts with over 600 chapters, and contributions from over 50 section editors and 725 authors, covering all paediatric disorders, descriptions of diseases and their management. Includes nearly 1500 images and illustrations in full colour, incorporating information on modern imaging techniques for neurological disorders in children. This is an ideal resource for postgraduate students to gain a firm grounding in, and retain and improve their knowledge of all areas of paediatric medicine.

Cost Effectiveness Modelling for Health Technology Assessment

Author: Richard Edlin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319157443
Release Date: 2015-08-11
Genre: Medical

This book provides an introduction to decision analytic cost-effectiveness modelling, giving the theoretical and practical knowledge required to design and implement analyses that meet the methodological standards of health technology assessment organisations. The book guides you through building a decision tree and Markov model and, importantly, shows how the results of cost-effectiveness analyses are interpreted. Given the complex nature of cost-effectiveness modelling and the often unfamiliar language that runs alongside it, we wanted to make this book as accessible as possible whilst still providing a comprehensive, in-depth, practical guide that reflects the state of the art – that includes the most recent developments in cost-effectiveness modelling. Although the nature of cost effectiveness modelling means that some parts are inevitably quite technical, across the 13 chapters we have broken down explanations of theory and methods into bite-sized pieces that you can work through at your own pace; we have provided explanations of terms and methods as we use them. Importantly, the exercises and online workbooks allow you to test your skills and understanding as you go along.

Cost Effectiveness Analysis in Health

Author: Peter Muennig
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119011286
Release Date: 2016-02-03
Genre: Medical

The field's bestselling reference, updated with the latest tools, data, techniques, and the latest recommendations from the Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health is a practical introduction to the tools, methods, and procedures used worldwide to perform cost-effective research. Covering every aspect of a complete cost-effectiveness analysis, this book shows you how to find which data you need, where to find it, how to analyze it, and how to prepare a high-quality report for publication. Designed for the classroom or the individual learner, the material is presented in simple and accessible language for those who lack a biostatistics or epidemiology background, and each chapter includes real-world examples and "tips and tricks" that highlight key information. Exercises throughout allow you to test your understanding with practical application, and the companion website features downloadable data sets for students, as well as lecture slides and a test bank for instructors. This new third edition contains new discussion on meta-analysis and advanced modeling techniques, a long worked example using visual modeling software TreeAge Pro, and updated recommendations from the U.S. Public Health Service's Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. This is the second printing of the 3rd Edition, which has been corrected and revised for 2018 to reflect the latest standards and methods. Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to evaluate medical interventions worldwide, in both developed and developing countries. This book provides process-specific instruction in a concise, structured format to give you a robust working knowledge of common methods and techniques. Develop a thoroughly fleshed-out research project Work accurately with costs, probabilities, and models Calculate life expectancy and quality-adjusted life years Prepare your study and your data for publication Comprehensive analysis skills are essential for students seeking careers in public health, medicine, biomedical research, health economics, health policy, and more. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health walks you through the process from a real-world perspective to help you build a skillset that's immediately applicable in the field.

Clinical Nuclear Cardiology State of the Art and Future Directions E Book

Author: Barry L. Zaret
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 9780323085724
Release Date: 2010-05-24
Genre: Medical

Clinical Nuclear Cardiology—now in its fourth edition—covers the tremendous clinical growth in this field, focusing on new instrumentation and techniques. Drs. Barry L. Zaret and George A Beller address the latest developments in technology, radiopharmaceuticals, molecular imaging, and perfusion imaging. Thoroughly revised to include 20 new chapters—Digital/Fast SPECT, Imaging in Revascularized Patients, and more—this new edition provides state-of-the-art guidance on key areas and hot topics with stunning visuals. Online access to the fully searchable text at expertconsult.com includes highly illustrated case studies that let you see the problem using a variety of imaging modalities. In other words, this is an invaluable resource no clinician or researcher in nuclear cardiology should be without. Features an editorial and contributing team of worldwide leaders in nuclear cardiology to provide you with current and authoritative guidance. Includes a section focusing on acute coronary syndromes to provide you with practical management tools for these conditions. Presents a full-color design that allows color images to be integrated throughout the text. Includes access to the fully searchable contents of the book online at expertconsult.com, along with highly illustrated case studies that let you see the problem using a variety of imaging modalities. Features 20 new chapters including Cellular Mechanisms of Tracer Uptake and Clearance; Attenuation/Scatter Corrections: Clinical Aspects; Hybrid Imaging; Digital/Fast SPECT; Imaging in Revascularized Patients; and more. Focuses on perfusion imaging in a section dedicated to this hot topic so you get all the information you need to stay current.

Applied Methods of Cost effectiveness Analysis in Healthcare

Author: Alastair M. Gray
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199227280
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Business & Economics

This book provides the reader with a comprehensive set of instructions and examples of how to perform an economic evaluation of a health intervention, focusing solely on cost-effectiveness analysis in healthcare.