Author: Ian Goodfellow
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2016-11-10
"Written by three experts in the field, Deep Learning is the only comprehensive book on the subject." -- Elon Musk, cochair of OpenAI; cofounder and CEO of Tesla and SpaceX Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.
This graduate-level textbook introduces fundamental concepts and methods in machine learning. It describes several important modern algorithms, provides the theoretical underpinnings of these algorithms, and illustrates key aspects for their application. The authors aim to present novel theoretical tools and concepts while giving concise proofs even for relatively advanced topics. Foundations of Machine Learning fills the need for a general textbook that also offers theoretical details and an emphasis on proofs. Certain topics that are often treated with insufficient attention are discussed in more detail here; for example, entire chapters are devoted to regression, multi-class classification, and ranking. The first three chapters lay the theoretical foundation for what follows, but each remaining chapter is mostly self-contained. The appendix offers a concise probability review, a short introduction to convex optimization, tools for concentration bounds, and several basic properties of matrices and norms used in the book.The book is intended for graduate students and researchers in machine learning, statistics, and related areas; it can be used either as a textbook or as a reference text for a research seminar.
The goal of machine learning is to program computers to use example data or past experience to solve a given problem. Many successful applications of machine learning exist already, including systems that analyze past sales data to predict customer behavior, optimize robot behavior so that a task can be completed using minimum resources, and extract knowledge from bioinformatics data. Introduction to Machine Learning is a comprehensive textbook on the subject, covering a broad array of topics not usually included in introductory machine learning texts. Subjects include supervised learning; Bayesian decision theory; parametric, semi-parametric, and nonparametric methods; multivariate analysis; hidden Markov models; reinforcement learning; kernel machines; graphical models; Bayesian estimation; and statistical testing.Machine learning is rapidly becoming a skill that computer science students must master before graduation. The third edition of Introduction to Machine Learning reflects this shift, with added support for beginners, including selected solutions for exercises and additional example data sets (with code available online). Other substantial changes include discussions of outlier detection; ranking algorithms for perceptrons and support vector machines; matrix decomposition and spectral methods; distance estimation; new kernel algorithms; deep learning in multilayered perceptrons; and the nonparametric approach to Bayesian methods. All learning algorithms are explained so that students can easily move from the equations in the book to a computer program. The book can be used by both advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It will also be of interest to professionals who are concerned with the application of machine learning methods.
Author: Richard S. Sutton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Reinforcement learning is the learning of a mapping from situations to actions so as to maximize a scalar reward or reinforcement signal. The learner is not told which action to take, as in most forms of machine learning, but instead must discover which actions yield the highest reward by trying them. In the most interesting and challenging cases, actions may affect not only the immediate reward, but also the next situation, and through that all subsequent rewards. These two characteristics -- trial-and-error search and delayed reward -- are the most important distinguishing features of reinforcement learning. Reinforcement learning is both a new and a very old topic in AI. The term appears to have been coined by Minsk (1961), and independently in control theory by Walz and Fu (1965). The earliest machine learning research now viewed as directly relevant was Samuel's (1959) checker player, which used temporal-difference learning to manage delayed reward much as it is used today. Of course learning and reinforcement have been studied in psychology for almost a century, and that work has had a very strong impact on the AI/engineering work. One could in fact consider all of reinforcement learning to be simply the reverse engineering of certain psychological learning processes (e.g. operant conditioning and secondary reinforcement). Reinforcement Learning is an edited volume of original research, comprising seven invited contributions by leading researchers.
Although interest in machine learning has reached a high point, lofty expectations often scuttle projects before they get very far. How can machine learning—especially deep neural networks—make a real difference in your organization? This hands-on guide not only provides the most practical information available on the subject, but also helps you get started building efficient deep learning networks. Authors Adam Gibson and Josh Patterson provide theory on deep learning before introducing their open-source Deeplearning4j (DL4J) library for developing production-class workflows. Through real-world examples, you’ll learn methods and strategies for training deep network architectures and running deep learning workflows on Spark and Hadoop with DL4J. Dive into machine learning concepts in general, as well as deep learning in particular Understand how deep networks evolved from neural network fundamentals Explore the major deep network architectures, including Convolutional and Recurrent Learn how to map specific deep networks to the right problem Walk through the fundamentals of tuning general neural networks and specific deep network architectures Use vectorization techniques for different data types with DataVec, DL4J’s workflow tool Learn how to use DL4J natively on Spark and Hadoop
Get to grips with the essentials of deep learning by leveraging the power of Python Key Features Your one-stop solution to get started with the essentials of deep learning and neural network modeling Train different kinds of neural networks to tackle various problems in Natural Language Processing, computer vision, speech recognition, and more Covers popular Python libraries such as Tensorflow, Keras, and more, along with tips on training, deploying and optimizing your deep learning models in the best possible manner Book Description Deep Learning a trending topic in the field of Artificial Intelligence today and can be considered to be an advanced form of machine learning, which is quite tricky to master. This book will help you take your first steps in training efficient deep learning models and applying them in various practical scenarios. You will model, train, and deploy different kinds of neural networks such as Convolutional Neural Network, Recurrent Neural Network, and will see some of their applications in real-world domains including computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition, and so on. You will build practical projects such as chatbots, implement reinforcement learning to build smart games, and develop expert systems for image captioning and processing. Popular Python library such as TensorFlow is used in this book to build the models. This book also covers solutions for different problems you might come across while training models, such as noisy datasets, small datasets, and more. This book does not assume any prior knowledge of deep learning. By the end of this book, you will have a firm understanding of the basics of deep learning and neural network modeling, along with their practical applications. What you will learn Get to grips with the core concepts of deep learning and neural networks Set up deep learning library such as TensorFlow Fine-tune your deep learning models for NLP and Computer Vision applications Unify different information sources, such as images, text, and speech through deep learning Optimize and fine-tune your deep learning models for better performance Train a deep reinforcement learning model that plays a game better than humans Learn how to make your models get the best out of your GPU or CPU Who this book is for Aspiring data scientists and machine learning experts who have limited or no exposure to deep learning will find this book to be very useful. If you are looking for a resource that gets you up and running with the fundamentals of deep learning and neural networks, this book is for you. As the models in the book are trained using the popular Python-based libraries such as Tensorflow and Keras, it would be useful to have sound programming knowledge of Python.
Author: Albert Bifet
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2018-03-09
A hands-on approach to tasks and techniques in data stream mining and real-time analytics, with examples in MOA, a popular freely available open-source software framework. Today many information sources—including sensor networks, financial markets, social networks, and healthcare monitoring—are so-called data streams, arriving sequentially and at high speed. Analysis must take place in real time, with partial data and without the capacity to store the entire data set. This book presents algorithms and techniques used in data stream mining and real-time analytics. Taking a hands-on approach, the book demonstrates the techniques using MOA (Massive Online Analysis), a popular, freely available open-source software framework, allowing readers to try out the techniques after reading the explanations. The book first offers a brief introduction to the topic, covering big data mining, basic methodologies for mining data streams, and a simple example of MOA. More detailed discussions follow, with chapters on sketching techniques, change, classification, ensemble methods, regression, clustering, and frequent pattern mining. Most of these chapters include exercises, an MOA-based lab session, or both. Finally, the book discusses the MOA software, covering the MOA graphical user interface, the command line, use of its API, and the development of new methods within MOA. The book will be an essential reference for readers who want to use data stream mining as a tool, researchers in innovation or data stream mining, and programmers who want to create new algorithms for MOA.
Most tasks require a person or an automated system to reason -- to reach conclusions based on available information. The framework of probabilistic graphical models, presented in this book, provides a general approach for this task. The approach is model-based, allowing interpretable models to be constructed and then manipulated by reasoning algorithms. These models can also be learned automatically from data, allowing the approach to be used in cases where manually constructing a model is difficult or even impossible. Because uncertainty is an inescapable aspect of most real-world applications, the book focuses on probabilistic models, which make the uncertainty explicit and provide models that are more faithful to reality. Probabilistic Graphical Models discusses a variety of models, spanning Bayesian networks, undirected Markov networks, discrete and continuous models, and extensions to deal with dynamical systems and relational data. For each class of models, the text describes the three fundamental cornerstones: representation, inference, and learning, presenting both basic concepts and advanced techniques. Finally, the book considers the use of the proposed framework for causal reasoning and decision making under uncertainty. The main text in each chapter provides the detailed technical development of the key ideas. Most chapters also include boxes with additional material: skill boxes, which describe techniques; case study boxes, which discuss empirical cases related to the approach described in the text, including applications in computer vision, robotics, natural language understanding, and computational biology; and concept boxes, which present significant concepts drawn from the material in the chapter. Instructors (and readers) can group chapters in various combinations, from core topics to more technically advanced material, to suit their particular needs.
With the reinvigoration of neural networks in the 2000s, deep learning has become an extremely active area of research, one that’s paving the way for modern machine learning. In this practical book, author Nikhil Buduma provides examples and clear explanations to guide you through major concepts of this complicated field. Companies such as Google, Microsoft, and Facebook are actively growing in-house deep-learning teams. For the rest of us, however, deep learning is still a pretty complex and difficult subject to grasp. If you’re familiar with Python, and have a background in calculus, along with a basic understanding of machine learning, this book will get you started. Examine the foundations of machine learning and neural networks Learn how to train feed-forward neural networks Use TensorFlow to implement your first neural network Manage problems that arise as you begin to make networks deeper Build neural networks that analyze complex images Perform effective dimensionality reduction using autoencoders Dive deep into sequence analysis to examine language Learn the fundamentals of reinforcement learning
This textbook presents a concise, accessible and engaging first introduction to deep learning, offering a wide range of connectionist models which represent the current state-of-the-art. The text explores the most popular algorithms and architectures in a simple and intuitive style, explaining the mathematical derivations in a step-by-step manner. The content coverage includes convolutional networks, LSTMs, Word2vec, RBMs, DBNs, neural Turing machines, memory networks and autoencoders. Numerous examples in working Python code are provided throughout the book, and the code is also supplied separately at an accompanying website. Topics and features: introduces the fundamentals of machine learning, and the mathematical and computational prerequisites for deep learning; discusses feed-forward neural networks, and explores the modifications to these which can be applied to any neural network; examines convolutional neural networks, and the recurrent connections to a feed-forward neural network; describes the notion of distributed representations, the concept of the autoencoder, and the ideas behind language processing with deep learning; presents a brief history of artificial intelligence and neural networks, and reviews interesting open research problems in deep learning and connectionism. This clearly written and lively primer on deep learning is essential reading for graduate and advanced undergraduate students of computer science, cognitive science and mathematics, as well as fields such as linguistics, logic, philosophy, and psychology.
Handbook of Neural Computation explores neural computation applications, ranging from conventional fields of mechanical and civil engineering, to electronics, electrical engineering and computer science. This book covers the numerous applications of artificial and deep neural networks and their uses in learning machines, including image and speech recognition, natural language processing and risk analysis. Edited by renowned authorities in this field, this work is comprised of articles from reputable industry and academic scholars and experts from around the world. Each contributor presents a specific research issue with its recent and future trends. As the demand rises in the engineering and medical industries for neural networks and other machine learning methods to solve different types of operations, such as data prediction, classification of images, analysis of big data, and intelligent decision-making, this book provides readers with the latest, cutting-edge research in one comprehensive text. Features high-quality research articles on multivariate adaptive regression splines, the minimax probability machine, and more Discusses machine learning techniques, including classification, clustering, regression, web mining, information retrieval and natural language processing Covers supervised, unsupervised, reinforced, ensemble, and nature-inspired learning methods