Author: Ian Goodfellow
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2016-11-10
"Written by three experts in the field, Deep Learning is the only comprehensive book on the subject." -- Elon Musk, cochair of OpenAI; cofounder and CEO of Tesla and SpaceX Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.
This graduate-level textbook introduces fundamental concepts and methods in machine learning. It describes several important modern algorithms, provides the theoretical underpinnings of these algorithms, and illustrates key aspects for their application. The authors aim to present novel theoretical tools and concepts while giving concise proofs even for relatively advanced topics. Foundations of Machine Learning fills the need for a general textbook that also offers theoretical details and an emphasis on proofs. Certain topics that are often treated with insufficient attention are discussed in more detail here; for example, entire chapters are devoted to regression, multi-class classification, and ranking. The first three chapters lay the theoretical foundation for what follows, but each remaining chapter is mostly self-contained. The appendix offers a concise probability review, a short introduction to convex optimization, tools for concentration bounds, and several basic properties of matrices and norms used in the book.The book is intended for graduate students and researchers in machine learning, statistics, and related areas; it can be used either as a textbook or as a reference text for a research seminar.
The goal of machine learning is to program computers to use example data or past experience to solve a given problem. Many successful applications of machine learning exist already, including systems that analyze past sales data to predict customer behavior, optimize robot behavior so that a task can be completed using minimum resources, and extract knowledge from bioinformatics data. Introduction to Machine Learning is a comprehensive textbook on the subject, covering a broad array of topics not usually included in introductory machine learning texts. Subjects include supervised learning; Bayesian decision theory; parametric, semi-parametric, and nonparametric methods; multivariate analysis; hidden Markov models; reinforcement learning; kernel machines; graphical models; Bayesian estimation; and statistical testing.Machine learning is rapidly becoming a skill that computer science students must master before graduation. The third edition of Introduction to Machine Learning reflects this shift, with added support for beginners, including selected solutions for exercises and additional example data sets (with code available online). Other substantial changes include discussions of outlier detection; ranking algorithms for perceptrons and support vector machines; matrix decomposition and spectral methods; distance estimation; new kernel algorithms; deep learning in multilayered perceptrons; and the nonparametric approach to Bayesian methods. All learning algorithms are explained so that students can easily move from the equations in the book to a computer program. The book can be used by both advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It will also be of interest to professionals who are concerned with the application of machine learning methods.
Author: Richard S. Sutton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Reinforcement learning is the learning of a mapping from situations to actions so as to maximize a scalar reward or reinforcement signal. The learner is not told which action to take, as in most forms of machine learning, but instead must discover which actions yield the highest reward by trying them. In the most interesting and challenging cases, actions may affect not only the immediate reward, but also the next situation, and through that all subsequent rewards. These two characteristics -- trial-and-error search and delayed reward -- are the most important distinguishing features of reinforcement learning. Reinforcement learning is both a new and a very old topic in AI. The term appears to have been coined by Minsk (1961), and independently in control theory by Walz and Fu (1965). The earliest machine learning research now viewed as directly relevant was Samuel's (1959) checker player, which used temporal-difference learning to manage delayed reward much as it is used today. Of course learning and reinforcement have been studied in psychology for almost a century, and that work has had a very strong impact on the AI/engineering work. One could in fact consider all of reinforcement learning to be simply the reverse engineering of certain psychological learning processes (e.g. operant conditioning and secondary reinforcement). Reinforcement Learning is an edited volume of original research, comprising seven invited contributions by leading researchers.
Although interest in machine learning has reached a high point, lofty expectations often scuttle projects before they get very far. How can machine learning—especially deep neural networks—make a real difference in your organization? This hands-on guide not only provides the most practical information available on the subject, but also helps you get started building efficient deep learning networks. Authors Adam Gibson and Josh Patterson provide theory on deep learning before introducing their open-source Deeplearning4j (DL4J) library for developing production-class workflows. Through real-world examples, you’ll learn methods and strategies for training deep network architectures and running deep learning workflows on Spark and Hadoop with DL4J. Dive into machine learning concepts in general, as well as deep learning in particular Understand how deep networks evolved from neural network fundamentals Explore the major deep network architectures, including Convolutional and Recurrent Learn how to map specific deep networks to the right problem Walk through the fundamentals of tuning general neural networks and specific deep network architectures Use vectorization techniques for different data types with DataVec, DL4J’s workflow tool Learn how to use DL4J natively on Spark and Hadoop
Theoretical results suggest that in order to learn the kind of complicated functions that can represent high-level abstractions (e.g. in vision, language, and other AI-level tasks), one may need deep architectures. Deep architectures are composed of multiple levels of non-linear operations, such as in neural nets with many hidden layers or in complicated propositional formulae re-using many sub-formulae. Searching the parameter space of deep architectures is a difficult task, but learning algorithms such as those for Deep Belief Networks have recently been proposed to tackle this problem with notable success, beating the state-of-the-art in certain areas. This paper discusses the motivations and principles regarding learning algorithms for deep architectures, in particular those exploiting as building blocks unsupervised learning of single-layer models such as Restricted Boltzmann Machines, used to construct deeper models such as Deep Belief Networks.
Most tasks require a person or an automated system to reason -- to reach conclusions based on available information. The framework of probabilistic graphical models, presented in this book, provides a general approach for this task. The approach is model-based, allowing interpretable models to be constructed and then manipulated by reasoning algorithms. These models can also be learned automatically from data, allowing the approach to be used in cases where manually constructing a model is difficult or even impossible. Because uncertainty is an inescapable aspect of most real-world applications, the book focuses on probabilistic models, which make the uncertainty explicit and provide models that are more faithful to reality. Probabilistic Graphical Models discusses a variety of models, spanning Bayesian networks, undirected Markov networks, discrete and continuous models, and extensions to deal with dynamical systems and relational data. For each class of models, the text describes the three fundamental cornerstones: representation, inference, and learning, presenting both basic concepts and advanced techniques. Finally, the book considers the use of the proposed framework for causal reasoning and decision making under uncertainty. The main text in each chapter provides the detailed technical development of the key ideas. Most chapters also include boxes with additional material: skill boxes, which describe techniques; case study boxes, which discuss empirical cases related to the approach described in the text, including applications in computer vision, robotics, natural language understanding, and computational biology; and concept boxes, which present significant concepts drawn from the material in the chapter. Instructors (and readers) can group chapters in various combinations, from core topics to more technically advanced material, to suit their particular needs.
Author: Terrence J. Sejnowski
Publisher: Mit Press
Release Date: 2018
How deep learning -- from Google Translate to driverless cars to personal cognitive assistants -- is changing our lives and transforming every sector of the economy. The deep learning revolution has brought us driverless cars, the greatly improved Google Translate, fluent conversations with Siri and Alexa, and enormus profits from automated trading on the New York Stock Exchange. Deep learning networks can play poker better than professional poker players and defeat a world champion at Go. In this book, Terry Sejnowski explains how deep learning went from being an arcane academic field to a disruptive technology in the information economy. Sejnowski played an important role in the founding of deep learning, as one of a small group of researchers in the 1980s who challenged the prevailing logic-and-symbol based version of AI. The new version of AI Sejnowski and others developed, which became deep learning, is fueled instead by data. Deep networks learn from data in the same way that babies experience the world, starting with fresh eyes and gradually acquiring the skills needed to navigate novel environments. Learning algorithms extract information from raw data; information can be used to create knowledge; knowledge underlies understanding; understanding leads to wisdom. Someday a driverless car will know the road better than you do and drive with more skill; a deep learning network will diagnose your illness; a personal cognitive assistant will augment your puny human brain. It took nature many millions of years to evolve human intelligence; AI is on a trajectory measured in decades. Sejnowski prepares us for a deep learning future.
With the reinvigoration of neural networks in the 2000s, deep learning has become an extremely active area of research, one that’s paving the way for modern machine learning. In this practical book, author Nikhil Buduma provides examples and clear explanations to guide you through major concepts of this complicated field. Companies such as Google, Microsoft, and Facebook are actively growing in-house deep-learning teams. For the rest of us, however, deep learning is still a pretty complex and difficult subject to grasp. If you’re familiar with Python, and have a background in calculus, along with a basic understanding of machine learning, this book will get you started. Examine the foundations of machine learning and neural networks Learn how to train feed-forward neural networks Use TensorFlow to implement your first neural network Manage problems that arise as you begin to make networks deeper Build neural networks that analyze complex images Perform effective dimensionality reduction using autoencoders Dive deep into sequence analysis to examine language Learn the fundamentals of reinforcement learning
Author: Phil Kim
Release Date: 2017-06-15
Get started with MATLAB for deep learning and AI with this in-depth primer. In this book, you start with machine learning fundamentals, then move on to neural networks, deep learning, and then convolutional neural networks. In a blend of fundamentals and applications, MATLAB Deep Learning employs MATLAB as the underlying programming language and tool for the examples and case studies in this book. With this book, you'll be able to tackle some of today's real world big data, smart bots, and other complex data problems. You’ll see how deep learning is a complex and more intelligent aspect of machine learning for modern smart data analysis and usage. What You'll Learn Use MATLAB for deep learning Discover neural networks and multi-layer neural networks Work with convolution and pooling layers Build a MNIST example with these layers Who This Book Is For Those who want to learn deep learning using MATLAB. Some MATLAB experience may be useful.
Author: Lise Getoor
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2007
Advanced statistical modeling and knowledge representation techniques for a newly emerging area of machine learning and probabilistic reasoning; includes introductory material, tutorials for different proposed approaches, and applications.
Get to grips with the basics of Keras to implement fast and efficient deep-learning models About This Book Implement various deep-learning algorithms in Keras and see how deep-learning can be used in games See how various deep-learning models and practical use-cases can be implemented using Keras A practical, hands-on guide with real-world examples to give you a strong foundation in Keras Who This Book Is For If you are a data scientist with experience in machine learning or an AI programmer with some exposure to neural networks, you will find this book a useful entry point to deep-learning with Keras. A knowledge of Python is required for this book. What You Will Learn Optimize step-by-step functions on a large neural network using the Backpropagation Algorithm Fine-tune a neural network to improve the quality of results Use deep learning for image and audio processing Use Recursive Neural Tensor Networks (RNTNs) to outperform standard word embedding in special cases Identify problems for which Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) solutions are suitable Explore the process required to implement Autoencoders Evolve a deep neural network using reinforcement learning In Detail This book starts by introducing you to supervised learning algorithms such as simple linear regression, the classical multilayer perceptron and more sophisticated deep convolutional networks. You will also explore image processing with recognition of hand written digit images, classification of images into different categories, and advanced objects recognition with related image annotations. An example of identification of salient points for face detection is also provided. Next you will be introduced to Recurrent Networks, which are optimized for processing sequence data such as text, audio or time series. Following that, you will learn about unsupervised learning algorithms such as Autoencoders and the very popular Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). You will also explore non-traditional uses of neural networks as Style Transfer. Finally, you will look at Reinforcement Learning and its application to AI game playing, another popular direction of research and application of neural networks. Style and approach This book is an easy-to-follow guide full of examples and real-world applications to help you gain an in-depth understanding of Keras. This book will showcase more than twenty working Deep Neural Networks coded in Python using Keras.