Paradoxes of Peace in Nineteenth Century Europe

Author: Thomas Hippler
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191043871
Release Date: 2015-02-19
Genre: Law

'Peace' is often simplistically assumed to be war's opposite, and as such is not examined closely or critically idealized in the literature of peace studies, its crucial role in the justification of war is often overlooked. Starting from a critical view that the value of 'restoring peace' or 'keeping peace' is, and has been, regularly used as a pretext for military intervention, this book traces the conceptual history of peace in nineteenth century legal and political practice. It explores the role of the value of peace in shaping the public rhetoric and legitimizing action in general international relations, international law, international trade, colonialism, and armed conflict. Departing from the assumption that there is no peace as such, nor can there be, it examines the contradictory visions of peace that arise from conflict. These conflicting and antagonistic visions of peace are each linked to a set of motivations and interests as well as to a certain vision of legitimacy within the international realm. Each of them inevitably conveys the image of a specific enemy that has to be crushed in order to peace being installed. This book highlights the contradictions and paradoxes in nineteenth century discourses and practices of peace, particularly in Europe.

Necessary Luxuries

Author: Matt Erlin
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801470424
Release Date: 2014-05-29
Genre: Literary Criticism

The consumer revolution of the eighteenth century brought new and exotic commodities to Europe from abroad—coffee, tea, spices, and new textiles to name a few. Yet one of the most widely distributed luxury commodities in the period was not new at all, and was produced locally: the book. In Necessary Luxuries, Matt Erlin considers books and the culture around books during this period, focusing specifically on Germany where literature, and the fine arts in general, were the subject of soul-searching debates over the legitimacy of luxury in the modern world. Building on recent work done in the fields of consumption studies as well as the New Economic Criticism, Erlin combines intellectual-historical chapters (on luxury as a concept, luxury editions, and concerns about addictive reading) with contextualized close readings of novels by Campe, Wieland, Moritz, Novalis, and Goethe. As he demonstrates, artists in this period were deeply concerned with their status as luxury producers. The rhetorical strategies they developed to justify their activities evolved in dialogue with more general discussions regarding new forms of discretionary consumption. By emphasizing the fragile legitimacy of the fine arts in the period, Necessary Luxuries offers a fresh perspective on the broader trajectory of German literature in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, recasting the entire period in terms of a dynamic unity, rather than simply as a series of literary trends and countertrends.

Der Dialog Im Spannungsfeld Von Schriftlichkeit und M ndlichkeit

Author: Gabriele Kalmbach
Publisher: Max Niemeyer Verlag
ISBN: STANFORD:36105017608915
Release Date: 1996-01-01
Genre: Analyse du dialogue

Towards the end of the 18th century there was a veritable boom in the production of novels in dialogue form. Whereas, however, the comparable genre of the epistolary novel centres around the letter and thus remains anchored in the medium of writing, dialogue stands at the interface between the written and the oral. The upshot of this is that 'dialogue novels' have not been regarded as a genre in their own right but discussed rather in terms of changing communicative parameters in the context of the evolution of writing, printing, literacy and reading. On the basis of a poetological discussion of the central idea of Vergegenwärtigung ('actualization'), the present study begins by outlining the theory and programmatic conception of dialogue as 'invented orality', proceeding from there to examine its relevance for the educational tenets of the period and then engaging in analyses of dialogue novels by Wezel and popular authors of the late Enlightenment, Klinger, Wieland, de Sade, Diderot, and Rousseau, pointing up in each instance the specific use made of dialogue as a literary technique.