Author: Christopher M. Collins
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release Date: 2016-03-01
In the past few decades, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool in modern medicine, with MRI systems now available at every major hospital in the developed world. But for all its utility and prevalence, it is much less commonly understood and less readily explained than other common medical imaging techniques. Unlike optical, ultrasonic, X-ray (including CT), and nuclear medicine-based imaging, MRI does not rely primarily on simple transmission and/or reflection of energy, and the highest achievable resolution in MRI is orders of magnitude smaller that the smallest wavelength involved. In this book, MRI will be explained with emphasis on the magnetic fields required, their generation, their concomitant electric fields, the various interactions of all these fields with the subject being imaged, and the implications of these interactions to image quality and patient safety. Classical electromagnetics will be used to describe aspects from the fundamental phenomenon of nuclear precession through signal detection and MRI safety. Simple explanations and Illustrations combined with pertinent equations are designed to help the reader rapidly gain a fundamental understanding and an appreciation of this technology as it is used today, as well as ongoing advances that will increase its value in the future. Numerous references are included to facilitate further study with an emphasis on areas most directly related to electromagnetics.
Author: Jianming Jin
Release Date: 2018-02-06
This book presents a comprehensive treatment of electromagnetic analysis and design of three critical devices for an MRI system - the magnet, gradient coils, and radiofrequency (RF) coils. Electromagnetic Analysis and Design in Magnetic Resonance Imaging is unique in its detailed examination of the analysis and design of the hardware for an MRI system. It takes an engineering perspective to serve the many scientists and engineers in this rapidly expanding field. Chapters present: an introduction to MRI basic concepts of electromagnetics, including Helmholtz and Maxwell coils, inductance calculation, and magnetic fields produced by special cylindrical and spherical surface currents principles for the analysis and design of gradient coils, including discrete wires and the target field method analysis of RF coils based on the equivalent lumped-circuit model as well as an analysis based on the integral equation formulation survey of special purpose RF coils analytical and numerical methods for the analysis of electromagnetic fields in biological objects With the continued, active development of MRI instrumentation, Electromagnetic Analysis and Design in Magnetic Resonance Imaging presents an excellent, logically organized text - an indispensable resource for engineers, physicists, and graduate students working in the field of MRI.
This book is intended as a text/reference for students, researchers, and professors interested in physical and biomedical applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Both the theoretical and practical aspects of MRI are emphasized. The book begins with a comprehensive discussion of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) phenomenon based on quantum mechanics and the classical theory of electromagnetism. The first three chapters of this book provide the foundation needed to understand the basic characteristics of MR images, e.g.,image contrast, spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, common image artifacts. Then MRI applications are considered in the following five chapters. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of MRI are emphasized. The book ends with a discussion of instrumentation and the principles of signal detection in MRI. Clear progression from fundamental physical principles of NMR to MRI and its applications Extensive discussion of image acquisition and reconstruction of MRI Discussion of different mechanisms of MR image contrast Mathematical derivation of the signal-to-noise dependence on basic MR imaging parameters as well as field strength In-depth consideration of artifacts in MR images Comprehensive discussion of several techniques used for rapid MR imaging including rapid gradient-echo imaging, echo-planar imaging, fast spin-echo imaging and spiral imaging Qualitative discussion combined with mathematical description of MR techniques for imaging flow
Author: Andrew G Webb
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date: 2016-04-27
Magnetic resonance systems are used in almost every academic and industrial chemistry, physics and biochemistry department, as well as being one of the most important imaging modalities in clinical radiology. The design of such systems has become increasingly sophisticated over the years. Static magnetic fields increase continuously, large-scale arrays of receive elements are now ubiquitous in clinical MRI, cryogenic technology has become commonplace in high resolution NMR and is expanding rapidly in preclinical MRI, specialized high strength magnetic field gradients have been designed for studying the human connectome, and the commercial advent of ultra-high field human imaging has required new types of RF coils and static shim coils together with extensive electromagnetic simulations to ensure patient safety. This book covers the hardware and engineering that constitutes a magnetic resonance system, whether that be a high-resolution liquid or solid state system for NMR spectroscopy, a preclinical system for imaging animals or a clinical system used for human imaging. Written by a team of experts in the field, this book provides a comprehensive and instructional look at all aspects of current magnetic resonance technology, as well as outlooks for future developments.
Author: Richard Ansorge
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release Date: 2016-11-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a very important clinical imaging tool. It combines different fields of physics and engineering in a uniquely complex way. MRI is also surprisingly versatile, 'pulse sequences' can be designed to yield many different types of contrast. This versatility is unique to MRI. This short book gives both an in depth account of the methods used for the operation and construction of modern MRI systems and also the principles of sequence design and many examples of applications. An important additional feature of this book is the detailed discussion of the mathematical principles used in building optimal MRI systems and for sequence design. The mathematical discussion is very suitable for undergraduates attending medical physics courses. It is also more complete than usually found in alternative books for physical scientists or more clinically orientated works.
Author: Dominik Weishaupt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-09
From the reviews: 'The authors describe in English in the plainest fashion, and within hardly more than 100 pages, the theoretical and technical bases of magnetic resonance imaging. ...the book should be warmly recommended to anyone after they have become accustomed to MRI. In such circumstances this is a very comprehensive handbook, particularly useful as a reminder of the concepts of MRI.... a valuable technical handbook...' Surgical and Radiological Anatomy Vol. 26, Issue 3, 2004.
Author: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-12-31
The foundation for understanding the function and dynamics of biological systems is not only knowledge of their structure, but the new methodologies and applications used to determine that structure. This volume in Biological Magnetic Resonance emphasizes the methods that involve Ultra High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It will interest researchers working in the field of imaging.
Author: Jin Keun Seo
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2014-03-07
This is the first book that presents a comprehensive introduction to and overview of electro-magnetic tissue property imaging techniques using MRI, focusing on Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT), Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM). The contrast information from these novel imaging modalities is unique since there is currently no other method to reconstruct high-resolution images of the electro-magnetic tissue properties including electrical conductivity, permittivity, and magnetic susceptibility. These three imaging modalities are based on Maxwell's equations and MRI data acquisition techniques. They are expanding MRI's ability to provide new contrast information on tissue structures and functions. To facilitate further technical progress, the book provides in-depth descriptions of the most updated research outcomes, including underlying physics, mathematical theories and models, measurement techniques, computation issues, and other challenging problems. Contents:IntroductionElectro-magnetism and MRIMagnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance TomographyMR-EPTQuantitative Susceptibility Mapping Readership: Researchers, academics and graduate students in medical imaging, computational mathematics and biomedical imaging. Keywords:Inverse Problem;MREIT;EPT;QSM;Conductivity;Permittivity;Susceptibility
Author: Stewart C Bushong
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date: 2014-07-28
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical and Biological Principles, 4th Edition offers comprehensive, well-illustrated coverage on this specialized subject at a level that does not require an extensive background in math and physics. It covers the fundamentals and principles of conventional MRI along with the latest fast imaging techniques and their applications. Beginning with an overview of the fundamentals of electricity and magnetism (Part 1), Parts 2 and 3 present an in-depth explanation of how MRI works. The latest imaging methods are presented in Parts 4 and 5, and the final section (Part 6) covers personnel and patient safety and administration issues. This book is perfect for student radiographers and practicing technologists preparing to take the MRI advanced certification exam offered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT). ""I would recommend it to anyone starting their MRI training and anyone trying to teach MRI to others."" Reviewed by RAD Magazine, June 2015Challenge questions at the end of each chapter help you assess your comprehension.Chapter outlines and objectives assist you in following the hierarchy of material in the text."Penguin" boxes highlight key points in the book to help you retain the most important information and concepts in the text.NEW! Two MRI practice exams that mirror the test items in each ARRT category have been added to the end of the text to help you replicate the ARRT exam experience.NEW! Chapter on Partially Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging increases the comprehensiveness of the text.NEW! Updated key terms have been added to each chapter with an updated glossary defining each term.
Author: Martin C. Powell
Release Date: 2013-10-22
Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Obstetrics and Gynecology focuses on the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a major imaging modality in the management of malignant diseases in the pelvis. This text is organized into two parts encompassing 11 chapters that provide images obtained by MRI in obstetrics and gynecology. Part one deals with the distinctive features of the normal uterus and vagina and those with carcinoma. It also presents the images of the benign disease and carcinomous ovary. Part 2 considers images of the maternal anatomy, placenta, fetus, and the gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. This book is of great value to obstetricians, gynecologists, and MRI technicians.
In 1971 Dr. Paul C. Lauterbur pioneered spatial information encoding principles that made image formation possible by using magnetic resonance signals. Now Lauterbur, "father of the MRI", and Dr. Zhi-Pei Liang have co-authored the first engineering textbook on magnetic resonance imaging. This long-awaited, definitive text will help undergraduate and graduate students of biomedical engineering, biomedical imaging scientists, radiologists, and electrical engineers gain an in-depth understanding of MRI principles. The authors use a signal processing approach to describe the fundamentals of magnetic resonance imaging. You will find a clear and rigorous discussion of these carefully selected essential topics: Mathematical fundamentals Signal generation and detection principles Signal characteristics Signal localization principles Image reconstruction techniques Image contrast mechanisms Image resolution, noise, and artifacts Fast-scan imaging Constrained reconstruction Complete with a comprehensive set of examples and homework problems, Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the must-read book to improve your knowledge of this revolutionary technique.
Author: Hans-Martin Klein
Release Date: 2015-10-03
This book covers all aspects of low field MRI, describing its advantages, problems and prerequisites. Individual chapters are devoted to site planning, safety considerations, coils, imaging technique, image quality optimization, the imaging of different anatomic regions and likely future developments. The factors that must be borne in mind when selecting a low field system are clearly identified and detailed attention is paid to the applications for which such a system is adequate. The focus on high field systems has led to a situation where only a few systems with field strengths lower than 0.5 T survive. Some of these systems possess high field features such as multichannel coils and strong gradients; furthermore, sequence technology and image processing techniques taken from higher field strength systems have resulted in impressive imaging capabilities. While 1.5-T systems will probably continue to remain the standard, low field systems offer advantages such as the feasibility of dynamic joint examinations, improvement of T1 contrast, reduction of “missile effects” and decreased radiofrequency exposure. Low field strength MRI consequently has the potential to contribute to optimal patient management and given comparable image quality, its application may become an issue of patient safety. This book will be an invaluable asset to all who are involved in planning and/or running a low field strength MRI facility.