Crop evapotranspiration

Author: Rick G. Allen
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org
ISBN: UOM:39015043005738
Release Date: 1998
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Introduction to Evapotranspiration: process; Units; Factors affecting evapotranspiration; Concepts; Determining; Reference evapotranspiration ETo; Meteorological data; Determination of ETo; Introdction to crop evapotranspiration ETc; ETc under varius management practices.

Evaporation evapotranspiration and climatic data

Author: Robert D. Burman
Publisher: Elsevier Publishing Company
ISBN: UCSD:31822016473712
Release Date: 1994
Genre: Science

Definitions of evapotranspiration and transpiration; atmospheric & thermodynamic parameters; soil parameters; estimating reference crop ET; estimatin ET for specific crops; production, vegetation & ET; evaporation from water surfaces; comparisons and example calculations.

IRRIGATION WATER MANAGEMENT

Author: DILIP KUMAR MAJUMDAR
Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN: 9788120348264
Release Date: 2013-09-13
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The book, now in its second edition, fulfills the need for an up-to-date comprehensive text on irrigation water management for students of agriculture both at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The scope of the book makes it a useful reference for courses in agricultural engineering, agronomy, soil science, agricultural physics and environ-mental sciences. It can also serve as a valuable guidebook to persons working with farming communities. The coverage in sixteen chapters brings out different aspects of irrigation including irrigation situation in the world, rainfall, evaporation, water wealth and progressive development of irrigation in India, measurement of soil water and irrigation water, methods of irrigation, irrigation with saline water, formulating cropping pattern in irrigated area and management of high water table. In the second edition, a new chapter on ‘On-farm Irrigation System’ has been included and a few chapters have been updated to include latest development. The book has useful research data and a large number of diagrams for easy comprehension of the topics. The end-of-chapter problems and numerous worked-out examples serve to aid further understanding of the subject. The book also contains an extensive glossary.

Irrigation Fundamentals

Author: George H. Hargreaves
Publisher: Water Resources Publication
ISBN: 1887201106
Release Date: 1998-01-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering

IRRIGATION FUNDAMENTALS is a comprehensive text on the basic principles and practices of applied agricultural irrigation. Written over a period of more than 10 years, it is based on the authors'' extensive experience in farming, consulting, research, teaching, and other related agricultural activities. The book is for use by teachers of introductory courses in irrigation, farmers who have some basic technical knowledge, and for administrators who need a general understanding of irrigation as an aid for policy decisions in water resource development and planning. Various factors that influence crop yield and production including climate, fertility, water, drainage, and agronomic practices are addressed. The various irrigation methods such as border, basin, contour, furrow, sub, sprinkle, and drip or trickle are described; and conditions are given for selection of the appropriate method to use. Recent developments and new technology are included herein when they have obvious practical applications, but for the most part the material presented in this book is based on well established principles and practices. Much of the content is very practical and much is essentially nontechnical. Nevertheless, some of the material covered in this book goes beyond the basic concepts in an attempt to better describe the relationships and techniques employed by irrigation scientists and irrigation engineers.From the Preface: The future of the world depends very much on how we manage natural resources. Since the year 1900 there has been a ninefold increase in global carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels, and the world population has increased about 3.7 times in this century. Vast areas of forests have been destroyed, and irrigated lands now produce 40% of the food supply. Due to depletion of groundwater reserves and an increase in population, irrigated area per capita is declining. Consequently, the irrigation of additional alluvial lands is a strategic necessity for all of humankind. Much of the alluvial lands cannot be made productive without prior development of water resources through flood control, drainage, and irrigation. The production of electricity through hydropower and the production of alcohol fuel from irrigated crops, as has been practiced for many years in Brazil, can slow the increase in carbon emissions. Such diverse developments are typically not separable; rather, they must be considered as integral parts of a comprehensive development plan. The conservation of natural resources and increasing productivity of irrigated lands are also strategic necessities. Much of the current technology is highly transferable and crop yields can be significantly increased on lands already under irrigation.The authors have worked in many countries in connection with resource inventories, teaching, and the planning, development and use of irrigation as a tool for increasing production and providing employment. They have written extensively and have been honored for their achievements. They have considerable experience with everything from primitive low-technology irrigation developments to highly developed irrigation in the USA and in dozens of countries around the world. Both of the authors have dedicated their careers to teaching, research, and consulting in agricultural irrigation and water resources development and planning. It is their hope and expectation that this book will provide incentives for investigating and documenting land and water resources, improving development, increasing crop yields, conserving resources, and improving the environment. From the Table of Contents:Chapt. 1 - INTRODUCTION: Irrigation Fundamentals: - - A Definition of Irrigation - - Statistical Perspectives of Agricultural IrrigationChapt. 2 - FACTORS INFLUENCING CROP PRODUCTION: - - Introduction - - Temperature, Radiation, and Evaporative Potential - - Climate Change - - Soil Fertility and Fertilizers - - Water Availability and Distribution - - Soil Aeration and Drainage - - Plant Density, Spacing and Leaf Area Index - - Crop VarietyChapt. 3 - AGRICULTURAL SOILS: - - Introduction - - Soil Texture and Structure - - Soil Classification and Evaluation - - Bureau of Reclamation Land Classification - - Soil Age and Topography - - Soil Chemistry - - Infiltration Rates - - Soil-Water Relationships - - Equations for Soil Water Content - - Soil Water Potential - - Measuring Soil Water ContentChapt. 4 - EVALUATING IRRIGATION RESOURCES: - - Introduction - - Climate - - Hydrology - - Human and Other Factors - - Integrated DevelopmentChapt. 5 - IRRIGATION METHODS: - - Introduction - - Graded Border Irrigation - - Basin Irrigation - - Contour Levees - - Furrow Irrigation - - Sub-Irrigation - - Sprinkle Irrigation - - Drip or Trickle Irrigation - - Selecting an Irrigation Method - - Land Grading and Leveling - - Laser-Leveling Equipment and Practices - - Computing Diagonal Slopes - - Irrigation System EvaluationChapt. 6 - CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS: - - Introduction - - Direct Methods - - Indirect Methods - - Potential Evaporation - - Reference Evapotranspiration - - Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation - - Irrigation Requirements - - Crop CoefficientsChapt. 7 - IRRIGATION SCHEDULING: - - Introduction - - Allowable Water Depletion - - Monitoring Soil Water - - Scheduling Irrigations - - Rice Irrigation

Water Requirements for Irrigation and the Environment

Author: Marinus G. Bos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402089480
Release Date: 2008-11-23
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Irrigated agriculture produces about 40% of all food and fibre on about 16% of all cropped land. As such, irrigated agriculture is a productive user of resources; both in terms of yield per cropped area and in yield per volume of water consumed. Many irrigation projects, however, use (divert or withdraw) much more water than consumed by the crop. The non-consumed fraction of the water may cause a variety of undesirable effects ranging from water-logging and salinity within the irrigated area to downstram water pollution. This book discusses all components of the water balance of an irrigated area; evapotranspiration (Ch.2), effective precipitation (Ch.3) and capillary rise from the groundwater table (Ch.4). Chapter 5 then combines all components into a water management strategy that balances actual evapotranspiration (and thus crop yield) with the groundwater balance of the irrigated area (for a substainable environment). Chapter 6 presents CRIWAR 3.0, a simulation program that combines all water balance components into a single simulation procedure. The chapter describes the use of the CRIWAR software for developing water requirement tables and other useful information based on the selected water management strategy. This version greatly expands upon the capabilities of previously published programs.

Evaporation and Evapotranspiration

Author: Wossenu Abtew
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400747371
Release Date: 2012-08-28
Genre: Science

The book is a thorough presentation of theoretical and applied aspects of the evaporation and evapotranspiration process supported by data from experimental studies. It is written in a way that the theoretical background of evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation is presented in a simplified manner, comprehensive to most technical readers. The book deals with details of meteorological parameters and monitoring sensors which are needed for estimating evaporation and evapotranspiration. Errors in meteorological parameter measurements are also presented. Estimation errors, strengths, weaknesses and applicability of a wide range of evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation methods are presented along with samples of application to a certain region. Application of newer simpler methods is presented. A new technology, remote sensing application to evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation, is presented. The latest interest in the subject, climate change and evapotranspiration is presented in the last chapter. This book will be beneficial to students, hydrologists, engineers, meteorologists, water managers and others.

Advances in Evapotranspiration

Author:
Publisher: Amer Society of Agricultural
ISBN: CORNELL:31924003118480
Release Date: 1985
Genre: Science

Historic perspective and current evapotranspiration theory; Evapotranspiration measurement and theory; Evapotranspiration in irrigation water requirements; Evapotranspiration in rainfed agriculture; Evapotranspiration in irrigation management; Regional evapotranspiration prediction; Evapotranspiration in hydrology; Evapotranspiration measurement and theory.

Arid Zone Irrigation

Author: Bruno Yaron
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642655708
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

A book previously published within the framework of the Ecological Studies Series, entitled "Physical Aspects of Soil Water and Salts in Ecosystems" included awidespectrum of research papers devoted to new findings in the field of soil-plant-water relationships. "Arid Zone Irrigation" has been written specifically as a textbook for agronomists, soil scientists, agrometeorologists, water engineers and plant physiologists who want a clear presentation of irrigation fundamentals in arid and semi-arid zones. It was our intention to provide an understanding of the basic principles governing irrigation technology and to help overcome the problem of water shortage in arid zone agriculture. This book, written by a large number of specialists and covering a broad spectrum of different disciplines, is based on general up-to-date information, as well as on the results of the authors' own research. The idea of preparing such a textbook was conceived during a series of international advanced courses on irrigation held annually at the Institute of Soils and Water, Agricul tural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel. The final organization of the material has been influenced by discussions with colleagues from Sweden and Holland and the participants in our summer courses. Grateful acknowledgements are due to Professor CALVIN C. ROSE, CSIRO, Canberra, Australia, Professor DALE SWARTZENDRUBER, Purdue University, Lafayetta, U.S.A., and Dr. SHLOMO P. NEUMAN, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel, for their many helpful suggestions during critical reading of the manuscript. We thank also Mrs.

Evaporation and Evapotranspiration

Author: Wossenu Abtew
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400747371
Release Date: 2012-08-28
Genre: Science

The book is a thorough presentation of theoretical and applied aspects of the evaporation and evapotranspiration process supported by data from experimental studies. It is written in a way that the theoretical background of evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation is presented in a simplified manner, comprehensive to most technical readers. The book deals with details of meteorological parameters and monitoring sensors which are needed for estimating evaporation and evapotranspiration. Errors in meteorological parameter measurements are also presented. Estimation errors, strengths, weaknesses and applicability of a wide range of evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation methods are presented along with samples of application to a certain region. Application of newer simpler methods is presented. A new technology, remote sensing application to evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation, is presented. The latest interest in the subject, climate change and evapotranspiration is presented in the last chapter. This book will be beneficial to students, hydrologists, engineers, meteorologists, water managers and others.

Integrated Greenhouse Systems for Mild Climates

Author: Christian von Zabeltitz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642145825
Release Date: 2010-10-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Crop production in greenhouses is a growing industry, especially in mild climates, and is very important for the population as a source of income and clean, fresh food. Greenhouses create optimal climate conditions for crop growth and protect crops from outside pests. At the same time greenhouse production increases water use efficiency and makes integrated production and protection (IPP) possible. This book provides technical instructions for practice (what to do and what not to do) and gives answers to the question: How to produce more clean crops and better quality with less water, less land and less pesticide. Suitable greenhouse constructions and their design, adapted to local climates in subtropical, tropical and arid regions and infrastructure conditions are presented. The necessary climate control measures - light transmittance, ventilation, cooling, heating, and CO2 enrichment - and physical measures for pest control, as well as methods for using solar energy to desalinate salty water are described. The results of theoretical research are transferred into methods for practical use, so that readers are equipped to solve their problems in practice as well as to get stimulation for further research and development.

Evapotranspiration

Author: Megh R Goyal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781926895581
Release Date: 2013-09-26
Genre: Science

This book covers topics on the basic models, assessments, and techniques to calculate evapotranspiration (ET) for practical applications in agriculture, forestry, and urban science. This simple and thorough guide provides the information and techniques necessary to develop, manage, interpret, and apply evapotranspiration ET data to practical applications. The simplicity of the contents assists technicians in developing ET data for effective water management.