Author: Robert D. Burman
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
Release Date: 1994
Definitions of evapotranspiration and transpiration; atmospheric & thermodynamic parameters; soil parameters; estimating reference crop ET; estimatin ET for specific crops; production, vegetation & ET; evaporation from water surfaces; comparisons and example calculations.
Author: Wossenu Abtew
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-08-28
The book is a thorough presentation of theoretical and applied aspects of the evaporation and evapotranspiration process supported by data from experimental studies. It is written in a way that the theoretical background of evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation is presented in a simplified manner, comprehensive to most technical readers. The book deals with details of meteorological parameters and monitoring sensors which are needed for estimating evaporation and evapotranspiration. Errors in meteorological parameter measurements are also presented. Estimation errors, strengths, weaknesses and applicability of a wide range of evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation methods are presented along with samples of application to a certain region. Application of newer simpler methods is presented. A new technology, remote sensing application to evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation, is presented. The latest interest in the subject, climate change and evapotranspiration is presented in the last chapter. This book will be beneficial to students, hydrologists, engineers, meteorologists, water managers and others.
The purpose of this abstract bibliography is to bring together published information that will help land managers and research workers to: (1) Evaluate relations of vegetation to water loss and (2) estimate the probable effect of water yield on manipulating vegetation.
Make the best use of available water for your crops! Water Use in Crop Production explores innovative methods that determine how much water certain crops need, in certain climates, in order to ensure adequate plant growth and help eliminate water waste. Through this informative book, agronomists, growers, researchers, and graduate students will find methods and techniques for effective water management that will save money and conserve water. Water Use in Crop Production will enable you enhance crop quality and quantity and save one of the earth's most important resource. Comprehensive and thorough, this essential book combines two vital needs, food and water, and examines what must be done in order to keep up with the ever-growing human population. Explaining conservation techniques used in Argentina, Australia, Israel, Morocco, New Zealand, the Philippines, Spain, and the United States, Water Use in Crop Production will help you achieve this goal as it discusses water management measures including: avoiding excessive deep percolation reducing runoff lessening water evaporation through methods such as reducing the capillary water flow to the surface of the soil determining the rates at which water is demanded and can be supplied in a specific area to create a plan for limiting water loss studying the root structure of plants to calculate how much water they need using deficit irrigation to help plants save water for future use evaluating citrus water use through the Penman-Monteith model Containing charts, tables, and examples of the concepts it discusses, this book is the culmination of the latest studies on water storage. Water Use in Crop Production provides you with reliable strategies and methods that will help you lessen water expenditures and improve the vitality of crops anywhere in the world.
Author: Marinus G. Bos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-11-23
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Irrigated agriculture produces about 40% of all food and fibre on about 16% of all cropped land. As such, irrigated agriculture is a productive user of resources; both in terms of yield per cropped area and in yield per volume of water consumed. Many irrigation projects, however, use (divert or withdraw) much more water than consumed by the crop. The non-consumed fraction of the water may cause a variety of undesirable effects ranging from water-logging and salinity within the irrigated area to downstram water pollution. This book discusses all components of the water balance of an irrigated area; evapotranspiration (Ch.2), effective precipitation (Ch.3) and capillary rise from the groundwater table (Ch.4). Chapter 5 then combines all components into a water management strategy that balances actual evapotranspiration (and thus crop yield) with the groundwater balance of the irrigated area (for a substainable environment). Chapter 6 presents CRIWAR 3.0, a simulation program that combines all water balance components into a single simulation procedure. The chapter describes the use of the CRIWAR software for developing water requirement tables and other useful information based on the selected water management strategy. This version greatly expands upon the capabilities of previously published programs.
The book, now in its second edition, fulfills the need for an up-to-date comprehensive text on irrigation water management for students of agriculture both at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The scope of the book makes it a useful reference for courses in agricultural engineering, agronomy, soil science, agricultural physics and environ-mental sciences. It can also serve as a valuable guidebook to persons working with farming communities. The coverage in sixteen chapters brings out different aspects of irrigation including irrigation situation in the world, rainfall, evaporation, water wealth and progressive development of irrigation in India, measurement of soil water and irrigation water, methods of irrigation, irrigation with saline water, formulating cropping pattern in irrigated area and management of high water table. In the second edition, a new chapter on ‘On-farm Irrigation System’ has been included and a few chapters have been updated to include latest development. The book has useful research data and a large number of diagrams for easy comprehension of the topics. The end-of-chapter problems and numerous worked-out examples serve to aid further understanding of the subject. The book also contains an extensive glossary.
Author: U S Sree Ramulu
Publisher: New Age International
Release Date: 2005
Rapid Industrialisation Coupled With Population Explosion Has Resulted In Greater Urbanisation. Because Of These, The Water That Was Available For Agriculture Is Now Being Shared By Various Sectors. This Has Resulted In A Gradual Decline In Per Capita Land And Water Availability. At The Same Time The Need To Increase The Food Production To Feed The Increasing Population Is Being Increasingly Felt. Mismanagement Of Available Water Has Added One More Dimension To This Problem Resulting In Development Of Problem Soils, Thus Causing Reduction In The Production Per Unit Quantity Of Water. Hence It Has Become Absolutely Necessary To Use The Available Water Resources In Such A Manner As To Get The Maximum Returns Per Unit Quantity Of Water. At Present No Book Covers The Multifaceted Nature Of This Problem. Hence In This Book All Aspects Like Methods Of Irrigation, Measurement Of Water, Quality Of Waters, Water Requirements Of Crops, Scheduling Of Irrigation, Water Budgeting, Irrigation Efficiency, Drainage, Recycling, Agronomy, Soil Science, Crop Physiological Aspects Of Irrigation System, Etc. Have Been Covered. A Separate Section Of Constraints And Weakness In The Current Water Management Practices Is Also Included In This Book.This Book Will Be Of Great Help To The Administrators Dealing With Water Management, Water Technologists, Scholars And Farmers Who Are Taking Steps To Maximise The Benefits Of The Available Water Resources On The Scientific Basis To Get The Higher Productivity Of Water.
Author: George H. Hargreaves
Publisher: Water Resources Publication
Release Date: 1998
Genre: Technology & Engineering
IRRIGATION FUNDAMENTALS is a comprehensive text on the basic principles and practices of applied agricultural irrigation. Written over a period of more than 10 years, it is based on the authors'' extensive experience in farming, consulting, research, teaching, and other related agricultural activities. The book is for use by teachers of introductory courses in irrigation, farmers who have some basic technical knowledge, and for administrators who need a general understanding of irrigation as an aid for policy decisions in water resource development and planning. Various factors that influence crop yield and production including climate, fertility, water, drainage, and agronomic practices are addressed. The various irrigation methods such as border, basin, contour, furrow, sub, sprinkle, and drip or trickle are described; and conditions are given for selection of the appropriate method to use. Recent developments and new technology are included herein when they have obvious practical applications, but for the most part the material presented in this book is based on well established principles and practices. Much of the content is very practical and much is essentially nontechnical. Nevertheless, some of the material covered in this book goes beyond the basic concepts in an attempt to better describe the relationships and techniques employed by irrigation scientists and irrigation engineers.From the Preface: The future of the world depends very much on how we manage natural resources. Since the year 1900 there has been a ninefold increase in global carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels, and the world population has increased about 3.7 times in this century. Vast areas of forests have been destroyed, and irrigated lands now produce 40% of the food supply. Due to depletion of groundwater reserves and an increase in population, irrigated area per capita is declining. Consequently, the irrigation of additional alluvial lands is a strategic necessity for all of humankind. Much of the alluvial lands cannot be made productive without prior development of water resources through flood control, drainage, and irrigation. The production of electricity through hydropower and the production of alcohol fuel from irrigated crops, as has been practiced for many years in Brazil, can slow the increase in carbon emissions. Such diverse developments are typically not separable; rather, they must be considered as integral parts of a comprehensive development plan. The conservation of natural resources and increasing productivity of irrigated lands are also strategic necessities. Much of the current technology is highly transferable and crop yields can be significantly increased on lands already under irrigation.The authors have worked in many countries in connection with resource inventories, teaching, and the planning, development and use of irrigation as a tool for increasing production and providing employment. They have written extensively and have been honored for their achievements. They have considerable experience with everything from primitive low-technology irrigation developments to highly developed irrigation in the USA and in dozens of countries around the world. Both of the authors have dedicated their careers to teaching, research, and consulting in agricultural irrigation and water resources development and planning. It is their hope and expectation that this book will provide incentives for investigating and documenting land and water resources, improving development, increasing crop yields, conserving resources, and improving the environment. From the Table of Contents:Chapt. 1 - INTRODUCTION: Irrigation Fundamentals: - - A Definition of Irrigation - - Statistical Perspectives of Agricultural IrrigationChapt. 2 - FACTORS INFLUENCING CROP PRODUCTION: - - Introduction - - Temperature, Radiation, and Evaporative Potential - - Climate Change - - Soil Fertility and Fertilizers - - Water Availability and Distribution - - Soil Aeration and Drainage - - Plant Density, Spacing and Leaf Area Index - - Crop VarietyChapt. 3 - AGRICULTURAL SOILS: - - Introduction - - Soil Texture and Structure - - Soil Classification and Evaluation - - Bureau of Reclamation Land Classification - - Soil Age and Topography - - Soil Chemistry - - Infiltration Rates - - Soil-Water Relationships - - Equations for Soil Water Content - - Soil Water Potential - - Measuring Soil Water ContentChapt. 4 - EVALUATING IRRIGATION RESOURCES: - - Introduction - - Climate - - Hydrology - - Human and Other Factors - - Integrated DevelopmentChapt. 5 - IRRIGATION METHODS: - - Introduction - - Graded Border Irrigation - - Basin Irrigation - - Contour Levees - - Furrow Irrigation - - Sub-Irrigation - - Sprinkle Irrigation - - Drip or Trickle Irrigation - - Selecting an Irrigation Method - - Land Grading and Leveling - - Laser-Leveling Equipment and Practices - - Computing Diagonal Slopes - - Irrigation System EvaluationChapt. 6 - CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS: - - Introduction - - Direct Methods - - Indirect Methods - - Potential Evaporation - - Reference Evapotranspiration - - Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation - - Irrigation Requirements - - Crop CoefficientsChapt. 7 - IRRIGATION SCHEDULING: - - Introduction - - Allowable Water Depletion - - Monitoring Soil Water - - Scheduling Irrigations - - Rice Irrigation