Evolutionary Criminology

Author: Russil Durrant
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123984937
Release Date: 2015-03-12
Genre: Social Science

In our attempts to understand crime, researchers typically focus on proximate factors such as the psychology of offenders, their developmental history, and the social structure in which they are embedded. While these factors are important, they don't tell the whole story. Evolutionary Criminology: Towards a Comprehensive Explanation of Crime explores how evolutionary biology adds to our understanding of why crime is committed, by whom, and our response to norm violations. This understanding is important both for a better understanding of what precipitates crime and to guide approaches for effectively managing criminal behavior. This book is divided into three parts. Part I reviews evolutionary biology concepts important for understanding human behavior, including crime. Part II focuses on theoretical approaches to explaining crime, including the evolution of cooperation, and the evolutionary history and function of violent crime, drug use, property offending, and white collar crime. The developmental origins of criminal behavior are described to account for the increase in offending during adolescence and early adulthood as well as to explain why some offenders are more likely to desist than others. Proximal causes of crime are examined, as well as cultural and structural processes influencing crime. Part III considers human motivation to punish norm violators and what this means for the development of a criminal justice system. This section also considers how an evolutionary approach contributes to our understanding of crime prevention and reduction. The section closes with an evolutionary approach to understanding offender rehabilitation and reintegration. Reviews how evolutionary findings improve our understanding of crime and punishment Examines motivations to offend, and to punish norm violators Articulates evolutionary explanations for adolescent crime increase Identifies how this knowledge can aid in crime prevention and reduction, and in offender rehabilitation

The Oxford Handbook of Evolution Biology and Society

Author: Dr. Rosemary Hopcroft
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780190842604
Release Date: 2018-03-09
Genre: Social Science

Evolution, biology, and society is a catch-all phrase encompassing any scholarly work that utilizes evolutionary theory and/or biological or behavioral genetic methods in the study of the human social group, and The Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society contains an much needed overview of research in the area by sociologists and other social scientists. The examined topics cover a wide variety of issues, including the origins of social solidarity; religious beliefs; sex differences; gender inequality; determinants of human happiness; the nature of social stratification and inequality and its effects; identity, status, and other group processes; race, ethnicity, and race discrimination; fertility and family processes; crime and deviance; and cultural and social change. The scholars whose work is presented in this volume come from a variety of disciplines in addition to sociology, including psychology, political science, and criminology. Yet, as the essays in this volume demonstrate, the potential of theory and methods from biology for illuminating social phenomena is clear, and sociologists stand to gain from learning more about them and using them in their own work. The theory focuses on evolution by natural selection, the primary paradigm of the biological sciences, while the methods include the statistical analyses sociologists are familiar with, as well as other methods that they may not be familiar with, such as behavioral genetic methods, methods for including genetic factors in statistical analyses, gene-wide association studies, candidate gene studies, and methods for testing levels of hormones and other biochemicals in blood and saliva and including these factors in analyses. This work will be of interest to any sociologist with an interest in exploring the interaction of biological and sociological processes. As an introduction to the field it is useful for teaching upper-level or graduate students in sociology or a related social science.

Criminal Psychology

Author: David Canter
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781134697717
Release Date: 2017-05-02
Genre: Psychology

This thoroughly updated and revised new edition provides an essential overview of a full range of psychological contributions to the understanding of crime and the processes of dealing with offenders and helping their victims. From the cognitive, developmental and social processes that influence a diverse range of crimes, including burglary, fraud, rape and murder, to the challenges faced by the police and courts in investigating crime or securing reliable testimony, the text is packed with pedagogical features that bring this fascinating subject to life. These include boxes highlighting key topics or issues around research methods, further reading and suggested essay titles. Also including chapters on rehabilitation in prisons and the psychology of victims, the text examines hot topics such as gang membership and terrorism, as well as discussing how psychology may better understand criminals and criminal behaviour in the future. It builds to a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the field. It will be ideal for students across psychology, criminology and socio-legal studies and law.

Environmental Criminology

Author: Martin A. Andresen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135006235
Release Date: 2014-03-14
Genre:

The field of environmental criminology is a staple theoretical framework in contemporary criminological theory. With this book, Martin Andresen presents the first comprehensive and sole-authored textbook on this influential and compelling school of criminological thought. He covers a wide range of topics, including: the origins of environmental criminology; the primary theoretical frameworks, such as routine activity theory, geometric theory of crime, rational choice theory, and the pattern theory of crime; the practical application of environmental criminology; an examination of how theories are operationalized and tested; policy implications for the practice of crime prevention. As well as these "popular topics", Andresen also discusses also a number of topics that are at the leading edge of research within environmental criminology. This text will be ideal for courses on crime prevention, where students are often encouraged to consider policy problems and apply theory to practice. This book offers up environmental criminology as a theoretical framework for making sense of complex neighbourhood problems, meaning that it will be perfect for modules on geography of crime, crime analysis and indeed, environmental criminology. It would also be a good supplement for courses on criminological theory.

An Introduction to Criminal Psychology

Author: Russil Durrant
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317230816
Release Date: 2018-03-29
Genre: Social Science

This book offers a clear, up-to-date, comprehensive, and theoretically informed introduction to criminal psychology, exploring how psychological explanations and approaches can be integrated with other perspectives drawn from evolutionary biology, neurobiology, sociology, and criminology. Drawing on examples from around the world, it considers different types of offences from violence and aggression to white-collar and transnational crime, and links approaches to explaining crime with efforts to prevent crime and to treat and rehabilitate offenders. This revised and expanded second edition offers a thorough update of the research literature and introduces several new features, including: detailed international case studies setting the scene for each chapter, promoting real-world understanding of the topics under consideration; a fuller range of crime types covered, with new chapters on property offending and white-collar, corporate, and environmental crime; detailed individual chapters exploring prevention and rehabilitation, previously covered in a single chapter in the first edition; an array of helpful features including learning objectives, review and reflect checkpoints, annotated lists of further reading, and two new features: ‘Research in Focus’ and ‘Criminal Psychology Through Film’. This textbook is essential reading for upper undergraduate students enrolled in courses on psychological criminology, criminal psychology, and the psychology of criminal behaviour. Designed with the reader in mind, student-friendly and innovative pedagogical features support the reader throughout.

Theories of Crime

Author: Ian Marsh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134198429
Release Date: 2007-01-24
Genre: Social Science

Presenting a clear, comprehensive review of theoretical thinking on crime, this book encourages students to develop a deeper understanding of classic and contemporary theories and provides an interdisciplinary approach to criminology through the contributions of sociology, psychology and biology. A key text for any undergraduate student following programmes in criminology and criminal justice, Theories of Crime covers topics such as: the historical context of crime biological explanations for criminal behaviour psychological explanations for criminal behaviour sociological explanations for the criminal behaviour the criminal behaviour of women the criminal behaviour of ethnic minorities. By adopting an interactive approach to encourage students to react to the text and think for themselves, this book distinguishes itself from others in the field and ensures its place as a valuable teaching resource. The student-centred nature of the book is further enhanced by reflective question breaks throughout the text, chapter summaries, suggested further reading and web sites.

21st Century Criminology A Reference Handbook

Author: J. Mitchell Miller
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781412960199
Release Date: 2009-08-06
Genre: Social Science

21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook provides straightforward and definitive overviews of 100 key topics comprising traditional criminology and its modern outgrowths. The individual chapters have been designed to serve as a "first-look" reference source for most criminological inquires. Both connected to the sociological origins of criminology (i.e., theory and research methods) and the justice systems' response to crime and related social problems, as well as coverage of major crime types, this two-volume set offers a comprehensive overview of the current state of criminology. From student term papers and masters theses to researchers commencing literature reviews, 21st Century Criminology is a ready source from which to quickly access authoritative knowledge on a range of key issues and topics central to contemporary criminology.

Explaining Crime

Author: Hugh D. Barlow
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 0742565106
Release Date: 2010-01
Genre: Social Science

This book provides a concise but comprehensive review of the full range of classic and contemporary theories of crime. With separate chapters on the nature and use of criminological theory as well as theoretical application, the authors render the difficult task of explaining crime more understandable to the introductory student. All of the main theories in criminology are reviewed including classical and rational choice, biological, psychological, and evolutionary, social structural, social process, critical, general, and integrated approaches. Copious examples of the spirit of the theories are supplied, many with a popular culture (e.g., film and music) connection. The highly original final chapter, titled 'Putting Criminological Theory to Work, ' provides readers with an integrated theoretical model that students can apply to virtually any type of crime. The book is well suited for use in undergraduate and graduate courses in criminology, criminal justice, and deviance

Psychological Criminology

Author: Richard Wortley
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781136652899
Release Date: 2011-04-12
Genre: Social Science

Psychological Criminology addresses the question: what is it about individuals and their experiences that cause them to commit crime and/or to become criminal? This book provides a comprehensive coverage of psychological theories of crime and criminality, exploring theories focusing on factors present at birth (human nature, heredity); theories that focus on factors that influence the offender over the lifespan (learning, development); and theories focusing on factors present at the crime scene. It emphasizes the connections among the different approaches, and demonstrates how, taken together rather than as rival explanations, they provide a more complete picture of crime and criminality than each provides individually. Theories are arranged throughout the book in a temporal sequence, from distal to proximal causes of crime. The analysis spans 100,000 years, from the evolutionary roots of criminal behaviour in the ancestral environments of early humans on the African savana, to the decision to engage in a specific criminal act. Key features of the book include: a focus on theory – ‘explaining’ crime and criminality, an integrative approach, accessible to readers who do not have a background in psychology. Psychological Criminology highlights the contributions that psychological theory can make to the broader field of criminology; it will be of interest to students, academics, researchers and practitioners in both criminology and forensic psychology.

Biosocial Criminology

Author: Anthony Walsh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: UOM:39015082713101
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Social Science

Designed to bring criminology into the 21st century by showing how leading criminologists have integrated aspects of the biological sciences into their discipline. This book covers behavior and molecular genetics, epigenetics, evolutionary biology, and neuroscience, and apply them to various correlates of crime such as age, race, and gender.

The Criminal Brain

Author: Nicole Rafter
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814776140
Release Date: 2008-10-01
Genre: Social Science

What is the relationship between criminality and biology? Nineteenth-century phrenologists insisted that criminality was innate, a trait inherent in the offender’s brain matter. While they were eventually repudiated as pseudo-scientists and self-deluded charlatans, today the pendulum has swung back. Both criminologists and biologists have begun to speak of a tantalizing but disturbing possibility: that criminality may be inherited as a set of genetic deficits that place one at risk for theft, violence, and sexual deviance. If that is so, we may soon confront proposals for genetically modifying “at risk” fetuses or doctoring up criminals so their brains operate like those of law-abiding citizens. In The Criminal Brain, well-known criminologist Nicole Rafter traces the sometimes violent history of these criminological theories and provides an introduction to current biological theories of crime, or biocriminology, with predictions of how these theories are likely to develop in the future. What do these new theories assert? Are they as dangerous as their forerunners, which the Nazis and other eugenicists used to sterilize, incarcerate, and even execute thousands of supposed “born” criminals? How can we prepare for a future in which leaders may propose crime-control programs based on biology? Enhanced with fascinating illustrations and written in lively prose, The Criminal Brain examines these issues in light of the history of ideas about the criminal brain. By tracing the birth and growth of enduring ideas in criminology, as well as by recognizing historical patterns in the interplay of politics and science, she offers ways to evaluate new theories of the criminal brain that may radically reshape ideas about the causes of criminal behavior.

Criminology

Author: Stephen E. Brown
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781455730148
Release Date: 2012-12-31
Genre: Social Science

This highly acclaimed criminology text presents an up-to-date review of rational choice theories, including deterrence, shaming, and routine activities. It also incorporates current examples of deterrence research regarding domestic violence, drunk driving, and capital punishment, and features thought-provoking discussion of the relativity of crime. The authors explore the crime problem, its context, and causes of crime. The organization of the text reflects the fact that the etiology of crime must be at the heart of criminology. It examines contemporary efforts to redefine crime by focusing on family violence, hate crimes, white-collar misconduct with violent consequences, and other forms of human behavior often neglected by criminologists. Extensive discussion of evolving laws is included, and while the prevalence of the scientific method in the field of criminology is highlighted, the impact of ideology on explanations of crime is the cornerstone of the book. Comprehensive introductory textbook that looks at competing answers to the question, "Why do people commit crimes?" Student-friendly figures, features, highlights, and full-color photos. Each chapter includes learning objectives, discussion questions, and lists of key terms and concepts, key criminologists, and important legal cases. The eighth edition includes updates throughout and expanded coverage of biosocial theories of crime and life-course criminology.