Explaining Criminal Careers

Author: John F. MacLeod
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199697243
Release Date: 2012-08-23
Genre: Law

A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via www.oup.com/uk as well as the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.

Understanding Criminal Careers

Author: Keith Soothill
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134025909
Release Date: 2013-05-13
Genre: Social Science

The study of criminal careers is of increasing interest in criminology. It is now generally recognised that it is important to try to understand criminal behaviour across the life-course rather than focusing on fragmented incidents which provide only a partial picture. This is an accessible text which clarifies the crucial theoretical and methodological debates surrounding the study of criminal careers. It focuses on some major longitudinal studies discussing the onset, persistence, desistance and the duration of a criminal career. The important topics of prediction, risk and specialisation are addressed. The challenging question of 'When do ex-offenders become like non-offenders?' points a way forward. The book concludes by proposing an even more ambitious approach to the topic of criminal careers.

Criminal Careers and Career Criminals

Author: Alfred Blumstein
Publisher: National Academies
ISBN: NAP:11777
Release Date: 1986
Genre: Social Science

Volume II takes an in-depth look at the various aspects of criminal careers, including the relationship of alcohol and drug abuse to criminal careers, co-offending influences on criminal careers, issues in the measurement of criminal careers, accuracy of prediction models, and ethical issues in the use of criminal career information in making decisions about offenders.

Confessions of a Dying Thief

Author: Darrell J. Steffensmeier
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781351526869
Release Date: 2017-07-12
Genre: True Crime

*Recipient of the American Society of Criminology's 2006 Michael J. Hindelang Award for a book, published within the past three calendar years, that is "the most outstanding contribution to research in criminology." *Nominated for the 2007 Outstanding Book Award of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Sam Goodman, was a long-time thief, fence, and quasi-legitimate businessman. He had a criminal career that spanned fifty years, beginning in his mid-teens and ending with his death when he was in his mid-sixties. Confessions of a Dying Thief is an in-depth ethnographic study of Sam and his world based on continuous contact with him for many years, on multiple interviews with his network of associates in crime and business, and on a series of interviews with him shortly before he died. The book updates and greatly expands the case study of Sam Goodman's fencing activity found in Steffensmeier's award-winning 1986 book The Fence: In the Shadow of Two Worlds. It combines Sam's colorful narrative accounts with substantive commentary by the authors to provide a more nuanced portrayal of criminal careers, illegal enterprise, and the broad landscape comprising the entity called "crime." To more fully understand pathways into and out of crime as well as the social organization of illegal enterprise, the authors propose an integrative learning-opportunity-commitment framework that combines differential association/social learning theory and an extended conceptualization of criminal opportunity with a three-fold theory of commitment to crime. This framework offers an integrated and more complete way of understanding mechanisms that underlie criminal offending and criminal careers. It also recognizes the complexity and scope of the criminal landscape and its embeddedness in the fabric of the larger society, including its criminal justice system. Sam's illness and death are a sobering backdrop th

Criminal Recidivism

Author: Georgia Zara
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136185120
Release Date: 2015-07-24
Genre: Social Science

Criminal Recidivism intends to fill a gap in the criminological psychology literature by examining the processes underlying persistent criminal careers. This book aims to investigate criminal recidivism, and why, how and for how long an individual continues to commit crimes, whilst also reviewing knowledge about risk assessment and the role of psychopathy (including neurocriminological factors) in encouraging recidivism. It also focuses on the recidivism of sex offenders and on what works in reducing reoffending. At an empirical level, this book attempts to explain criminal persistence and recidivism using longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). At a psycho-criminological level it joins together quantitative and qualitative analyses, making its content a practical guide to explain, predict, and intervene to reduce the risk of criminal recidivism. The authors present quantitative analyses of criminal careers, as well as qualitative life histories of chronic offenders, in order to bring home the reality and consequences of a life of crime. The book is aimed not only at advanced students and academics in psychology, criminology, probation studies, social sciences, psychiatry, sociology, political science, and penology, but also at decision makers, policy officials, and practitioners within the realm of crime intervention and prevention, and also at forensic experts, judges and lawyers.

Criminology

Author: Stephen E. Brown
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317311973
Release Date: 2015-07-03
Genre:

Criminology: Explaining Crime and Its Context, Ninth Edition, is a highly acclaimed textbook offering a broad perspective on criminological theory. It provides students of criminology and sociology with a thorough exposure to a range of theories, contrasting their logic and assumptions, but also highlighting efforts to integrate and blend these frameworks. In this ninth edition, the authors have incorporated new directions that have gained traction in the field, while remaining faithful to their criminological heritage. Among the themes in this work are the relativity of crime (its changing definition) with abundant examples, historical roots of criminology and the lessons they have provided, and the strength and challenges of applying the scientific method. This revision offers enhanced coverage of biosocial theories of crime, more global examples, and a new chapter on youth violence, improving on the most comprehensive and balanced theory text available for undergraduates.

Explaining Crime

Author: Hugh D. Barlow
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 0742565106
Release Date: 2010-01
Genre: Social Science

This book provides a concise but comprehensive review of the full range of classic and contemporary theories of crime. With separate chapters on the nature and use of criminological theory as well as theoretical application, the authors render the difficult task of explaining crime more understandable to the introductory student. All of the main theories in criminology are reviewed including classical and rational choice, biological, psychological, and evolutionary, social structural, social process, critical, general, and integrated approaches. Copious examples of the spirit of the theories are supplied, many with a popular culture (e.g., film and music) connection. The highly original final chapter, titled 'Putting Criminological Theory to Work, ' provides readers with an integrated theoretical model that students can apply to virtually any type of crime. The book is well suited for use in undergraduate and graduate courses in criminology, criminal justice, and deviance

Criminal Justice Theory

Author: Edward R. Maguire
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134706181
Release Date: 2015-02-11
Genre: Social Science

Criminal Justice Theory, Second Edition is the first and only text, edited by U.S. criminal justice educators, on the theoretical foundations of criminal justice, not criminological theory. This new edition includes entirely new chapters as well as revisions to all others, with an eye to accessibility and coherence for upper division undergraduate and beginning graduate students in the field.

Criminal Careers and Career Criminals

Author: Panel on Research on Criminal Careers
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309568234
Release Date: 1986-01-15
Genre: Law

Volume II takes an in-depth look at the various aspects of criminal careers, including the relationship of alcohol and drug abuse to criminal careers, co-offending influences on criminal careers, issues in the measurement of criminal careers, accuracy of prediction models, and ethical issues in the use of criminal career information in making decisions about offenders.

Crime and its Social Context

Author: Terance D. Miethe
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 0791419010
Release Date: 1994
Genre: Social Science

Theories of criminality and theories of victimization have traditionally been discussed as though they bore no relationship to one another. Yet, a complete explanation for crime must examine both the decision to engage in crime by an offender and the everyday actions of ordinary citizens that increase vulnerability to criminals. The integration of these approaches yields testable models that have greater predictive power than could be obtained by looking only at models of offenders or models of victim behavior. A more general perspective that accounts for both the decision to engage in crime and the selection of particular crime targets is developed and tested.

The Crime Book

Author: DK
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9781465466549
Release Date: 2017-05-02
Genre: Social Science

An essential guide to criminology, exploring the most infamous cases of all time, from serial killers to mob hits to war crimes and more. From Jack the Ripper to Jeffrey Dahmer, The Crime Book is a complete study of international true crime history that unpacks the shocking stories through infographics and in-depth research that lays out every key fact and detail. Examine the science, psychology, and sociology of criminal behavior, and read profiles of villains, victims, and detectives. See each clue and follow the investigation from start to finish, and study the police and detective work of each case. Find out how pirates, the Japanese yakuza, Chinese triads, and modern drug cartels operate around the world. Dive deep into the Black Dahlia murder investigation and follow other high-profile cases, including Lizzie Borden with her ax and the Patty Hearst kidnapping. Learn how media coverage changed through history, from the tragic assassination of President Abraham Lincoln to romanticizing Bonnie and Clyde's doomed fate to the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh's baby, which is considered the first international crime tabloid story. The Crime Book is a complete compendium for crime aficionados to add to their collection.

White Collar Crime and Criminal Careers

Author: David Weisburd
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521777631
Release Date: 2001-02-12
Genre: Social Science

Weisburd and Waring offer here the first detailed examination of the white-collar criminal career.

Career Criminals in Society

Author: Matt DeLisi
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781452235950
Release Date: 2005-02-15
Genre: Social Science

Career Criminals in Society examines the small but dangerous group of repeat offenders who are most damaging to society. The book encourages readers to think critically about the causes of criminal behavior and the potential of the criminal justice system to reduce crime. Author Matt DeLisi draws upon his own practitioner experience, interviewing criminal defendants to argue that career criminals can be combated only with a combination of prevention efforts and retributive criminal justice system policies.