Explaining Criminal Careers

Author: John F. MacLeod
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199697243
Release Date: 2012-08-23
Genre: Law

A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via www.oup.com/uk as well as the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.

Understanding Criminal Careers

Author: Keith Soothill
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134025909
Release Date: 2013-05-13
Genre: Social Science

The study of criminal careers is of increasing interest in criminology. It is now generally recognised that it is important to try to understand criminal behaviour across the life-course rather than focusing on fragmented incidents which provide only a partial picture. This is an accessible text which clarifies the crucial theoretical and methodological debates surrounding the study of criminal careers. It focuses on some major longitudinal studies discussing the onset, persistence, desistance and the duration of a criminal career. The important topics of prediction, risk and specialisation are addressed. The challenging question of 'When do ex-offenders become like non-offenders?' points a way forward. The book concludes by proposing an even more ambitious approach to the topic of criminal careers.

Crime and its Social Context

Author: Terance D. Miethe
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 0791419010
Release Date: 1994-01-01
Genre: Social Science

Theories of criminality and theories of victimization have traditionally been discussed as though they bore no relationship to one another. Yet, a complete explanation for crime must examine both the decision to engage in crime by an offender and the everyday actions of ordinary citizens that increase vulnerability to criminals. The integration of these approaches yields testable models that have greater predictive power than could be obtained by looking only at models of offenders or models of victim behavior. A more general perspective that accounts for both the decision to engage in crime and the selection of particular crime targets is developed and tested.

Career Criminals in Society

Author: Matt DeLisi
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781452235950
Release Date: 2005-02-15
Genre: Social Science

Career Criminals in Society examines the small but dangerous group of repeat offenders who are most damaging to society. The book encourages readers to think critically about the causes of criminal behavior and the potential of the criminal justice system to reduce crime. Author Matt DeLisi draws upon his own practitioner experience, interviewing criminal defendants to argue that career criminals can be combated only with a combination of prevention efforts and retributive criminal justice system policies.

Criminal Careers and Career Criminals

Author: Panel on Research on Criminal Careers
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309568234
Release Date: 1986-01-15
Genre: Law

Volume II takes an in-depth look at the various aspects of criminal careers, including the relationship of alcohol and drug abuse to criminal careers, co-offending influences on criminal careers, issues in the measurement of criminal careers, accuracy of prediction models, and ethical issues in the use of criminal career information in making decisions about offenders.

Explaining Crime

Author: Paul S. Maxim
Publisher:
ISBN: 0750697849
Release Date: 1998-03-11
Genre: Political Science

Explaining Crime, Fourth Edition, retains the exceptional organization and content of the original editions, with completely updated statistics and references. It is ideally suited for a one semester course that serves as an introduction to criminology by dealing with three issues: definition of crime, measurement of crime, and theories of crime. Throughout the text, the attitude is critical. Criticism rests on three standards: clarity of concepts, quality of evidence, and utility of theory for public policy.

Criminological Theory

Author: Stephen G. Tibbetts
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 9781412992343
Release Date: 2011-04-06
Genre: Social Science

Criminological Theory: The Essentials sheds light on some of history's most renowned criminologists and their theories. In addition, policy implications brought about by theoretical perspectives that have developed from recent critical work, together with practical applications, compel the reader to apply theories to the contemporary social milieu.

Continuity and Discontinuity in Criminal Careers

Author: Paul E. Tracy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306453479
Release Date: 1996-10-31
Genre: Political Science

It takes courage to do research on crime and delinquency. Such research is typically conducted in an atmosphere of concern about the problem it addresses and is typically justified as an attempt to discover new facts or to evaluate innovative programs or policies. When, as must often be the case, no new facts are forthcoming or innovative programs turn out not to work, hopes are dashed and time and money are felt to have been wasted. Because they take more time, longitudinal studies require even greater amounts of courage. If the potential for discovery is enhanced, so is the risk of wasted effort. Long-term longitudinal studies are thought to be especially risky for other reasons as well. Theories, issues, and sta tistical methods in vogue at the time they were planned may not be in vogue when they are finally executed. Perhaps worse, according to some perspectives, the structure of causal factors may shift during the execu tion of a longitudinal project such that in the end its findings apply to a reality that no longer exists. These fears and expectations assume an ever-changing world and a corresponding conception of research as a more or less disciplined search for news. Such ideas belittle the contributions of past research and leave us vulnerable to theories, programs, policies, and research agendas that may have only tenuous connections to research of any kind.

Youth Crime and Juvenile Justice Juvenile corrections

Author: Barry Goldson
Publisher:
ISBN: PSU:000066575269
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Juvenile delinquency

This three-volume set of original readings is designed to reveal how and why children and young people have been repeatedly the subject of adult concern, censure and intervention. It conceptualises notions of 'childhood', 'youth' and 'adolescence' whilst also tracing the complex history of adult intervention and juvenile justice. This collection is particularly timely not only because of persistent concerns over 'out of control' youth but also because of an apparent hardening of adult reactions in many jurisdictions. Youth justice...

Explaining crime

Author: Gwynn Nettler
Publisher: McGraw-Hill
ISBN: UOM:39015018345911
Release Date: 1984
Genre: Social Science


Addicted to Incarceration

Author: Travis C. Pratt
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 9781483343419
Release Date: 2008-09-02
Genre: Social Science

In Addicted to Incarceration, author Travis Pratt uses an evidence-based approach to explore the consequences of what he terms America's "addiction to incarceration," highlighting the scope of the problem, the nature of the political discussions surrounding criminal justice policy in general and corrections policy in particular, and the social cost of incarceration. Pratt demonstrates that the United States' addiction to incarceration has been fueled by American citizens' opinions about crime and punishment, the effectiveness of incarceration as a means of social control, and perhaps most important, by policies legitimized by faulty information (e.g.,fear of crime is objectively linked to victimization, petty offenders mature into violent predators, and persistent offending can be accurately predicted over the life course). Analyzing crime policies as they relate to crime rates and U.S. society's ability to both lower the crime rate and address the role of incarceration in preventing future crime, the book shows students how ineffective our rush to incarcerate has been in the last decade, as well as offering recommendations and insights into the future of this problem. Features Real world examples that put a human face on the issues open each chapter Race, ethnicity, and gender issues underlie all discussions and address key aspects of incarceration rates and crime trends The social costs of incarceration are explored, including the heightened inmate risk of personal victimization, incarceration's effect as a barrier to successful offender reintegration into society, and its role in exacerbating existing racial inequalities The final chapter contains conclusions and recommendations for future policy makers Written in an informal and accessible style, Addicted to Incarceration is appropriate for criminal justice policy or corrections courses at the undergraduate level and can also be used as a supplementary text in introductory criminal justice, criminology, and critical issues in criminal justice courses.

Shared Beginnings Divergent Lives

Author: John H. LAUB
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674039971
Release Date: 2009-06-30
Genre: Social Science

This book analyzes newly collected data on crime and social development up to age 70 for 500 men who were remanded to reform school in the 1940s. Born in Boston in the late 1920s and early 1930s, these men were the subjects of the classic study Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck (1950). Updating their lives at the close of the twentieth century, and connecting their adult experiences to childhood, this book is arguably the longest longitudinal study of age, crime, and the life course to date. John Laub and Robert Sampson's long-term data, combined with in-depth interviews, defy the conventional wisdom that links individual traits such as poor verbal skills, limited self-control, and difficult temperament to long-term trajectories of offending. The authors reject the idea of categorizing offenders to reveal etiologies of offending--rather, they connect variability in behavior to social context. They find that men who desisted from crime were rooted in structural routines and had strong social ties to family and community. By uniting life-history narratives with rigorous data analysis, the authors shed new light on long-term trajectories of crime and current policies of crime control. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments 1. Diverging Pathways of Troubled Boys 2. Persistence or Desistance? 3. Explaining the Life Course of Crime 4. Finding the Men 5. Long-Term Trajectories of Crime 6. Why Some Offenders Stop 7. Why Some Offenders Persist 8. Zigzag Criminal Careers 9. Modeling Change in Crime 10. Rethinking Lives in and out of Crime Notes References Index The accounts of individuals are quite riveting, and the book can be recommended strongly purely for the stories provided about diverse lives. However, the book is much, much more than that in terms of the serious challenge that the authors' findings and ideas present to some of the leading contemporary theories of both crime and development. A highly original and scholarly contribution of the highest quality. --Sir Michael Rutter, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London ttitleShared Beginnings, Divergent Lives is an extraordinary work which shows the deep insights gained by studying the whole life course, beginning in childhood and ending in later life. With access to a rare data archive, the authors provide compelling evidence on the remarkably varied adult lives of teenage delinquents who grew up in low-income areas of Boston (born 1925-1935). The story behind these varied life paths and their consequences inspires fresh thinking about crime over the life course through models of life trajectories and vivid narratives that reveal the complexity of lives. --Glen H. Elder, Jr., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill This book redraws the landscape of developmental criminology that Laub and Sampson already have done so much to define, setting new standards and benchmarks along the way. The authors both provide new evidence for earlier conclusions and challenge prevailing assumptions and assertions, thereby reshaping the criminological research agenda for years to come. --John Hagan, Northwestern University