Explanation in Causal Inference

Author: Tyler VanderWeele
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199325887
Release Date: 2015-02-13
Genre: Medical

The book provides an accessible but comprehensive overview of methods for mediation and interaction. There has been considerable and rapid methodological development on mediation and moderation/interaction analysis within the causal-inference literature over the last ten years. Much of this material appears in a variety of specialized journals, and some of the papers are quite technical. There has also been considerable interest in these developments from empirical researchers in the social and biomedical sciences. However, much of the material is not currently in a format that is accessible to them. The book closes these gaps by providing an accessible, comprehensive, book-length coverage of mediation. The book begins with a comprehensive introduction to mediation analysis, including chapters on concepts for mediation, regression-based methods, sensitivity analysis, time-to-event outcomes, methods for multiple mediators, methods for time-varying mediation and longitudinal data, and relations between mediation and other concepts involving intermediates such as surrogates, principal stratification, instrumental variables, and Mendelian randomization. The second part of the book concerns interaction or "moderation," including concepts for interaction, statistical interaction, confounding and interaction, mechanistic interaction, bias analysis for interaction, interaction in genetic studies, and power and sample-size calculation for interaction. The final part of the book provides comprehensive discussion about the relationships between mediation and interaction and unites these concepts within a single framework. This final part also provides an introduction to spillover effects or social interaction, concluding with a discussion of social-network analyses. The book is written to be accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of statistics. Comprehensive appendices provide more technical details for the interested reader. Applied empirical examples from a variety of fields are given throughout. Software implementation in SAS, Stata, SPSS, and R is provided. The book should be accessible to students and researchers who have completed a first-year graduate sequence in quantitative methods in one of the social- or biomedical-sciences disciplines. The book will only presuppose familiarity with linear and logistic regression, and could potentially be used as an advanced undergraduate book as well.

Counterfactuals and Causal Inference

Author: Stephen L. Morgan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107065079
Release Date: 2014-11-24
Genre: Mathematics

This new edition aims to convince social scientists to take a counterfactual approach to the core questions of their fields.

Causal Inference in Statistics

Author: Judea Pearl
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119186847
Release Date: 2016-03-07
Genre: Mathematics

Causal Inference in Statistics: A Primer Judea Pearl, Computer Science and Statistics, University of California Los Angeles, USA Madelyn Glymour, Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA and Nicholas P. Jewell, Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley, USA Causality is central to the understanding and use of data. Without an understanding of cause effect relationships, we cannot use data to answer questions as basic as, “Does this treatment harm or help patients?” But though hundreds of introductory texts are available on statistical methods of data analysis, until now, no beginner-level book has been written about the exploding arsenal of methods that can tease causal information from data. Causal Inference in Statistics fills that gap. Using simple examples and plain language, the book lays out how to define causal parameters; the assumptions necessary to estimate causal parameters in a variety of situations; how to express those assumptions mathematically; whether those assumptions have testable implications; how to predict the effects of interventions; and how to reason counterfactually. These are the foundational tools that any student of statistics needs to acquire in order to use statistical methods to answer causal questions of interest. This book is accessible to anyone with an interest in interpreting data, from undergraduates, professors, researchers, or to the interested layperson. Examples are drawn from a wide variety of fields, including medicine, public policy, and law; a brief introduction to probability and statistics is provided for the uninitiated; and each chapter comes with study questions to reinforce the readers understanding.

Introduction to Mediation Moderation and Conditional Process Analysis Second Edition

Author: Andrew F. Hayes
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 9781462534654
Release Date: 2017-12-13
Genre: Social Science

Lauded for its easy-to-understand, conversational discussion of the fundamentals of mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis, this book has been fully revised with 50% new content, including sections on working with multicategorical antecedent variables, the use of PROCESS version 3 for SPSS and SAS for model estimation, and annotated PROCESS v3 outputs. Using the principles of ordinary least squares regression, Andrew F. Hayes carefully explains procedures for testing hypotheses about the conditions under and the mechanisms by which causal effects operate, as well as the moderation of such mechanisms. Hayes shows how to estimate and interpret direct, indirect, and conditional effects; probe and visualize interactions; test questions about moderated mediation; and report different types of analyses. Data for all the examples are available on the companion website (www.afhayes.com), along with links to download PROCESS. New to This Edition *Chapters on using each type of analysis with multicategorical antecedent variables. *Example analyses using PROCESS v3, with annotated outputs throughout the book. *More tips and advice, including new or revised discussions of formally testing moderation of a mechanism using the index of moderated mediation; effect size in mediation analysis; comparing conditional effects in models with more than one moderat∨ using R code for visualizing interactions; distinguishing between testing interaction and probing it; and more. *Rewritten Appendix A, which provides the only documentation of PROCESS v3, including 13 new preprogrammed models that combine moderation with serial mediation or parallel and serial mediation. *Appendix B, describing how to create customized models in PROCESS v3 or edit preprogrammed models.

Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research

Author: Stephen L. Morgan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400760943
Release Date: 2013-04-22
Genre: Social Science

What constitutes a causal explanation, and must an explanation be causal? What warrants a causal inference, as opposed to a descriptive regularity? What techniques are available to detect when causal effects are present, and when can these techniques be used to identify the relative importance of these effects? What complications do the interactions of individuals create for these techniques? When can mixed methods of analysis be used to deepen causal accounts? Must causal claims include generative mechanisms, and how effective are empirical methods designed to discover them? The Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research tackles these questions with nineteen chapters from leading scholars in sociology, statistics, public health, computer science, and human development.

Experimental and Quasi experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference

Author: William R. Shadish
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company
ISBN: 0395615569
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Philosophy

This long awaited successor of the original Cook/Campbell Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings represents updates in the field over the last two decades. The book covers four major topics in field experimentation: Theoretical matters: Experimentation, causation, and validity Quasi-experimental design: Regression discontinuity designs, interrupted time series designs, quasi-experimental designs that use both pretests and control groups, and other designs Randomized experiments: Logic and design issues, and practical problems involving ethics, recruitment, assignment, treatment implementation, and attrition Generalized causal inference: A grounded theory of generalized causal inference, along with methods for implementing that theory in single and multiple studies

Theory Based Data Analysis for the Social Sciences

Author: Carol S. Aneshensel
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781412994354
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Social Science

This book presents a method for bringing data analysis and statistical technique into line with theory. The author begins by describing the elaboration model for analyzing the empirical association between variables. She then introduces a new concept into this model, the focal relationship. Building upon the focal relationship as the cornerstone for all subsequent analysis, two analytic strategies are developed to establish its internal validity: an exclusionary strategy to eliminate alternative explanations, and an inclusive strategy which looks at the interconnected set of relationships predicted by theory. Using real examples of social research, the author demonstrates the use of this approach for two common forms of analysis, multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Whether learning data analysis for the first time or adding new techniques to your repertoire, this book provides an excellent basis for theory-based data analysis.

The Sage Handbook of Methods in Social Psychology

Author: Carol Sansone
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9780761925361
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Medical

The genius of social psychology as a field has been its ability to investigate the seemingly complicated behaviors that characterize humans as social creatures. The SAGE Handbook of Methods in Social Psychology simplifies this complexity by providing researchers and students with an overview of the rich history of methodological innovation in both basic and applied research within social psychology. This Handbook is a vital resource for behavioral scientists in the academic and research settings who are interested in learning about modern perspectives on classic and innovative methodological approaches in social psychology. Also recommended for undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in social psychology methods courses.

Foundations of program evaluation

Author: William R. Shadish
Publisher: Sage
ISBN: UCSC:32106009516524
Release Date: 1991
Genre: Education

This book heralds a thorough exploration of the field of program evaluation -- looking back on its origins. By summarizing, comparing, and contrasting the work of seven major theorists of program evaluation, this book provides an important perspective on the current state of evaluation theory and provides suggestions for ways of improving its practice. The authors develop a conceptual framework to analyze how successfully each theory meets the specific criteria of its framework. Each subsequent chapter is devoted to the presentation of the theoretical and practical advice of a significant theorist.

Encyclopedia of sociology

Author: Edgar F. Borgatta
Publisher: Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing
ISBN: UOM:39015021518454
Release Date: 1992
Genre: Sociology