Explanation in Causal Inference

Author: Tyler VanderWeele
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199325887
Release Date: 2015-02-13
Genre: Medical

The book provides an accessible but comprehensive overview of methods for mediation and interaction. There has been considerable and rapid methodological development on mediation and moderation/interaction analysis within the causal-inference literature over the last ten years. Much of this material appears in a variety of specialized journals, and some of the papers are quite technical. There has also been considerable interest in these developments from empirical researchers in the social and biomedical sciences. However, much of the material is not currently in a format that is accessible to them. The book closes these gaps by providing an accessible, comprehensive, book-length coverage of mediation. The book begins with a comprehensive introduction to mediation analysis, including chapters on concepts for mediation, regression-based methods, sensitivity analysis, time-to-event outcomes, methods for multiple mediators, methods for time-varying mediation and longitudinal data, and relations between mediation and other concepts involving intermediates such as surrogates, principal stratification, instrumental variables, and Mendelian randomization. The second part of the book concerns interaction or "moderation," including concepts for interaction, statistical interaction, confounding and interaction, mechanistic interaction, bias analysis for interaction, interaction in genetic studies, and power and sample-size calculation for interaction. The final part of the book provides comprehensive discussion about the relationships between mediation and interaction and unites these concepts within a single framework. This final part also provides an introduction to spillover effects or social interaction, concluding with a discussion of social-network analyses. The book is written to be accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of statistics. Comprehensive appendices provide more technical details for the interested reader. Applied empirical examples from a variety of fields are given throughout. Software implementation in SAS, Stata, SPSS, and R is provided. The book should be accessible to students and researchers who have completed a first-year graduate sequence in quantitative methods in one of the social- or biomedical-sciences disciplines. The book will only presuppose familiarity with linear and logistic regression, and could potentially be used as an advanced undergraduate book as well.

Explanation in Causal Inference

Author: Tyler VanderWeele
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199325870
Release Date: 2015
Genre: Psychology

"A comprehensive book on methods for mediation and interaction. The only book to approach this topic from the perspective of causal inference. Numerous software tools provided. Easy-to-read and accessible. Examples drawn from diverse fields. An essential reference for anyone conducting empirical research in the biomedical or social sciences"--

Introduction to Statistical Mediation Analysis

Author: David MacKinnon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136676130
Release Date: 2012-10-02
Genre: Medical

This volume introduces the statistical, methodological, and conceptual aspects of mediation analysis. Applications from health, social, and developmental psychology, sociology, communication, exercise science, and epidemiology are emphasized throughout. Single-mediator, multilevel, and longitudinal models are reviewed. The author's goal is to help the reader apply mediation analysis to their own data and understand its limitations. Each chapter features an overview, numerous worked examples, a summary, and exercises (with answers to the odd numbered questions). The accompanying CD contains outputs described in the book from SAS, SPSS, LISREL, EQS, MPLUS, and CALIS, and a program to simulate the model. The notation used is consistent with existing literature on mediation in psychology. The book opens with a review of the types of research questions the mediation model addresses. Part II describes the estimation of mediation effects including assumptions, statistical tests, and the construction of confidence limits. Advanced models including mediation in path analysis, longitudinal models, multilevel data, categorical variables, and mediation in the context of moderation are then described. The book closes with a discussion of the limits of mediation analysis, additional approaches to identifying mediating variables, and future directions. Introduction to Statistical Mediation Analysis is intended for researchers and advanced students in health, social, clinical, and developmental psychology as well as communication, public health, nursing, epidemiology, and sociology. Some exposure to a graduate level research methods or statistics course is assumed. The overview of mediation analysis and the guidelines for conducting a mediation analysis will be appreciated by all readers.

Mediation Analysis

Author: Dawn Iacobucci
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781412925693
Release Date: 2008-04-01
Genre: Mathematics

Social science data analysts have long considered the mediation of intermediate variables of primary importance in understanding individuals' social, behavioural and other kinds of outcomes. In this book Dawn Iacobucci uses the method known as structural equation modeling (SEM) in modeling mediation in causal analysis. This approach offers the most flexibility and allows the researcher to deal with mediation in the presence of multiple measures, mediated moderation, and moderated mediation, among other variations on the mediation theme. The wide availability of software implementing SEM gives the reader necessary tools for modeling mediation so that a proper understanding of causal relationship is achieved.

Causality in a Social World

Author: Guanglei Hong
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119030607
Release Date: 2015-06-09
Genre: Mathematics

Causality in a Social World introduces innovative new statistical research and strategies for investigating moderated intervention effects, mediated intervention effects, and spill-over effects using experimental or quasi-experimental data. The book uses potential outcomes to define causal effects, explains and evaluates identification assumptions using application examples, and compares innovative statistical strategies with conventional analysis methods. Whilst highlighting the crucial role of good research design and the evaluation of assumptions required for identifying causal effects in the context of each application, the author demonstrates that improved statistical procedures will greatly enhance the empirical study of causal relationship theory. Applications focus on interventions designed to improve outcomes for participants who are embedded in social settings, including families, classrooms, schools, neighbourhoods, and workplaces.

Counterfactuals and Causal Inference

Author: Stephen L. Morgan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107065079
Release Date: 2014-11-24
Genre: Mathematics

This new edition aims to convince social scientists to take a counterfactual approach to the core questions of their fields.

Methods in Social Epidemiology

Author: J. Michael Oakes
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118603734
Release Date: 2017-02-21
Genre: Medical

A thorough, practical reference on the social patterns behind health outcomes Methods in Social Epidemiology provides students and professionals with a comprehensive reference for studying the social distribution and social determinants of health. Covering the theory, models, and methods used to measure and analyze these phenomena, this book serves as both an introduction to the field and a practical manual for data collection and analysis. This new second edition has been updated to reflect the field's tremendous growth in recent years, including advancements in statistical modeling and study designs. New chapters delve into genetic methods, structural cofounding, selection bias, network methods, and more, including new discussion on qualitative data collection with disadvantaged populations. Social epidemiology studies the way society's innumerable social interactions, both past and present, yields different exposures and health outcomes between individuals within populations. This book provides a thorough, detailed overview of the field, with expert guidance toward the real-world methods that fuel the latest advances. Identify, measure, and track health patterns in the population Discover how poverty, race, and socioeconomic factors become risk factors for disease Learn qualitative data collection techniques and methods of statistical analysis Examine up-to-date models, theory, and frameworks in the social epidemiology sphere As the field continues to evolve, researchers continue to identify new disease-specific risk factors and learn more about how the social system promotes and maintains well-known exposure disparities. New technology in data science and genomics allows for more rigorous investigation and analysis, while the general thinking in the field has become more targeted and attentive to causal inference and core assumptions behind effect identification. It's an exciting time to be a part of the field, and Methods in Social Epidemiology provides a solid reference for any student, researcher, or faculty in public health.

Age Period Cohort Analysis

Author: Yang Yang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781466507531
Release Date: 2016-04-19
Genre: Mathematics

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications is based on a decade of the authors’ collaborative work in age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Within a single, consistent HAPC-GLMM statistical modeling framework, the authors synthesize APC models and methods for three research designs: age-by-time period tables of population rates or proportions, repeated cross-section sample surveys, and accelerated longitudinal panel studies. The authors show how the empirical application of the models to various problems leads to many fascinating findings on how outcome variables develop along the age, period, and cohort dimensions. The book makes two essential contributions to quantitative studies of time-related change. Through the introduction of the GLMM framework, it shows how innovative estimation methods and new model specifications can be used to tackle the "model identification problem" that has hampered the development and empirical application of APC analysis. The book also addresses the major criticism against APC analysis by explaining the use of new models within the GLMM framework to uncover mechanisms underlying age patterns and temporal trends. Encompassing both methodological expositions and empirical studies, this book explores the ways in which statistical models, methods, and research designs can be used to open new possibilities for APC analysis. It compares new and existing models and methods and provides useful guidelines on how to conduct APC analysis. For empirical illustrations, the text incorporates examples from a variety of disciplines, such as sociology, demography, and epidemiology. Along with details on empirical analyses, software and programs to estimate the models are available on the book’s web page.

Epidemiology E Book

Author: Leon Gordis
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 9781455742516
Release Date: 2013-11-14
Genre: Medical

Epidemiology, by award-winning educator and epidemiologist Leon Gordis, is a best-selling introduction to this complex science. Dr. Gordis leverages his vast experience teaching this subject in the classroom to introduce the basic principles and concepts of epidemiology in a clear, uniquely memorable way. He guides you from an explanation of the epidemiologic approach to disease and intervention, through the use of epidemiologic principles to identify the causes of disease, to a discussion of how epidemiology should be used to improve evaluation and public policy. It’s your best choice for an accessible yet rich understanding of epidemiology! Gain a solid foundation of basic epidemiologic principles as well as practical applications in public health and clinical practice. Visualize concepts vividly through abundant full-color figures, graphs, and charts. Check your understanding of essential information with 120 multiple-choice epidemiology self-assessment questions. Master the latest nuances in epidemiology thanks to a wealth of new and updated illustrations, examples, and epidemiologic data.

Applied Spatial Statistics for Public Health Data

Author: Lance A. Waller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471662674
Release Date: 2004-07-29
Genre: Mathematics

An application-based introduction to the statistical analysis of spatially referenced health data Sparked by the growing interest in statistical methods for the analysis of spatially referenced data in the field of public health, Applied Spatial Statistics for Public Health Data fills the need for an introductory, application-oriented text on this timely subject. Written for practicing public health researchers as well as graduate students in related fields, the text provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts and methods in applied spatial statistics as well as a detailed treatment of some of the more recent methods in spatial statistics useful for public health studies that have not been previously covered elsewhere. Assuming minimal knowledge of spatial statistics, the authors provide important statistical approaches for assessing such questions as: Are newly occurring cases of a disease "clustered" in space? Do the cases cluster around suspected sources of increased risk, such as toxic waste sites or other environmental hazards? How do we take monitored pollution concentrations measured at specific locations and interpolate them to locations where no measurements were taken? How do we quantify associations between local disease rates and local exposures? After reviewing traditional statistical methods used in public health research, the text provides an overview of the basic features of spatial data, illustrates various geographic mapping and visualization tools, and describes the sources of publicly available spatial data that might be useful in public health applications.

The Statistical Analysis of Recurrent Events

Author: Richard J. Cook
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387698090
Release Date: 2007-08-02
Genre: Medical

This book presents models and statistical methods for the analysis of recurrent event data. The authors provide broad, detailed coverage of the major approaches to analysis, while emphasizing the modeling assumptions that they are based on. More general intensity-based models are also considered, as well as simpler models that focus on rate or mean functions. Parametric, nonparametric and semiparametric methodologies are all covered, with procedures for estimation, testing and model checking.

Statistical Methods in Genetic Epidemiology

Author: Duncan C. Thomas
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199748055
Release Date: 2004-01-29
Genre: Medical

This well-organized and clearly written text has a unique focus on methods of identifying the joint effects of genes and environment on disease patterns. It follows the natural sequence of research, taking readers through the study designs and statistical analysis techniques for determining whether a trait runs in families, testing hypotheses about whether a familial tendency is due to genetic or environmental factors or both, estimating the parameters of a genetic model, localizing and ultimately isolating the responsible genes, and finally characterizing their effects in the population. Examples from the literature on the genetic epidemiology of breast and colorectal cancer, among other diseases, illustrate this process. Although the book is oriented primarily towards graduate students in epidemiology, biostatistics and human genetics, it will also serve as a comprehensive reference work for researchers. Introductory chapters on molecular biology, Mendelian genetics, epidemiology, statistics, and population genetics will help make the book accessible to those coming from one of these fields without a background in the others. It strikes a good balance between epidemiologic study designs and statistical methods of data analysis.

Mendelian Randomization

Author: Stephen Burgess
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781466573185
Release Date: 2015-03-06
Genre: Mathematics

Presents the Terminology and Methods of Mendelian Randomization for Epidemiological Studies Mendelian randomization uses genetic instrumental variables to make inferences about causal effects based on observational data. It, therefore, can be a reliable way of assessing the causal nature of risk factors, such as biomarkers, for a wide range of disease outcomes. Mendelian Randomization: Methods for Using Genetic Variants in Causal Estimation provides thorough coverage of the methods and practical elements of Mendelian randomization analysis. It brings together diverse aspects of Mendelian randomization spanning epidemiology, statistics, genetics, and econometrics. Although the book mainly focuses on epidemiology, much of the material can be applied to other areas of research. Through several examples, the first part of the book shows how to perform simple applied Mendelian randomization analyses and interpret their results. The second part addresses specific methodological issues, such as weak instruments, multiple instruments, power calculations, and meta-analysis, relevant to practical applications of Mendelian randomization. In this part, the authors draw on data from the C-reactive protein Coronary heart disease Genetics Collaboration (CCGC) to illustrate the analyses. They present the mathematics in an easy-to-understand way by using nontechnical language and reinforcing key points at the end of each chapter. The last part of the book examines the potential of Mendelian randomization in the future, exploring both methodological and applied developments. This book gives statisticians, epidemiologists, and geneticists the foundation to understand issues concerning the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables. It will get them up to speed in undertaking and interpreting Mendelian randomization analyses. Chapter summaries, paper summaries, web-based applications, and software code for implementing the statistical techniques are available on a supplementary website.

Missing Data in Longitudinal Studies

Author: Michael J. Daniels
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420011189
Release Date: 2008-03-11
Genre: Mathematics

Drawing from the authors’ own work and from the most recent developments in the field, Missing Data in Longitudinal Studies: Strategies for Bayesian Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis describes a comprehensive Bayesian approach for drawing inference from incomplete data in longitudinal studies. To illustrate these methods, the authors employ several data sets throughout that cover a range of study designs, variable types, and missing data issues. The book first reviews modern approaches to formulate and interpret regression models for longitudinal data. It then discusses key ideas in Bayesian inference, including specifying prior distributions, computing posterior distribution, and assessing model fit. The book carefully describes the assumptions needed to make inferences about a full-data distribution from incompletely observed data. For settings with ignorable dropout, it emphasizes the importance of covariance models for inference about the mean while for nonignorable dropout, the book studies a variety of models in detail. It concludes with three case studies that highlight important features of the Bayesian approach for handling nonignorable missingness. With suggestions for further reading at the end of most chapters as well as many applications to the health sciences, this resource offers a unified Bayesian approach to handle missing data in longitudinal studies.