Author: Sarah K. Fields
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
Release Date: 2010-10-01
Genre: Sports & Recreation
Female Gladiators examines the legal and social history of the right of women to participate with men in contact sports. The impetus to begin legal proceedings was the 1972 enactment of Title IX, which prohibited discrimination in educational settings, but it was the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution and the equal rights amendments of state constitutions that ultimately opened doors. Despite court rulings, however, many in American society resisted--and continue to resist--allowing girls in dugouts and other spaces traditionally defined as male territories. When the leagues continued to bar girls simply because they were not boys, the girls went to court. Sarah K. Fields examines the legal and cultural conflicts over gender and contact sports that continue to rage today.
Author: Ellen J. Staurowsky
Publisher: Human Kinetics
Release Date: 2016-07-07
Genre: Social Science
Women and Sport: Continuing a Journey of Liberation and Celebration focuses on women winning access to the playing field as well as the front office in sport. Readers will gain an understanding of how women have been involved in sport and physical activity, how they have struggled for widespread recognition and legitimacy in the eyes of many, and how they continue to carve out their role in shaping sport as we know it today and as it will be in the future. Edited by renowned expert Ellen J. Staurowsky, widely accepted as an authority on college athlete rights and Title IX and gender equity, Women and Sport facilitates interdisciplinary, research-based discussion by providing a detailed account of contributions from women in sport. The text features a foreword by sport executive Donna Orender and 15 chapters—written by leading authorities in women and gender studies in sport—that are grouped into four parts: • Women’s Sport in Context: Connecting Past and Present reminds readers of the historical events and influences that shape today’s landscape. • Strong Girls, Strong Women recognizes gender differences and what it means to create equitable access to sport opportunities. • Women, Sport, and Social Location explores how various characteristics and qualities may affect sport participation and opportunities. • Women in the Sport Industry offers a rare and contemporary approach to examining women in sport leadership, management, and media. Women and Sport was developed with the intent of filling a need by serving as a primary textbook and separates itself from other titles by providing an abundance of instructor ancillary materials that assist in class preparations. Pedagogical aids such as objectives, glossary terms, discussion questions, and learning activities in each chapter facilitate student understanding of the material covered. Sidebars throughout the text enable the contributors to provide thought-provoking content on topics such as media coverage of female athletes, how female athletes are used in marketing campaigns, and whether athletic competitions should continue to be segregated by sex. Readers will discover the impact of these topics in many areas of society, from biomedical to psychosocial and historical. Through its engaging content, Women and Sport: Continuing a Journey of Liberation and Celebration serves as a launching pad for discussions that will shape society’s ongoing conversation about what it means to be a female athlete or a woman working in sport. It is an ideal textbook for adoption in interdisciplinary courses that focus on women and gender studies in sport.
Author: Kevin Young
Release Date: 2013-06-17
Genre: Social Science
Is violence an intrinsic component of contemporary sport? How does violence within sport reflect upon the attitudes of wider society? In this landmark study of violence in and around contemporary sport, Kevin Young offers the first comprehensive sociological analysis of an issue of central importance within sport studies. The book explores organized and spontaneous violence, both on the field and off, and calls for a much broader definition of ‘sports-related violence’, to include issues as diverse as criminal behaviour by players, abuse within sport and exploitatory labor practices. Offering a sophisticated new theoretical framework for understanding violence in a sporting context, and including a wide range of case-studies and empirical data – from professional soccer in Europe to ice hockey in North America – the book establishes a benchmark for the study of violence within sport and wider society. Through close examination of often contradictory trends, from anti-violence initiatives in professional sports leagues to the role of the media in encouraging hyper-aggression, the book throws new light on our understanding of the socially-embedded character of sport and its fundamental ties to history, culture, politics, social class, gender and the law.
Author: Kevin Young
Publisher: Don Mills, Ont. : Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Social Science
This contributed volume includes articles on sport and gender written by leading scholars in their areas of expertise. Part I demonstrates that 1) the relationship between sport and gender has not developed in a smooth, uncontested, or linear way that always privileges all males and always discriminates against all females, and 2) that the relationship between sport and gender can best be understood sociologically by tracing the intersections between sport, gender, and other ways that Canadian life has been - and remains - stratified, such as social class, age, race, ethnicity, and sexuality. In Chapter 1, Melissa Parker and Philip White explore the chronological development of theoretical frameworks addressing both the gendering of sport and what it means to be gendered in sport. Michael Atkinson argues in Chapter 2 that there is a strong link between types of research methods used and knowledge claims made by researchers. In 'Cultural Struggle and Resistance: Gender, History and Canadian Sport', M. Ann Hall traces the early moments of organized women's sport in Canada to show that women's sport in Canada is built on far stronger foundations than is often assumed. In the following chapter, Kevin Wamsley argues that not all men were privileged by early Canadian sport practices. For instance, he outlines the process through which sport became an arena for the construction of particular types of masculinity, notably masculinities that helped reinforce the dominance of powerful groups of men. Beginning from the premise that Canadian society - and thus Canadian sport - is far from 'classless', Peter Donnelly and Jean Harvey provide numerous examples in Chapter 6 to show that there have been major social class and gender inequalities throughout the history of sport. Again, we are reminded that gender is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that can best be understood if we trace power differences not only between different groups of men and womenbut also between different versions of 'masculinity' and 'femininity' associated with particular social groups, social classes, and social settings. Part II of this book focuses on the work currently being done by leading researchers in the area of sport and gender in Canada on a broad spectrum of sport-related topics. The chapters reflect a variety of theoretical standpoints and methodological procedures. These chapters emphasize the need to study gender in a way that is not only non-categorical but perhaps moves beyond the distributive level towards understanding how sport assumes particular forms at particular historical junctures and grows out of relations of power that are determined culturally and reinforced ideologically. In Chapter 6, Sally Shaw and Larena Hoeber show how the prevalence of gendered discourses hinders the achievement of gender equity in Canadian amateur sport organizations. The idea that there is no singular masculinity and femininity operating withinCanadian sport is developed in Chapter 7 in which Philip White and Kevin Young review research findings on gender and rates and types of sport injury. In Chapter 8 Caroline Davis observes that some femininities are more closely associated with body image disorders than others and discusses the biological, sociological, and psychological factors acting on the relationship between sport, physical activity, and eating disorders. Chapter 9 by Peter Donnelly ('Who's Fair Game? Sport, Sexual Harassment, and Abuse') identifies how power differences tend to exist at the heart of abusive and exploitive sport-based relationships. Notions of power relations are also central to Chapter 10 written by Patricia Vertinsky and Sandra O'Brien Cousins on the effects of gender on participation in sport among older Canadians. Specifically, their chapter demonstrates how older women are disadvantaged relative to men when it comes to involvement in sport and physical activity. Victoria Paraschak's chapter on sport and Canada's First Nations peoples (Chapter 11) provides vivid examples of how unequal gender relations are created and reproduced over time. Chapter 12 calls for a collapsing of the rigid binary categories of hetero/homosexuality on the grounds that these are used to preclude full and equal gay and lesbian participation in sport. Identifying patterns of exclusion from participation in sport and physical activity is also the focus of Chapter 13 which is authored by Wendy Frisby,Colleen Reid and Pamela Ponic. This chapter demonstrates how a combination of poverty and prevailing municipal recreation department policies seriously limit the opportunities of many women from active recreation. In Chapter 14, Brian Wilson explores how the media reinforces taken-for-granted understandings of gender-appropriate orientations toward the body and sport. In the following chapter, Jamie Bryshun and Kevin Young provide some of the first substantial evidence for the routine involvement of female athletes in initiation (hazing) rituals in Canada and conclude that power relations between neophyte and veteran female players may be just as aggressive, coercive, and high-risk as those occurring on male teams. Sport and Gender in Canada reflects a growing body of work highlighting the diversity that exists among Canadian sportswomen and sportsmen in terms of factors such as age, race, heritage, sexuality, and social class. To speak of a 'generic' sporting masculinity or femininity, or indeed of a generic sporting experience, simply does not do justice to the complexity of Canadian sporting life.
Author: Sarah K. Fields
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
Release Date: 2016-05-30
Sports figures cope with a level of celebrity once reserved for the stars of stage and screen. In Game Faces , Sarah K. Fields looks at the legal ramifications of the cases brought by six of them--golfer Tiger Woods, quarterback Joe Montana, college football coach Wally Butts, baseball pitchers Warren Spahn and Don Newcombe, and hockey enforcer Tony Twist--when faced with what they considered attacks on their privacy and image. Placing each case in its historical and legal context, Fields examines how sports figures in the U.S. have used the law to regain control of their image. As she shows, decisions in the cases significantly affected the evolution of laws related to privacy, defamation, and publicity--areas pertinent to the lives of the famous sports figure and the non-famous consumer alike. She also tells the stories of why the plaintiffs sought relief in the courts, uncovering motives that delved into the heart of issues separating individual rights from the public's perceived right to know. A fascinating exploration of a still-evolving phenomenon, Game Faces is an essential look at the legal playing fields that influence our enjoyment of sports.
Author: Rae Dawn Comstock
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Rugby football injuries
Rugby, a full contact sport played recreationally by both men and women, exposes participants to a high risk of injury. This cross-sectional study explored the patterns of injury among female rugby players in the U.S. and investigated several potential risk factors. A convenience sample of 364 females playing rugby in the U.S. was surveyed. Players had a mean age of 25.7 years. The majority of players (83.0%) had sustained an injury within their most recent 3 months of play. The general patterns of injury, reported as prevalence rates, indicated the most commonly injured body site was the head (28.3%) followed by knee (27.5%), fingers (27.5%), shoulder (26.4%), neck (21.4%), and ankle (21.2%). The types of injuries reported included strains/sprains (33.2%), concussions (11.5%), tears (7.7%), fractures (6.9%), and dislocations (5.5%). Patterns of injury were also investigated in terms of a strict study definition of injury. When only considering injuries sustained within the most recent three months which caused players to seek professional medical attention or prevented participation in rugby activities or normal work/school activities for ≥seven days, 159 of the 364 players (43.7%) were classified as injured. Among these 159 individuals, the sites most often injured, reported as prevalence rates, were shoulder (24.8%) followed by knee (22.9%), ankle (15.3%), and head (13.4%). Types of injuries sustained included strains/sprains (47.1%), tears (17.4%), fractures (16.1%), concussions (12.3%), and dislocations (11.0%). Over a third of the injured players reported sustaining injuries to more than one site (37.6%) and injuries of more than one type (33.6%) at their most recent injury event. The tackle was the phase of play most commonly associated with injury. Additionally, 12.7% of the injured players believed they had been injured as the result of foul play. Multivariate analyses found that while unpenalized foul play was significantly associated with injury, the use of protective equipment, warming up prior to playing, alcohol use, and a willingness to take risks were not associated with injury. The results of a comprehensive examination of injury in U.S. female rugby players had not been previously reported. Thus, this study fills a unique position.
Author: Paula S. Fass
Publisher: MacMillan Reference Library
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Juvenile Nonfiction
This encyclopedia presents the social and cultural history of childhood from antiquity to the present through articles on education, parenting, child labor, economics, images of childhood, children's literature, play, toys and games, health, physiology, law, the criminal justice system and social welfare. Comparative articles include information about childhood in cultures throughout the world.