Fifty Years of Quasars

Author: Mauro D'Onofrio
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642275630
Release Date: 2012-06-30
Genre: Science

Formatted as a series of interviews with noted researchers in the field, this book reviews the history of quasar research and describes how advances in instrumentation and computation have aided quasar astronomy and changed our basic understanding of quasars.

From the Realm of the Nebulae to Populations of Galaxies

Author: Mauro D'Onofrio
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319310060
Release Date: 2016-07-26
Genre: Science

In order to outline possible future directions in galaxy research, this book wants to be a short stopover, a moment of self-reflection of the past century of achievements in this area. Since the pioneering years of galaxy research in the early 20th century, the research on galaxies has seen a relentless advance directly connected to the parallel exponential growth of new technologies. Through a series of interviews with distinguished astronomers the editors provide a snapshot of the achievements obtained in understanding galaxies. While many initial questions about their nature have been addressed, many are still open and require new efforts to achieve a solution. The discussions may reveal paradigms worthwhile revisiting. With the help of some of those scientists who have contributed to it, the editors sketch the history of this scientific journey and ask them for inspirations for future directions of galaxy research.

Quasars at All Cosmic Epochs

Author: Paola Marziani
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 9782889456048
Release Date: 2018-10-05

The last 50 years have seen a tremendous progress in the research on quasars. From a time when quasars were unforeseen oddities, we have come to a view that considers quasars as active galactic nuclei, with nuclear activity a coming-of-age experienced by most or all galaxies in their evolution. We have passed from a few tens of known quasars of the early 1970s to the 500,000 listed in the catalogue of the Data Release 14 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Not surprisingly, accretion processes on the central black holes in the nuclei of galaxies — the key concept in our understanding of quasars and active nuclei in general — have gained an outstanding status in present-day astrophysics. Accretion produces a rich spectrum of phenomena in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The power output of highly-accreting quasars has impressive effects on their host galaxies. All the improvement in telescope light gathering and in computing power notwithstanding, we still miss a clear connection between observational properties and theory for quasars, as provided, for example, by the H-R diagram for stars. We do not yet have a complete self-consistent view of nuclear activity with predictive power, as we do for main-sequence stellar sources. At the same time quasars offer many “windows open onto the unknown". On small scales, quasar properties depend on phenomena very close to the black hole event horizon. On large scales, quasars may effect evolution of host galaxies and their circum-galactic environments. Quasars’ potential to map the matter density of the Universe and help reconstruct the Universe’s spacetime geometry is still largely unexploited. The times are ripe for a critical assessment of our present knowledge of quasars as accreting black holes and of their evolution across the cosmic time. The foremost aim of this research topic is to review and contextualize the main observational scenarios following an empirical approach, to present and discuss the accretion scenario, and then to analyze how a closer connection between theory and observation can be achieved, identifying those aspects of our understanding that are still on a shaky terrain and are therefore uncertain knowledge. This research topic covers topics ranging from the nearest environment of the black hole, to the environment of the host galaxies of active nuclei, and to the quasars as markers of the large scale structure and of the geometry of spacetime of the Universe. The spatial domains encompass the accretion disk, the emission and absorption regions, circum-nuclear starbursts, the host galaxy and its interaction with other galaxies. Systematic attention is devoted to some key problems that remain outstanding and are clearly not yet solved: the existence of two quasar classes, radio quiet and radio loud, and in general, the systematic contextualization of quasar properties the properties of the central black hole, the dynamics of the accretion flow in the inner parsecs and the origin of the accretion matter, the quasars’ small and large scale environment, the feedback processes produced by the black hole into the host galaxy, quasar evolutionary patterns from seed black holes to the present-day Universe, and the use of quasars as cosmological standard candles. The timing is appropriate as we are now witnessing a growing body of results from major surveys in the optical, UV X, near and far IR, and radio spectral domains. Radio instrumentation has been upgraded to linear detector — a change that resembles the introduction of CCDs for optical astronomy — making it possible to study radio-quiet quasars at radio frequencies. Herschel and ALMA are especially suited to study the circum-nuclear star formation processes. The new generation of 3D magnetohydrodynamical models offers the prospective of a full physical modeling of the whole quasar emitting regions. At the same time, on the forefront of optical astronomy, applications of adaptive optics to long-slit spectroscopy is yielding unprecedented results on high redshift quasars. Other measurement techniques like 2D and photometric reverberation mapping are also yielding an unprecedented amount of data thanks to dedicated experiments and instruments. Thanks to the instrumental advances, ever growing computing power as well as the coming of age of statistical and analysis techniques, the smallest spatial scales are being probed at unprecedented resolution for wide samples of quasars. On large scales, feedback processes are going out of the realm of single-object studies and are entering into the domain of issues involving efficiency and prevalence over a broad range of cosmic epochs. The Research Topic "Quasars at all Cosmic Epochs" collects a large fraction of the contributions presented at a meeting held in Padova, sponsored jointly by the National Institute for Astrophysics, the Padova Astronomical Observatory, the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of Padova, and the Instito de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) of the Consejo Superiór de Investigación Cientifica (CSIC). The meeting has been part of the events meant to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the Padova Observatory.

Tidal Streams in the Local Group and Beyond

Author: Heidi Jo Newberg
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319193366
Release Date: 2015-12-29
Genre: Science

This volume is written by leading scientists in the field, who review the current state of our knowledge of tidal streams in the Milky Way, the Andromeda galaxy, and in other nearby galaxies. The cosmological origins of dwarf galaxies and the physical processes by which they are tidally disrupted into streams and incorporated into galaxy halos are discussed. The techniques that have been used to identify tidal streams are presented and will be useful to researchers who would like to find substructures in the next generation of optical sky surveys, including Pan-STARRS and LSST. The methods that are currently under development to constrain both large scale distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way and the (small scale) lumpiness of the dark matter distribution are also explained. The authors also provide motivation for future spectroscopic surveys of Milky Way halo stars, which will aid both in the identification of tidal streams and the constraint of dark matter properties. This volume is aimed at graduate students who are beginning this field of research, but is also a resource for researchers who study tidal streams and related fields. In addition to presenting the physical processes by which tidal streams are created, it also reviews the current state of the observations and the progress towards utilizing these observations to constrain the distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way. The book will introduce anyone with a background in astrophysics to the field of tidal streams.

Understanding the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization

Author: Andrei Mesinger
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319219578
Release Date: 2015-11-28
Genre: Science

The dawn of the first stars, galaxies and black holes signaled a fundamental milestone in our Universe’s evolution: the Epoch of Reionization. The light from these galactic ancestors began spreading out, ionizing virtually every atom in existence. Our Universe transitioned from darkness to light, from cold to hot, from simple and boring to the wondrous cosmic zoo we see around us today. Despite its importance, observations of reionization have been few, and their interpretation has been highly controversial. Fortunately, this is rapidly changing. We will soon enter the "Big Data” era of this mysterious epoch, driven by an upcoming wave of observations with state-of-the-art telescopes as well as new sophisticated analysis tools. The aim of this volume is to summarize the current status and future outlook of the reionization field. We bring together leading experts in many sub-disciplines, highlighting the measurements that will illuminate our understanding of reionization and the cosmic dawn: (i) 21cm interferometry; (ii) high-redshift quasar spectra; (iii) high-redshift galaxy surveys; (iv) primary and secondary anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background; (v) high-resolution studies of the metal content of early galaxies. We seek a roadmap to interpreting the wealth of upcoming observations. What is the best use of limited observational resources? How do we develop theoretical tools tailored for each observation? Ultimately, what will we learn about the epoch of reionization and our galactic ancestors?

Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies

Author: Dong-Woo Kim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461405801
Release Date: 2011-10-20
Genre: Science

Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

INIS Atomindex

ISBN: MINN:31951D00544770Z
Release Date: 1984
Genre: Nuclear energy

Solar Astrophysics

Author: Peter V. Foukal
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527618088
Release Date: 2008-09-26
Genre: Science

This revised edition of Solar Astrophysics describes our current understanding of the sun - from its deepest interior, via the layers of the directly observable atmosphere to the solar wind, right out to its farthest extension into interstellar space. It includes a comprehensive account of the history of solar astrophysics, along with an overview of the key instruments throughout the various periods. In contrast to other books on this topic, the choice of material deals evenhandedly with the entire scope of important topics covered in solar research. The authors make the advances in our understanding of the sun accessible to students and non-specialists by way of careful use of relatively simple physical concepts. The book offers an incisive, reliable, and well-planned look at all that is fascinating and new in studies of the sun.

The Synthesis of the Elements

Author: Giora Shaviv
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642283857
Release Date: 2012-04-13
Genre: Science

This book describes the origins and evolution of the chemical elements we and the cosmos are made of. The story starts with the discovery of the common elements on Earth and their subsequent discovery in space. How do we learn the composition of the distant stars? How did progress in quantum theory, nuclear physics, spectroscopy, stellar structure and evolution, together with observations of stars, converge to provide an incredibly detailed picture of the universe? How does research in the micro-world explain the macro-world? How does progress in one affect the other, or lack of knowledge in one inhibit progress in the other? In short, Shaviv describes how we discovered the various pieces of the jigsaw that form our present picture of the universe; and how we sometimes put these in the wrong place before finding in the right one. En route we meet some fascinating personalities and learn about heated controversies. Shaviv shows how science lurched from one dogma to the next, time and again shattering much of what had been considered solid knowledge, until eventually a stable understanding arose. Beginning with generally accepted science, the book ends in today’s terra incognita of nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology. A monumental work that will fascinate scientists, philosophers, historians and lay readers alike.

Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope

Author: Committee on the Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309095303
Release Date: 2005-02-28
Genre: Science

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has operated continuously since 1990. During that time, four space shuttle-based service missions were launched, three of which added major observational capabilities. A fifth - SM-4 - was intended to replace key telescope systems and install two new instruments. The loss of the space shuttle Columbia, however, resulted in a decision by NASA not to pursue the SM-4 mission leading to a likely end of Hubble's useful life in 2007-2008. This situation resulted in an unprecedented outcry from scientists and the public. As a result, NASA began to explore and develop a robotic servicing mission; and Congress directed NASA to request a study from the National Research Council (NRC) of the robotic and shuttle servicing options for extending the life of Hubble. This report presents an assessment of those two options. It provides an examination of the contributions made by Hubble and those likely as the result of a servicing mission, and a comparative analysis of the potential risk of the two options for servicing Hubble. The study concludes that the Shuttle option would be the most effective one for prolonging Hubble's productive life.

Essays on the Frontiers of Modern Astrophysics and Cosmology

Author: Santhosh Mathew
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783319018874
Release Date: 2013-11-08
Genre: Science

This book is a collection of fourteen essays that describe an inspiring journey through the universe and discusses popular science topics that modern physics and cosmology are struggling to deal with. What is our place in the universe and what happens in the magnificent cosmos where we exist for a brief amount of time. In an unique way that incorporates mythological and philosophical perspectives, the essays in this work address the big questions of what the universe is, how it came into being, and where it may be heading. This exciting adventure is a rich scientific history of elegant physics, mathematics, and cosmology as well as a philosophical and spiritual pursuit fueled by the human imagination.

Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

Author: Yurij Baryshev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400723792
Release Date: 2011-10-15
Genre: Science

This book guides readers (astronomers, physicists, and university students) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific endeavor to find the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and matter composition. The authors draw on their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character. These highlighted items are: Ideosyncratic features of the “cosmic laboratory”, Malmquist bias in the determination of cosmic distances, Theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models, Crucial tests for checking the reality of space expansion, Methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies, Usefulness of fractals as a model to describe the large-scale structure and new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model.

Oscillations of Disks

Author: Shoji Kato
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9784431562085
Release Date: 2016-09-26
Genre: Science

This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes of disk oscillations, studies on binary systems are of importance, as they offer valuable information on wave–wave coupling processes in disk oscillations. Accordingly, some characteristics of oscillations in deformed disks are also presented in this book. The book consists of two parts. Points covered in Part I include, for instance, the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, classification of oscillation modes, and trapping of oscillations. In Part II, the focus is mainly on excitation processes of oscillations, while applications to observations are also discussed.

Integrated Modeling of Telescopes

Author: Torben Andersen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461401496
Release Date: 2011-06-23
Genre: Science

Ground- or space-based telescopes are becoming increasingly more complex and construction budgets are typically in the billion dollar range. Facing costs of this magnitude, availability of engineering tools for prediction of performance and design optimization is imperative. Establishment of simulation models combining different technical disciplines such as Structural Dynamics, Control Engineering, Optics and Thermal Engineering is indispensable. Such models are normally called Integrated Models because they involve many different disciplines. The models will play an increasingly larger role for design of future interdisciplinary optical systems in space or on ground. The book concentrates on integrated modeling of optical and radio telescopes but the techniques presented will be applicable to a large variety of systems. Hence, the book will be of interest to optical and radio telescope designers, designers of spacecrafts that include optical systems, and to designers of various complex defense systems. The book may also find use as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses within the field. "Adaptive Optics" is an exciting and relatively new field, originally dedicated to correction for blurring when imaging through the atmosphere. Although this objective is still of high importance, the concept of Adaptive Optics has recently evolved further. Today, the objective is not only to correct for atmospheric turbulence effects but also for a range of static and dynamical telescope aberrations. The notion of adaptive optics has expanded to the field of "Wavefront Control", correcting for a variety of system aberrations. Wavefront control systems maintain form and position of optical elements with high precision under static and dynamical load. In many ways, such systems replace the steel structures of traditional optical systems, thereby providing much lighter systems with a performance not possible before. Integrated Modeling is the foremost tool for studies of Wavefront Control for telescopes and complex optics and is therefore now of high importance. Springer has recently published two books on telescopes, "Reflecting Telescope Optics" by R. Wilson, and "The Design and Construction of Large Optical Telescopes" by P. Bely. Noting that a new (and expensive) generation of Extremely Large Telescopes with apertures in the 30-100 m range is on the way, the present book on integrated modeling is a good match to the existing books and an appropriate specialization and continuation of some subjects dealt with in those books.